Methods of teaching English language
. Comparative Teaching Methodologies
1.1Grammar Translation Method
.5Total Physical Response (TPR) Community Language Learning (CLL)
. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching
.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language
.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language
.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategies
.2.2 Communicative Teaching Method
.2.3 Using project method in teaching a foreign language
.2.4 The method of debates
.2.6 Role plays as a method of teaching
.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching
.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching
. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English
.1 Features of techniques
.1.1 Communicative method
.1.2 Project methodology
.1.3 Intensive method
.1.4 Activity Based method
.2 Similarities of methods
.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques
teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this process was the emergence of the concept of methods of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching-the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning-is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods preoccupied teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt (1984) documents the history of changes in language teaching throughout history, up through the Direct Method in the 20th century. One of the most lasting legacies of the Direct Method has been the notion of method itself. in language teaching has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology links theory and practice. Within methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches, in which methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices, and approaches are language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. This distinction is probably best seen as a continuum ranging from highly prescribed methods to loosely described approaches. years the imperative need of using a foreign language appears in all areas of a science, manufacture and culture.present practice of teaching foreign languages there are some typical problems forcing the teacher to address to experience of the colleagues, to innovative ideas, to a science.these problems, difficulties and lacks of a traditional technique of teaching there are the following basic problems:
·Low authority of a subject because of shortages of a present technique of teaching.
·Low intensity of pupils speech activity.
·Superficiality in forming of base skills and haste of transition from reproductive to productive kinds of work.
·Absence of good practical recommendations on elimination and the prevention of gaps in pupils knowledge and skills.
·Weakness of existing system of appreciation of pupils work.
·Spontaneity of a choice and application of evident support, their low didactic efficiency.of methods of teaching have shown, that all named problems will effectively solved, if we apply elaborations of various innovators for amplification of a traditional technique of teaching that can increase essentially quality of teaching foreign (in particular English) language. of the existing approach to teaching foreign language in the high school, which is focused only on communicative purposes to the detriment of such kinds of language activity as reading and the writing, that has led to the low level of knowing a foreign language of graduates of secondary school.and openness of the problem of effective teaching foreign languages have caused its topicality, and consequently the choice of a theme for the given research work.also has determined the aim of work: to distinguish the most rational techniques of teaching a foreign language which can be used in school.subject of this course paper is variety of methods and ways and their effectiveness of using in teaching a foreign language.object of research is the process of teaching and pupils who are the subjects of this teaching process.this work it is necessary to solve the following primary objectives:
1.Theoretically to comprehend and approve in practice available approaches to teaching a foreign language in high school.
2.To analyze the basic contents of a teaching material and principles of its organization in a rate of foreign language
.To compare suggested approaches and to choose the most comprehensible.from this, the hypothesis of the given research can be formulated as follows:
1.Teaching a foreign language should be complex (parallel) with an insignificant oral advancing;
2.Teaching should be directed on formation of steady interest to a subject.the work the following methods of research were applied:
1.The analysis of the scientific literature on a theme of the research work;
2.The analysis of programs and textbooks on the English language of various authors and for various types of schools both domestic, and foreign;
.The analysis of experimental training on the basis of experience of the teachers using innovative techniques, results of supervision.and investigation: Tobol secondary school.value of this research work is in its results, having received which it will be possible to organize effectively teaching process, using in practice methods and ways of teaching which were offered in this work.value of the work is in given methodical recommendations and great number of tasks and exercises which can be applied by teachers of any subjects in primary and secondary schools.bibliography contains the most known and important researches for the given work of teachers-innovators and scientists: psychologists, didactists, methodologists.appendix included some exercises that for any reasons has not come in the basic part of course work.
teaching english grammar
1. Comparative Teaching Methodologies
the present time when there are radical changes in teaching, when radically revised the content and teaching methods appropriate it is high time to revisit the history of the methods of teaching foreign languages and the main trends of its development.no one doubts that the method of language teaching is a science. The very first definition of methodology was given by E.M. Ryt in 1930, who wrote that the methodology of teaching foreign languages is a practical application of comparative linguistics. A similar position had A.V. Scherba.emergence of views on the methodology as applied linguistics, was due to the fact that the method 30-s not enough to identify the specificity of a foreign language as a subject, and there was no developed system of research methods, without which there can be no true science.direction in determining the methodology as a science, connected with the name B.V. Belyaev, who believed that the technique is nothing like applied psychology. However, a number of problems methods, in particular, the selection of material, especially the use of techniques and ways of working, depending on the audience, cannot be resolved based only on psychology. Therefore, this definition of techniques did not spread.the late 30-s - early 40-ies starts take shape, one more line - definition of methodology as pedagogical science. Do pedagogy and methodology, there is one object of study - the processes of learning, education, goals and objectives of training, education and maintenance items. Uniform and research methods are, therefore, the determination method as a science teacher was a step forward to its registration as an independent science.direction in determining the methodology as a science began in the late 40-s. The method is recognized by science, which has its own laws and its methods. The most complete definition of the method reads: Methods of teaching is the science, exploring the aims and content, pattern, means, methods, techniques and training systems, as well as studying the processes of teaching and training material on a foreign language [1; 52].the beginning of XX-th century there was also another problem. That was the problem of method. It was quite natural, since after the October Revolution of 1917 new school demanded the application of new techniques. At that time, advocated direct (natural) method. It was believed that this method was based on a correct principle - associating foreign words with the objects themselves. This was the method of natural (associative) learning a foreign language, which was the most economical, fastest-reaching goal.is this being promoted direct method, when the West is having the idea of mixed method? This was due to several reasons. First, in the royal schools dominated the grammar-translation and textual-translation methods based on cramming, from which it was necessary to be free. Direct same method against them was more progressive, as proceeded from the living language of speech training, as the primary means of language functioning., only direct method of instruction intended to communicate., education was not familiar with the proposals of other methods that have arisen in the West after the World War I, because this war, and then the civil, broke all contact.addition, for many practitioners and the teachers direct method was something new, attractive everyone sincerely believed in its effectiveness.should also mention that advocated the direct method differed from the orthodox method of direct Western-style, as it demanded the comparison with the native language, though not at the initial stage, which is incompatible with the direct method. There were also characterized the recommendations as follows: What the study of foreign language should not be neglected the study of grammar, of course, its main features that you can for ease of understanding point to similarities with the grammar of their native language, and their difference, that a more lasting learning enter grammar exercises [2; 152]. It was also recommended to enter into a direct method elements of comparative linguistics.of the above recommendations do not correspond completely to the ideas of direct method.these facts suggest that gradually formed a Russian version of the direct method, which is then in the methodological benefits of the second half of the 20-ies acquired its final shape.to the direct method changes are closely linked with progressive ideas of Russian pedagogy.formed a comparative method for teaching foreign languages, which got its name because learning a foreign language, is expected on the basis of its comparison with the native language. The founder of this method is Scherba.by combining the direct and comparative methods in the light appeared mixed method. Depending on what principles it is dominated, it may be closer or to direct or to the comparative method.time, not only the goal of learning a foreign language changed, and claims to ownership of them. Methods of teaching foreign languages were in crisis.always requires radical change. Thus, in low productive ideas were made the transition to communicative teaching. The crisis revived the active and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern teaching concepts of foreign language teaching: Communicative (I.L. Beem, E. I. Passov [19, 20, 21, 22; 35]), intensive (G.A. Kitaygorodskaya [15, 35]), activity (Ilyasov) and others. Currently, the crucial role played by communicative-oriented techniques, which are based on communication and creativity of students.of teaching foreign languages should be developed further, as stagnation is fatal for any science.of modern teaching methods is important, since there are new techniques emerging based on them and would like to see in them did not have the disadvantages and shortcomings inherent in modern methods.characteristics are also important to choose work as a teacher. With such a variety is very difficult to make a choice without knowing the characteristics and specificity of methods.the present stage of development of foreign language teaching in the selection method of teaching should proceed from the characteristics of the collective in which it is used, you must take into account the personal characteristics of trainees, their age, interests and level of preparation, the period within which will be trained, as well as technical equipment of the school.
Teaching English as a Foreign Language is a science, and like all sciences, it has a set of underlying principles upon which it is based. However, unlike the better-known sciences such as biology, chemistry and physics, TEFL is not quantifiable to the point of being either objective or equation based in its approach. Therefore, TEFL, like psychology and sociology, must rely on subjectivity in order to formulate its principles. These principles, in turn, define the relationships that exist between either the teacher and the student or the student and other students. order to teach English effectively, an EFL teacher must subscribe to one (or more) of the current approaches to teaching English as a foreign language and incorporate its language-learning strategies and techniques into each of his or her lessons. follows are descriptions of nine of the principle approaches to teaching English as a foreign (second) language. Without doubt, the reader will have experienced one or more of these approaches in his or her own classroom learning history. Though there is no one correct approach, most teachers usually find themselves more comfortable using one or the other of the approaches listed and described. Though there is nothing overtly wrong with this, it must be remembered that students differ greatly, not just in age but also in mentality, thus they may respond differently to any given approach to language teaching. Because of different learning styles, the effective teacher must be prepared to adapt his or her teaching to the needs and preferences of each class. Our advice is to 'find yourself' with respect to the approaches listed below. That said, don't be afraid to experiment with and/or adapt your style of teaching. In the end, you may discover that the best approach is eclectic in nature and includes bits of this and bits of that.as to give some depth of understanding as to the evolution of ideas that has marked the emergence of newer and different approaches to language teaching, we have tried to place the following list of methodological approaches in chronological order.
.1 Grammar Translation Method
and Ancient Greek are known as "dead languages", based on the fact that people no longer speak them for the purpose of interactive communication. Yet they are still acknowledged as important languages to learn (especially Latin) for the purpose of gaining access to classical literature, and up until fairly recently, for the kinds of grammar training that led to the "mental dexterity" considered so important in any higher education study stream.has been studied for centuries, with the prime objectives of learning how to read classical Latin texts, understanding the fundamentals of grammar and translation, and gaining insights into some important foreign influences Latin has had on the development of other European languages. The method used to teach it overwhelmingly bore those objectives in mind, and came to be known (appropriately!) as the Classical Method. It is now more commonly known in Foreign Language Teaching circles as the Grammar Translation Method.is hard to decide which is more surprising - the fact that this method has survived right up until today (alongside a host of more modern and more "enlightened" methods), or the fact that what was essentially a method developed for the study of "dead" languages involving little or no spoken communication or listening comprehension is still used for the study of languages that are very much "alive" and require competence not only in terms of reading, writing and structure, but also speaking, listening and interactive communication. How has such an archaic method, "remembered with distaste by thousands of school learners" (Richards and Rodgers, 1986:4) persevered.is worth looking at the objectives, features and typical techniques commonly associated with the Grammar Translation Method, in order to both understand how it works and why it has shown such tenacity as an "acceptable" language teaching philosophy in many countries and institutions around the world.
the end of the late 1800s, a revolution in language teaching philosophy took place that is seen by many as the "dawn" of modern foreign language teaching. Teachers, frustrated by the limits of the Grammar Translation Method in terms of its inability to create "communicative" competence in students, began to experiment with new ways of teaching language. Basically, teachers began attempting to teach foreign languages in a way that was more similar to first language acquisition. It incorporated techniques designed to address all the areas that the Grammar Translation did not - namely oral communication, more spontaneous use of the language, and developing the ability to "think" in the target language. Perhaps in an almost reflexive action, the method also moved as far away as possible from various techniques typical of the Grammar Translation Method - for instance using L1 as the language of instruction, memorizing grammatical rules and lots of translation between L1 and the target language.appearance of the "Direct Method" thus coincided with a new school of thinking that dictated that all foreign language teaching should occur in the target language only, with no translation and an emphasis on linking meaning to the language being learned. The method became very popular during the first quarter of the 20th century, especially in private language schools in Europe where highly motivated students could study new languages and not need to travel far in order to try them out and apply them communicatively. One of the most famous advocates of the Direct Method was the American Charles Berlitz, whose schools and "Berlitz Method" are now world-renowned., the Direct Method was not without its problems. As Brown (1994:56) points out, "(it) did not take well in public education where the constraints of budget, classroom size, time, and teacher background made such a method difficult to use." By the late 1920s, the method was starting to go into decline and there was even a return to the Grammar Translation Method, which guaranteed more in the way of "scholastic" language learning orientated around reading and grammar skills. But the Direct Method continues to enjoy a popular following in private language school circles, and it was one of the foundations upon which the well-known "Audio-lingual Method" expanded from starting half way through the 20th century.
next "revolution" in terms of language teaching methodology coincided with World War II, when America became aware that it needed people to learn foreign languages very quickly as part of its overall military operations. The "Army Method" was suddenly developed to build communicative competence in translators through very intensive language courses focusing on aural/oral skills. This in combination with some new ideas about language learning coming from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and behavioral psychology went on to become what is known as the Audio-lingual Method (ALM).new method incorporated many of the features typical of the earlier Direct Method, but the disciplines mentioned above added the concepts of teaching "linguistic patterns" in combination with "habit-forming". This method was one of the first to have its roots "firmly grounded in linguistic and psychological theory" (Brown 1994:57), which apparently added to its credibility and probably had some influence in the popularity it enjoyed over a long period of time. It also had a major influence on the language teaching methods that were to follow, and can still be seen in major or minor manifestations of language teaching methodology even to this day.factor that accounted for the method's popularity was the "quick success" it achieved in leading learners towards communicative competence. Through extensive mimicry, memorization and "over-learning" of language patterns and forms, students and teachers were often able to see immediate results. This was both its strength and its failure in the long run, as critics began to point out that the method did not deliver in terms of producing long-term communicative ability.study of linguistics itself was to change, and the area of second language learning became a discipline in its own right. Cognitive psychologists developed new views on learning in general, arguing that mimicry and rote learning could not account for the fact that language learning involved affective and interpersonal factors, that learners were able to produce language forms and patterns that they had never heard before. The idea that thinking processes themselves led to the discovery of independent language "rule formation" (rather than "habit formation") and that affective factors influenced their application paved the way toward the new methods that were to follow the Audiolingual Method.
.4 Silent Way
addition to "affective" theories relative to language learning, another challenge to the Audio-lingual Method was under way already in the sixties in the form of the "Cognitive Code" and an educational trend known as "Discovery Learning." These concepts most directly challenged the idea that language learning was all about mimicry and good "habit-formation." An emphasis on human cognition in language learning addressed issues such as learners being more responsible for their own learning - formulating independent hypotheses about the "rules" of the target language and testing those hypotheses by applying them and realizing errors. When students create their own sets of meaningful language rules and concepts and then test them out, they are clearly learning through a discovery/exploratory method that is very different from rote-learning. This appears to have much more in common with the way people learn their native language from a very early age, and can account for the way children come out with new language forms and combinations that they have never heard before. The underlying principles here are that learners become increasingly autonomous in, active with and responsible for the learning process in which they are engaged.Gattegno founded "The Silent Way" as a method for language learning in the early 70s, sharing many of the same essential principles as the cognitive code and making good use of the theories underlying Discovery Learning. Some of his basic theories were that "teaching should be subordinated to learning" and "the teacher works with the student; the student works on the language". The most prominent characteristic of the method was that the teacher typically stayed "silent" most of the time, as part of his/her role as facilitator and stimulator, and thus the method's popular name. Language learning is usually seen as a problem solving activity to be engaged in by the students both independently and as a group, and the teacher needs to stay "out of the way" in the process as much as possible.Silent Way is also well-known for its common use of small colored rods of varying length (Cuisinere rods) and color-coded word charts depicting pronunciation values, vocabulary and grammatical paradigms. It is a unique method and the first of its kind to really concentrate on cognitive principles in language learning.
.5 Total Physical Response (TPR)
in the late 1800s, a French teacher of Latin by the name of Francois Gouin was hard at work devising a method of language teaching that capitalized on the way children naturally learn their first language, through the transformation of perceptions into conceptions and then the expression of those conceptions using language. His approach became known as the Series Method, involving direct conceptual teaching of language using "series" of inter-connected sentences that are simple and easy to perceive, because the language being used can be directly related to whatever the speaker is doing at the immediate time of utterance (i.e., one's actions and language match each other). His thinking was well ahead of his time, and the Series Method became swamped in the enthusiasm surrounding the other new approach at the time in the form of the Direct Method.80 years later, in the 1960s, James Asher began experimenting with a method he called Total Physical Response, and its basic premise had a lot in common with Gouin's. The method was to become well known in the 70s, and it drew on several other insights in addition to the "trace theory" that memory is stimulated and increased when it is closely associated with motor activity. The method owes a lot to some basic principles of language acquisition in young learners, most notably that the process involves a substantial amount of listening and comprehension in combination with various "physical responses" (smiling, reaching, grabbing, looking, etc) - well before learners begin to use the language orally. It also focused on the ideas that learning should be as fun and stress-free as possible, and that it should be dynamic through the use of accompanying physical activity. Asher (1977) also had a lot to say about right-brained learning (the part of the brain that deals with motor activity), believing it should precede the "language processing" element covered by the left-brain.is now a household name among teachers of foreign languages. It is widely acclaimed as a highly effective method at beginning levels, and a standard requirement in the instruction of young learners. It is also admired as a method due to its inherent simplicity, making it accessible to a wide range of teachers and learning environments.
.6 Community Language Learning (CLL)
the early seventies, Charles Curran developed a new education model he called "Counseling-Learning". This was essentially an example of an innovative model that primarily considered "affective" factors as paramount in the learning process. Drawing on Carl Rogers' view that learners were to be considered not as a "class", but as a "group", Curran's philosophy dictated that students were to be thought of as "clients" - their needs being addressed by a "counselor" in the form of the teacher. Brown (1994:59), in commenting on this approach also notes that "In order for any learning to take place... what is first needed is for the members to interact in an interpersonal relationship in which students and teacher join together to facilitate learning in a context of valuing and prizing each individual in the group." Curran was best known for his extensive studies on adult learning, and some of the issues he tried to address were the "threatening" nature of a new learning situation to many adult learners and the anxiety created when students feared making "fools" of themselves. Curran believed that the counseling-learning model would help lower the instinctive defenses adult learners throw up, that the anxiety caused by the educational context could be decreased through the support of an interactive "community" of fellow learners. Another important goal was for the teacher to be perceived as an empathetic helping agent in the learning process, not a threat.Counseling-Learning educational model was also applied to language learning, and in this form it became known as Community Language Learning. Based on most of the principles above, Community Language Learning seeks to encourage teachers to see their students as "whole persons", where their feelings, intellect, interpersonal relationships, protective reactions, and desire to learn are addressed and balanced. Students typically sit in a circle, with the teacher (as counselor) outside the ring. They use their first language to develop an interpersonal relationship based on trust with the other students. When a student wants to say something, they first say it in their native language, which the teacher then translates back to them using the target language. The student then attempts to repeat the English used by the teacher, and then a student can respond using the same process. This technique is used over a considerable period of time, until students are able to apply words in the new language without translation, gradually moving from a situation of "dependence" on the teacher-counselor to a state of independence.
.7 Suggestopedia (Suggestology)
the late 70s, a Bulgarian psychologist by the name of Georgi Lozanov introduced the contention that students naturally set up psychological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will be unable to perform and are limited in terms of their ability to learn. Lozanov believed that learners may have been using only 5 to 10 percent of their mental capacity, and that the brain could process and retain much more material if given "optimal" conditions for learning. Based on psychological research on extrasensory perception, Lozanov began to develop a language learning method that focused on "desuggestion" of the limitations learners think they have, and providing the sort of relaxed state of mind that would facilitate the retention of material to its maximum potential. This method became known as "Suggestopedia" - the name reflecting the application of the power of "suggestion" to the field of pedagogy.of the most unique characteristics of the method was the use of soft Baroque music during the learning process. Baroque music has a specific rhythm and a pattern of 60 beats per minute, and Lozanov believed it created a level of relaxed concentration that facilitated the intake and retention of huge quantities of material. This increase in learning potential was put down to the increase in alpha brain waves and decrease in blood pressure and heart rate that resulted from listening to Baroque music. Another aspect that differed from other methods to date was the use of soft comfortable chairs and dim lighting in the classroom (other factors believed to create a more relaxed state of mind).characteristics of Suggestopedia were the giving over of complete control and authority to the teacher (who at times can appear to be some kind of "instructional hypnotist" using this method!) and the encouragement of learners to act as "childishly" as possible, often even assuming names and characters "in" the target language. All of these principles in combination were seen to make the students "suggestible", and therefore able to utilize their maximum mental potential to take in and retain new material.
.8 Communicative Approach
the "methods" described so far are symbolic of the progress foreign language teaching ideology underwent in the last century. These were methods that came and went, influenced or gave birth to new methods - in a cycle that could only be described as "competition between rival methods" or "passing fads" in the methodological theory underlying foreign language teaching. Finally, by the mid-eighties or so, the industry was maturing in its growth and moving towards the concept of a broad "approach" to language teaching that encompassed various methods, motivations for learning English, types of teachers and the needs of individual classrooms and students themselves. It would be fair to say that if there is any one "umbrella" approach to language teaching that has become the accepted "norm" in this field, it would have to be the Communicative Language Teaching Approach. This is also known as CLT.Communicative approach does a lot to expand on the goal of creating "communicative competence" compared to earlier methods that professed the same objective. Teaching students how to use the language is considered to be at least as important as learning the language itself. Brown (1994) aptly describes the "march" towards CLT:
"Beyond grammatical discourse elements in communication, we are probing the nature of social, cultural, and pragmatic features of language. We are exploring pedagogical means for 'real-life' communication in the classroom. We are trying to get our learners to develop linguistic fluency, not just the accuracy that has so consumed our historical journey. We are equipping our students with tools for generating unrehearsed language performance 'out there' when they leave the womb of our classrooms. We are concerned with how to facilitate lifelong language learning among our students, not just with the immediate classroom task. We are looking at learners as partners in a cooperative venture. And our classroom practices seek to draw on whatever intrinsically sparks learners to reach their fullest potential." is a generic approach, and can seem non-specific at times in terms of how to actually go about using practices in the classroom in any sort of systematic way. There are many interpretations of what CLT actually means and involves. See Types of Learning and The PPP Approach to see how CLT can be applied in a variety of 'more specific' methods.
.9 Natural Approach
Krashen and Tracy Terrell developed the "Natural Approach" in the early eighties (Krashen and Terrell, 1983), based on Krashen's theories about second language acquisition. The approach shared a lot in common with Asher's Total Physical Response method in terms of advocating the need for a "silent phase", waiting for spoken production to "emerge" of its own accord, and emphasizing the need to make learners as relaxed as possible during the learning process. Some important underlying principles are that there should be a lot of language "acquisition" as opposed to language "processing", and there needs to be a considerable amount of "comprehensible input" from the teacher. Meaning is considered as the essence of language and vocabulary (not grammar) is the heart of language. part of the Natural Approach, students listen to the teacher using the target language communicatively from the very beginning. It has certain similarities with the much earlier Direct Method, with the important exception that students are allowed to use their native language alongside the target language as part of the language learning process. In early stages, students are not corrected during oral production, as the teacher is focusing on meaning rather than form (unless the error is so drastic that it actually hinders meaning).activities prevail throughout a language course employing the Natural Approach, focusing on a wide range of activities including games, role-plays, dialogs, group work and discussions. There are three generic stages identified in the approach:
. Early Production - students struggle with the language and make many errors which are corrected based on content and not structure;
. Extending Production - promoting fluency through a variety of more challenging activities.'s theories and the Natural approach have received plenty of criticism, particularly orientated around the recommendation of a "silent period" that is terminated when students feel ready to "emerge" into oral production, and the idea of "comprehensible input". Critics point out that students will "emerge" at different times (or perhaps not at all!) and it is hard to determine which forms of language input will be "comprehensible" to the students. These factors can create a classroom that is essentially very difficult to manage unless the teacher is highly skilled. Still, this was the first attempt at creating an expansive and overall "approach" rather than a specific "method", and the Natural Approach led naturally into the generally accepted norm for effective language teaching: Communicative Language Teaching.
the root of emotional and meaningful method of learning foreign languages is Bulgarian psychiatrist Losanov, worked with patients at their own method of psychological correction. He created the so-called Interest groups and learning a foreign language was medical instrument. In Moscow in 2-language schools, method of Lozanov is used: System-3 and School of Kitaygorodskaya. Naturally, the methods of Schechter Igor and Galina Kitaygorodskaya also differ from the system of Lozanov of how their students from patients of Bulgarian doctor.of Kitaygorodskaya is working on the method of the same name for 25 years, built on combination Lozanov developments in fundamental courses, and takes both adults and children.method involves free Schechter linguistic communication of teachers with students from the first lesson. Students choose a middle name, familiar to the media studied language, and the corresponding legend architect from Glasgow, a violinist from Palermo etc. The method that the phrases and designs are stored naturally: Be wary of Moscow papan and maman? It is well known that many metropolitan gentry who lived at the turn of XVIII-XIX centuries by the words of Pushkin, in Russian know not well. The patriotic wave swept Linguistics high society only after the events in 1812. To some extent the Russian nobility could be considered forerunners of those who study language by the method of Schechter. In his school, System-3 not to install the creator of the method, which argued that the basic rules of grammar to the student, must walk independently. Grammar courses serve as bridge-ligaments between the two stages of training (a total of 3). Expected that after the first phase of a student will not be lost in the language is spoken after the second - do not get lost in the grammar of their own monologue, and after the third will be a full participant in any discussion.teaching came into its own as a profession in the last century. Central to this phenomenon was the emergence of the concept of "methods" of language teaching. The method concept in language teaching-the notion of a systematic set of teaching practices based on a particular theory of language and language learning-is a powerful one, and the quest for better methods was a preoccupation of teachers and applied linguists throughout the 20th century. Howatt's (1984) overview documents the history of changes of practice in language teaching throughout history, bringing the chronology up through the Direct Method in the 20th century. One of the most lasting legacies of the Direct Method has been the notion of "method" itself. Teaching Methodology Definedin language teaching has been characterized in a variety of ways. A more or less classical formulation suggests that methodology is that which links theory and practice. Theory statements would include theories of what language is and how language is learned or, more specifically, theories of second language acquisition (SLA). Such theories are linked to various design features of language instruction. These design features might include stated objectives, syllabus specifications, types of activities, roles of teachers, learners, materials, and so forth. Design features in turn are linked to actual teaching and learning practices as observed in the environments where language teaching and learning take place. This whole complex of elements defines language teaching methodology.methodology a distinction is often made between methods and approaches, in which methods are held to be fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices, whereas approaches represent language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. This distinction is probably most usefully seen as defining a continuum of entities ranging from highly prescribed methods to loosely described approaches. period from the 1950s to the 1980s has often been referred to as "The Age of Methods," during which a number of quite detailed prescriptions for language teaching were proposed. Situational Language Teaching evolved in the United Kingdom while a parallel method, Audio-Lingualism, emerged in the United States. In the middle-methods period, a variety of methods were proclaimed as successors to the then prevailing Situational Language Teaching and Audio-Lingual methods. These alternatives were promoted under such titles as Silent Way, Suggestopedia, Community Language Learning, and Total Physical Response. In the 1980s, these methods in turn came to be overshadowed by more interactive views of language teaching, which collectively came to be known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Communicative Language Teaching advocates subscribed to a broad set of principles such as these:
·Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.
·Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities.
·Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
·Communication involves the integration of different language skills.
·Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error., CLT advocates avoided prescribing the set of practices through which these principles could best be realized, thus putting CLT clearly on the approach rather than the method end of the spectrum.Language Teaching has spawned a number of off-shoots that share the same basic set of principles, but which spell out philosophical details or envision instructional practices in somewhat diverse ways. These CLT spin-off approaches include The Natural Approach, Cooperative Language Learning, Content-Based Teaching, and Task-Based Teaching. is difficult to describe these various methods briefly and yet fairly. However, several up-to-date texts are available that do detail differences and similarities among the many different approaches and methods that have been proposed. Perhaps it is possible to get a sense of the range of method proposals by looking at a synoptic view of the roles defined for teachers and learners within various methods. Such a synoptic (perhaps scanty) view can be seen in the following chart. suggested in the chart, some schools of methodology see the teacher as ideal language model and commander of classroom activity (e.g., Audio-Lingual Method, Natural Approach, Suggestopedia, Total Physical Response) whereas others see the teacher as background facilitator and classroom colleague to the learners (e.g., Communicative Language Teaching, Cooperative Language Learning).are other global issues to which spokespersons for the various methods and approaches respond in alternative ways. For example, should second language learning by adults be modeled on first language learning by children? One set of schools (e.g., Total Physical Response, Natural Approach) notes that first language acquisition is the only universally successful model of language learning we have, and thus that second language pedagogy must necessarily model itself on first language acquisition. An opposed view (e.g., Silent Way, Suggestopedia) observes that adults have different brains, interests, timing constraints, and learning environments than do children, and that adult classroom learning therefore has to be fashioned in a way quite dissimilar to the way in which nature fashions how first languages are learned by children. key distinction turns on the role of perception versus production in early stages of language learning. One school of thought proposes that learners should begin to communicate, to use a new language actively, on first contact (e.g., Audio-Lingual Method, Silent Way, Community Language Learning), while the other school of thought states that an initial and prolonged period of reception (listening, reading) should precede any attempts at production (e.g., Natural Approach).
2. Theoretical aspect of effective methods of teaching
2.1 The bases of teaching a foreign language
the given theoretical part of work it is necessary to pay attention on those basic statements in which the most essential parts of activity are reflected and generalized. That means the methodical principles underlying teaching.of teaching are understood as starting statements which determine the purposes, the contents, methods and the organization of teaching and are shown in interrelation and inter-conditionality. In our case principles are used to define strategy and tactics of teaching English language at all stages practically in each point of educational process.far as the result of teaching of pupils foreign language is formation their skills of using language as means of intercourse, the leading principle is the principle of a communicative orientation.main function is in creation of all conditions of communications: motives, purposes and problems of intercourse. The communicative orientation defines selection and the organization of language material, its situational conditionality, communicative value both speech and training exercises, communicative formulation of educational problems, organization and structure of the lesson. This principle assumes creation of conditions for speaking and intellectual activity of pupils during each moment of teaching [1;22-23].from the aforesaid teacher should follow the rules:
) Principle of communicative orientation
·Rule 1 - Selection of situations.
·Rule 2 - Recurrence and novelty.
·Rule 3 - Participation of everyone in intercourse.
·Rule 4 - Favorable conditions for intercourse.
·Rule 5 - Communicativeness of tasks.far as juniors have still insignificant experience of collective intercourse and they are taught not only to associate in English, but also to associate in general, teacher should provide the support on pupils' realizing the models of intercourse in native language, realizing the communicative function of this or that language unit. Realization of this principle is carried out through system of cognitive problems, solving which children "open" laws of the native language.the basis of this realizing there is children's acquaintance with the form and functions of corresponding units of English language. from this, it is possible to plan some rules - following which allows realizing this principle in teaching and educational process.
) Principle of support on the native language:
·Rule 1. Display of generality between Russian and English languages.
·Rule 2. Formation of the common educational skills.
·Rule 3. Use of similarity and distinctions in the script.
·Rule 4. Use of similarity and distinctions in pronunciation.
·Rule 5. Uses of carry and avoidance of interference in teaching vocabulary and grammar.is established, that for each kind of speaking activity "set" of actions and even the lexical and grammatical registration [2; 34]. It has allowed formulating methodical principle of the differentiated approach in teaching a foreign language.the differentiation is carried out as though at different levels of generalization - precise differentiation is conducted in teaching:
·oral and written speech;
·speaking and listening;
·reading aloud and reading silently;
·script and spelling.teaching English language process of integration is realized, it shows, first of all, that mastering of various aspects of language, its phonetics, grammar, lexicon occurs not separately as certain discrete components of language, but is also integrated. Pupils seize and acquire them during carrying out of speech actions which realization can demand the use of a word, word forms, a word-combination, super phrase unity and, at last, the text, caused by situations of intercourse.the given specific principle of teaching the English language it is possible to formulate rules, their observance will help the teacher to realize this principle.
) Principle of differentiation and integration:
·Rule 1. The account of specificity of each kind of speaking activity.
·Rule 2. Use of teachers speech and sound recording for listening.
·Rule 3. Teaching monologic speech, proceeding from features of each form.
·Rule 4. Teaching reading aloud and silently in view of features of each form.
·Rule 5. Mastering of aspects of language in speech units.
·Rule 6. Use semi-typed font in teaching writing.a basis of teaching any subject at school including foreign language, there are general didactic principles. Such principles are: scientific character, availability, presentation in teaching, an individual approach in conditions of collective work and others.and general didactic principles express typical, main, essential, that should characterize teaching a foreign language at school and, first of all at the beginning stage where bases of mastering are pawned by this subject. The understanding of action of principles of teaching and direct use of rules will allow the teacher to carry out teaching effectively.learning is the active process which is carried out through involving pupils in a various activities, thus making it active participant in reception of education. In this bilateral process it is possible to allocate the basic functions which are carried out by each the parts. The teacher carries out organizational, teaching and supervising functions. Functions of the pupil include acquaintance with a teaching material, the training which is necessary for formation of language skills and speaking skills, and application of investigated language in the solving of communicative problems [4; 36].distinguish three basic functions which are carried out by the pupil, and the teacher is to organize and direct the doctrine of the pupil. Then it is necessary to attribute acquaintance, training and application to the basic methods. Control including correction and an estimation is accompanying, as it is in each of the basic methods.organization of acquaintance with "portion" of a teaching material includes:, display. I.L.Bim marks, that display is addressed to sensual perception of pupils - acoustical, visual, motor [5; 3]. The teacher can accompany display by some explanatory;, an explanation inducing pupil to reflection is necessary and enough for understanding and realizing of a perceived material with a view of the subsequent intelligent training and application. The teacher can involve various means of presentation. to training memory of the pupil is enriched with new units of language and automatism in their use is developed. At application of new vocabulary organizing function of the teacher is shown most precisely. He should create favorable conditions, benevolent atmosphere for normal course of the speech act. He should make such conditions in which each pupil would like to participate in work of group, in which children aspired to understand the contents and sense of the text, they have read or listened to, and were not afraid to make a mistake. At application of new vocabulary it is supervised formulation of speaking skills, it is established, how the pupil can use each of them in the practical purposes.considered methods reflect essence of pedagogical process in which the teacher and pupils cooperate. These methods are used in teaching a foreign language at school, open specificity of a subject and are directed on achievement of the practical, educational and developing purposes.of the considered methods is realized in system of the modes used by the teacher in the organization of teaching pupils, carried out by the latter through the decision of set of the specific targets which are bound up with cogitative operations and perception by sense organs. Modes as well as methods are structural-functional components of mutual action of teacher and pupil. But if the method names the basic, dominating activity mode is bound up with the concrete action making essence of formed speech activity [1; 52].is very important, that modes which are applied by the teacher, let pupils solve tasks, and not just demand simple storing. And also it is necessary, that the pupil not only reproduces speech unit, but also creates his own «speech product ", i.e. he can construct the statement in connection with a communicative problem facing to him, using units of language.
.2 Effective ways and techniques of teaching a foreign language
.2.1 Constructivist teaching strategiesof Constructivist Teachingof the primary goals of using constructivist teaching is that students learn how to learn by giving them the training to take initiative for their own learning experiences.to Audrey Gray, the characteristics of a constructivist classroom are as follows:
* the learners are actively involved
* the environment is democratic
* the activities are interactive and student-centered
* the teacher facilitates a process of learning in which students are encouraged to be responsible and autonomousof constructivist activities, in the constructivist classroom, students work primarily in groups and learning and knowledge are interactive and dynamic. There is a great focus and emphasis on social and communication skills, as well as collaboration and exchange of ideas [1; 7]. This is contrary to the traditional classroom in which students work primarily alone, learning is achieved through repetition, and the subjects are strictly adhered to and are guided by a textbook. Some activities encouraged in constructivist classrooms are:
* Experimentation: students individually perform an experiment and then come together as a class to discuss the results.
* Research projects: students research a topic and can present their findings to the class.
* Field trips. This allows students to put the concepts and ideas discussed in class in a real-world context. Field trips would often be followed by class discussions.
* Films. These provide visual context and thus bring another sense into the learning experience.
* Class discussions. This technique is used in all of the methods described above. It is one of the most important distinctions of constructivist teaching methods. of teachersthe constructivist classroom, the teachers role is to prompt and facilitate discussion. Thus, the teachers main focus should be on guiding students by asking questions that will lead them to develop their own conclusions on the subject.Jonassen identified three major roles for facilitators to support students in constructivist learning environments:
* Scaffolding [6; 45-46]recommends making the learning goals engaging and relevant but not overly structured.is driven in CLEs by the problem to be solved; students learn content and theory in order to solve the problem. This is different from traditional objectivist teaching where the theory would be presented first and problems would be used afterwards to practice theory.on students' prior experiences, related cases and scaffolding may be necessary for support. Instructors also need to provide an authentic context for tasks, plus information resources, cognitive tools, and collaborative tools [6; 34].assessment, assessment in the classrooms is based on testing. In this style, it is important for the student to produce the correct answers. However, in constructivist teaching, the process of gaining knowledge is viewed as being just as important as the product. Thus, assessment is based not only on tests, but also on observation of the student, the students work, and the students points of view. Some assessment strategies include:
*Oral discussions. The teacher presents students with a focus question and allows an open discussion on the topic.
*KWL(H) Chart (What we know, What we want to know, What we have learned, How we know it). This technique can be used throughout the course of study for a particular topic, but is also a good assessment technique as it shows the teacher the progress of the student throughout the course of study (See Appendix 1).
*Mind Mapping. In this activity, students list and categorize the concepts and ideas relating to a topic.
*Hands-on activities. These encourage students to manipulate their environments or a particular learning tool. Teachers can use a checklist and observation to assess student success with the particular material.
*Pre-testing. This allows a teacher to determine what knowledge students bring to a new topic and thus will be helpful in directing the course of study.
*Jigsaw and RAFT activities (See Appendix 2, 3).
2.2.2 Communicative Teaching Methodcommunicative approach to the teaching of foreign languages - also known as Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) or the communicative approach - emphasizes learning a language through genuine communication. Learning a new language is easier and more enjoyable when it is truly meaningful.teaching is based on the work of sociolinguists who theorized that an effective knowledge of a language is more than merely knowing vocabulary and rules of grammar and pronunciation. Learners need to be able to use the language appropriately in any business or social context.the last three decades, theorists have discussed (and continue to discuss) the exact definition of communicative competence. They do agree, however, that meaningful communication supports language learning and that classroom activities must focus on the learners authentic needs to communicate information and ideas., pronunciation, and vocabulary are, of course, necessary parts of effective communication. With the communicative method two primary approaches may be taken. Some teachers prefer to teach a rule, then follow it with practice. Most, though, feel grammar will be naturally discovered through meaningful communicative interaction.communicative approach is a flexible method rather than a rigorously defined set of teaching practices. It can best be defined with a list of general principles. In Communicative Language Teaching (1991), expert David Nunan [7; 18] lists these five basic characteristics:
. An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
. The introduction of authentic texts into the learning situation.
. The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only on language but also on the learning process itself.
. An enhancement of the learners own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
. An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.these features show, the communicative approach is concerned with the unique individual needs of each learner. By making the language relevant to the world rather than the classroom, learners can acquire the desired skills rapidly and agreeably.
.2.3 Using project methods in teaching a foreign languagethe European languages the word "project" is borrowed from Latin: the participle "projectus' means «thrown out forward", "striking one's eye". With reference to a lesson of foreign language, the project is specially organized by the teacher and independently carried out by pupils complex of the actions, finished with creation of a creative product. A method of projects, thus, is the set of educational and cognitive modes which allow to solve this or that problem as a result of independent actions of children with obligatory presentation of results.'s result some examples how to achieve at once at the lesson with the help of project methods the several purposes - to expand children's vocabulary, to fix the investigated lexical and grammatical material, to create at the lesson an atmosphere of a holiday and to decorate a cabinet of foreign language with colorful works of children. work with the projects teacher can realize in groups and individually. It is necessary to note, that the method of projects helps children to seize such competences as: to be ready to work in collective, to accept the responsibility for a choice, to share the responsibility with members of the team, to analyze results of activity.
.2.4 The method of debatesallows forming also the conscious attitude to consideration of problems, activity in its discussion, speech culture, an orientation on revealing of the reasons of arising problems and installation on their decision further. Here the principle of formation of critical thinking in pupils is realized. Language, thus, is simultaneously both the purpose and means of teaching. The method of debates helps pupils not only to seize all four kinds of speech activity, but to means of a language situation on a background of a problem in social and cultural sphere to find out the reasons of the arisen situations and to try even to solve them. Interest to the independent decision of a problem is the stimulus, driving force of process of knowledge., application of a method of discussion allows making active cognitive activity of pupils, their independence, forms culture of creative operative thinking, creates conditions for use of personal life experience and received before knowledge for mastering new. As discussion and the decision of problems occurs during controlled group dialogue at participants skill to operate in interests of group is developed, there is an interested respect for interlocutors and conducts to formation of collective. Application of this method in aggregate with a method of projects will allow generating thinking and owning not only the English language, but also the expert understanding in various problems, capable to be guided in quickly varying information streams.less interesting technique of activization of cognitive activity trained is the technique of role game which also can to reflect a principle of problematical character at its certain organization and allows to solve problem situations of a various degree of complexity. It can be used as independently, and in a context of a method of projects, is especial as the specific form of protection of the project. Trained apply the experience of the saved up knowledge, results of research during work above the project in realization of socially significant roles growing on the importance with passage of a cycle of occupations. Such modeling of situations of professional - business intercultural dialogue helps pupil to get used to various situations of the future activity which he can face in a real life. Problematical character of role game is realized through modeling of situations in which this or that problem can find the certain decision. Being in a role, pupil solves problem situations, evidently showing in full communicative competence the practical decision of a problem. Certainly, such way of protection should be adequate to a researched problem. Selection by that and problems for use of this or that method - a separate research problem. Here it is important, that communicative competence was formed in real acts of intercourse in which the English language is means of formation and a formulation of idea. Thus, pupil, being based on the skills generated with the help of a debatable method, it is capable to apply and develop these skills in concrete situations of dialogue, carrying out socially significant roles and skill to assert the position in problem situations.
.2.5 Gamesadvantages of using games. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms. He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. "Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely" (Richard-Amato). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen). They also enable learners to acquire new experiences within a foreign language which are not always possible during a typical lesson. Furthermore, to quote Richard-Amato, they, "add diversion to the regular classroom activities," break the ice, "[but also] they are used to introduce new ideas". In the easy, relaxed atmosphere which is created by using games, students remember things faster and better (Wierus and Wierus ). Further support comes from Zdybiewska, who believes games to be a good way of practicing language, for they provide a model of what learners will use the language for in real life in the future.encourage, entertain, teach, and promote fluency. If not for any of these reasons, they should be used just because they help students see beauty in a foreign language and not just problems.appropriate games. There are many factors to consider while discussing games, one of which is appropriacy. Teachers should be very careful about choosing games if they want to make them profitable for the learning process. If games are to bring desired results, they must correspond to either the student's level, or age, or to the material that is to be introduced or practiced. Not all games are appropriate for all students irrespective of their age. Different age groups require various topics, materials, and modes of games. For example, children benefit most from games which require moving around, imitating a model, competing between groups and the like. Furthermore, structural games that practice or reinforce a certain grammatical aspect of language have to relate to students' abilities and prior knowledge. Games become difficult when the task or the topic is unsuitable or outside the students experience.factor influencing the choice of a game is its length and the time necessary for its completion. Many games have a time limit, but according to Siek-Piskozub, the teacher can either allocate more or less time depending on the students' level, the number of people in a group, or the knowledge of the rules of a game etc.to use games. Games are often used as short warm-up activities or when there is some time left at the end of a lesson. Yet, as Lee observes, a game "should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do". Games ought to be at the heart of teaching foreign languages. Rixon suggests that games be used at all stages of the lesson, provided that they are suitable and carefully chosen. At different stages of the lesson, the teacher's aims connected with a game may vary:
. Presentation. Provide a good model making its meaning clear;
. Controlled practice. Elicit good imitation of new language and appropriate responses;
. Communicative practice. Give students a chance to use the language. also lend themselves well to revision exercises helping learners recall material in a pleasant, entertaining way. All authors referred to in this article agree that even if games resulted only in noise and entertained students, they are still worth paying attention to and implementing in the classroom since they motivate learners, promote communicative competence, and generate fluency.
.2.6 Role plays as a method of teachingsuggest different steps and various successions in applying role play in teaching. Based on the empirical evidence, we suggest our step-by-step guide to making a successful role play.1 - A Situation for a Role Playbegin with, choose a situation for a role play, keeping in mind students' needs and interests (Livingstone, 1983). Teachers should select role plays that will give the students an opportunity to practice what they have learned. At the same time, we need a role play that interests the students. One way to make sure your role play is interesting is to let the students choose the situation themselves. They might either suggest themes that intrigue them or select a topic from a list of given situations. To find a situation for a role play, write down situations you encounter in your own life, or read a book or watch a movie, because their scenes can provide many different role play situations. You might make up an effective role play based on cultural differences.2 - Role Play Designchoosing a context for a role play, the next step is to come up with ideas on how this situation may develop. Students' level of language proficiency should be taken into consideration (Livingstone, 1983). If you feel that your role play requires more profound linguistic competence than the students possess, it would probably be better to simplify it or to leave it until appropriate. On low intermediate and more advanced levels, role plays with problems or conflicts in them work very well because they motivate the characters to talk . To build in these problems let the standard script go wrong. This will generate tension and make the role play more interesting. For example, in a role play situation at the market the participants have conflicting role information. One or two students have their lists of things to buy while another two or three students are salespeople who don't have anything the first group needs, but can offer slightly or absolutely different things.3 - Linguistic Preparationyou have selected a suitable role play, predict the language needed for it. At the beginning level, the language needed is almost completely predictable. The higher the level of students the more difficult it is to prefigure accurately what language students will need, but some prediction is possible anyway . It is recommended to introduce any new vocabulary before the role play .the beginning level, you might want to elicit the development of the role play scenario from your students and then enrich it. For example, the situation of the role play is returning an item of clothing back to the store. The teacher asks questions, such as, 'In this situation what will you say to the salesperson?', 'What will the salesperson say?' and writes what the students dictate on the right side of the board. When this is done, on the left side of the board the instructor writes down useful expressions, asking the students, 'Can the customer say it in another way?', 'What else can the salesperson say?' This way of introducing new vocabulary makes the students more confident acting out a role play.4 - Factual Preparationstep implies providing the students with concrete information and clear role descriptions so that they could play their roles with confidence. For example, in the situation at a railway station, the person giving the information should have relevant information: the times and destination of the trains, prices of tickets, etc. In a more advanced class and in a more elaborate situation include on a cue card a fictitious name, status, age, personality, and fictitious interests and desires.each role in a manner that will let the students identify with the characters. Use the second person 'you' rather than the third person 'he' or 'she.' If your role presents a problem, just state the problem without giving any solutions.the beginning level cue cards might contain detailed instructions (Byrne, 1983). For example,5 - Assigning the Rolesinstructors ask for volunteers to act out a role play in front of the class (Matwiejczuk, 1997), though it might be a good idea to plan in advance what roles to assign to which students. At the beginning level the teacher can take one of the roles and act it out as a model. Sometimes, the students have role play exercises for the home task. They learn useful words and expressions, think about what they can say and then act out the role play in the next class.can be one or several role play groups. If the whole class represents one role play group, it is necessary to keep some minor roles which can be taken away if there are less people in class than expected [11; 18]. If the teacher runs out of roles, he/she can assign one role to two students, in which one speaks secret thoughts of the other (Shaw, Corsini, Blake & Mouton, 1980). With several role play groups, when deciding on their composition, both the abilities and the personalities of the students should be taken into consideration. For example, a group consisting only of the shyest students will not be a success. Very often, optimum interaction can be reached by letting the students work in one group with their friends (Horner & McGinley, 1990).taking any part in the role play or not, the role of the teacher is to be as unobtrusive as possible (Livingstone, 1983). He or she is listening for students' errors making notes. Mistakes noted during the role play will provide the teacher with feedback for further practice and revision. It is recommended that the instructor avoids intervening in a role play with error corrections not to discourage the students.6 - Follow-upthe role play is finished, spend some time on debriefing. This does not mean pointing out and correcting mistakes. After the role play, the students are satisfied with themselves, they feel that they have used their knowledge of the language for something concrete and useful. This feeling of satisfaction will disappear if every mistake is analyzed. It might also make the students less confident and less willing to do the other role plays (Livingstone, 1983).up means asking every student's opinion about the role play and welcoming their comments (Milroy, 1982; Horner & McGinley, 1990). The aim is to discuss what has happened in the role play and what they have learned. In addition to group discussion, an evaluation questionnaire can be used.methods submitted above are only less part of the whole list of various effective methods of teaching a foreign language. The teacher should remember that each of the submitted methods works more effectively if they are combined and applied together at every lesson. It is impossible to allocate the best and most effective of them, every teacher himself chooses for himself what method approaches for each concrete case better.
.3 Methodological principles of modern methods of teaching
the development of foreign language teaching methods, successive crises of the deficit and overproduction of ideas it was necessary for the formation of a new methodological direction. For example, the transition to communicative teaching carried out in apparent lack of meaningful and truly new ideas. The crisis has brought to life an active methodological and methodical search, which contributed to the development of modern teaching concepts of language teaching.order to understand what the basis of modern methods of teaching English is, it is necessary to consider in detail methodological principles which underlie these techniques.structure of the communicative method includes cognitive, developmental and educational aspects, which are aimed at raising student. Given this and the concept of communicative, as well as the complexity of learning systems, we can formulate the following methodological principles of communicative methodology:
An interconnected aspects of learning a foreign language culture. complex nature of foreign language culture manifests itself in the unity and the relationship of its educational, cognitive, educational and developmental aspects. Each of these aspects, in a practical sense, is equal. But the true mastery of one is possible only when adequate mastery of others.this regard, any type of work, any exercise in the learning process, integrates all four aspects of foreign language culture and evaluated depending on the availability of these data points.principle applies not only between of aspect, but also inside of aspect relationship. For example, the expected relationship and interdependence of all four types of speech activity (reading, speaking, listening and writing) within the educational process.need for an interconnected learning unsubstantiated regularity of training, according to which the acquisition is more successful than more analyzers involved in it. The interdependence is present not only in the learning process, but also in individual exercises specifically developed under this methodology.
The principle of modelling aspects of the content of foreign language culture. cultural, linguistic and lingua country-study knowledge of reality cannot be completely metabolized in the school course, so you must build a model of content object of cognition that is selected according to learning objectives and content course the volume of this knowledge, which will be sufficient to represent the culture of the country and the language system. It is also necessary to consider cognitive needs of individual students related to their individual interests, etc. Specific scope of training and its ultimate objectives require a methodology to create a model of content development, i.e. a certain minimum, which is required to meet the challenges facing the subject.
The systems principle in the organization of foreign language teaching. principle means that the communicative learning system is constructed by the reverse: first scheduled final product (target), then determined the tasks that can lead to this result. This takes place within the course, each year, the cycle of lessons and one lesson and applies to all aspects. This approach provides a systematic training, with all its qualities: integrity, hierarchy, unity of purpose.study builds on the students mastery of the laws of each of its aspects. All training in the organizational plan is built on the basis of the rules of cyclicity and concentricity. Cyclicity manifested in the fact that a certain amount of material absorbed within the cycle of lessons, each of which includes a certain number of lessons. Any cycle of stages based on the development of a skill and ability in each type of speech activity. is supported by a concentric approach, which applies to both verbal material, and the problems discussed.is manifested in the fact that the proposed system includes not only foreign language teacher and student, but his parents, teachers of other subjects. Inter-subject connections are used as a means of extra motivation for students who are not interested in foreign language.organization of the learning process also involves the acquisition of language study, that is, includes various levels of the educational process:
) the level of education levels (elementary, junior, middle and senior),
) the level of study periods, which are defined in step
) the level of stages (stage of formation of lexical, grammatical skills, stage in the development of skills, skills development stage),
) the level of learning stages, which are defined within the steps and sub-stages (stage substitution, transformation, reproduction, combining).level has its own characteristics, which is determined by psycho-pedagogical characteristics of the students. , the situation has not only acted in the role of the so-called speech situation, but also in the broader status - the situation of training activities.
The principle of individualization in learning foreign language. the communicative approach the student is perceived as a personality. student as an individual has certain abilities, both general and partial nature. Communicative learning is aimed at identifying their original level and further their development. To that end, use special tools to detect abilities - special tests for Development - Exercises and legs. organizing joint activities the student will develop personal qualities necessary for effective cooperation.joint activity is organized so that students are aware that each of them depends on the success of the common cause. The combination of communication and other activities can bring learning to the real communication that takes place not only for communication but also serves other activities occurring simultaneously. a more productive mastery of students in all aspects of foreign language provides for a system means (memos and special exercises) for the formation of students skills and abilities for the formation of the ability to learn, which is subjective individualization.third leading component of the principle of individuation is the so-called personal individualization. It requires registration and use of parameters pertaining to the individual: personal experience, the context of activities, interests and inclinations, emotions and feelings, outlook, status in the team. All this can lead to students real communicative and situational motivation.prove this, it suffices to recall two facts:
) communication, in this methodology - a way to keep your life in society and
) training independently of the concept, is a model of the communication process. the system of communicative approach provides a package of measures to maintain motivation in teaching.
Principle of thinking activity and independence of students in learning foreign language. lies in the fact that all tasks at all levels of education are problems of different levels thinking problem and complexity. technique relies on the intellectual needs of students, and this induces student to mental activity. tasks designed to develop the mechanisms of thinking: the mechanism of orientation in the situation, assess feedback signals and decision-making mechanism for determining the objectives, selection mechanism, the mechanism of combining and design.is important to note that the more autonomy a student takes, the more effective will assimilate. Therefore, this method pays great attention to the development of independent thinking, in particular, in discussing the problems. , finally, autonomy, related to the control. In the communicative teaching used such a strategy, which plans to control the transformation of a mutual control of self-control. In order to do this as a hidden control, and conscious possession of the students knowledge of objects and control criteria and their application are used.
The principle of functionality in foreign language teaching. principle assumes that every student should understand that it can give not only practical language skills, but also to use the knowledge gained in cognitive and emerging dimension. principle is also what is going on mastering functions of speech activities as a means of communication that is understood and assimilated the functions that are performed in the process of human communication: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. to the principle of functionality, the object of learning is not verbal means alone, and the functions performed in a language.the basis of creating a functional model of speech means that should be studied in foreign language courses: are selected certain speech means different levels of expression for each of the speech functions. Depending on the purpose for the expression each function can be offered and the maximum and minimum number of means of expression. Of course, here is connected and non-verbal means of expression.
The principle of novelty in the teaching of foreign languages. learning is constructed in such a way that all of its content and organization permeated novelty.prescribes the use of texts and exercises that contain something new for the students, the rejection of the multiple readings of the same text and exercises with the same assignment, variety of texts of different content, but built on the same material. Thus, the novelty provides a non-arbitrary learning, develops speaking, and productive speech abilities of students is of interest to educational activities.conclusion, it is important to note that all the above principles are interrelated, interdependent and mutually reinforcing. Therefore, adherence to the attached system requires compliance with all the above principles and how they are combined.now turn to the methodological principles which underlie other modern methods of teaching English. Thus, the basic methodological principles of conceptual importance for the design methodology are:
The principle of consciousness, which provides a support system for students at the grammar rules, work on which is constructed as a spreadsheet, which in turn is a sign of the next principle.
The principle of accessibility is manifested primarily in the fact that in constructing the course of design methodology considered relevant to student issues and concerns.
The principle of activity in the project methodology is based not only on the outside of the activity (active speech), but also on the activity inside that manifests itself when working on projects, developing the creative potential of students and based on previously studied material. In the design method the principle of activity is playing a leading role.
The principle of communicative, providing a contact not only with the teacher, but also the communication within the groups during project preparation, as well as with teachers of other groups, if any. The design methodology is based on a high communicative, expression involves students of their own opinions, feelings, and active involvement in real work, take personal responsibility for progress in learning.
The principle of systematic is relevant to this method, not only because all the material is divided into topics and subtopics, but also because the technique is based on the cyclical organization of educational process: each set of cycles is calculated for a certain number of hours. Separate cycle is considered as a complete self-training period, aimed at addressing specific challenges in achieving the common goal of learning English.
The principle of autonomy also plays a very important role in the design methodology. To prove this, we must consider the essence of the concept project. The project is a self-planned and implemented by the trainees work, in which verbal communication is woven into the intellectual - emotional context of other activities (games travel, etc.). The novelty of that approach is that trainees are given the opportunity by the design content of communications, ranging from first class. Each project is related to a specific topic and is developed within a certain time. Work on the project is combined with the creation of a strong language base. And as the project work is carried out either by itself or in a group with the other trainees, we can talk about the principle of autonomy, as one of the fundamental.principles of design methods are closely interrelated and very important. This method teaches students to think creatively and independently planning their actions may be solutions to the challenges ahead, but the principles that underpin this method, make it possible training for any age cohort.proceed to the following method of teaching English language. This is an intensive method.
The principle of collective interaction, which is leading in the method of activation, the most famous in the intensive method. This principle relates the objectives of training and education, describes the means, methods and conditions of the educational process. To the educational process, which was based on this principle, characterized by the fact that students interact with others, broadening their knowledge, improve their skills. They relationships optimal interaction and collective relationships are formed, which serve as a condition and means of enhancing the effectiveness of teaching, the success of each of the trainees depends largely on others. Such a system of relations existing in the school team, revealing and actualized in the individual the best part, contributes significantly to education and improving the individual. This is due to Becoming a positive psychological climate and largely affects the final result. Group education contributes to a more personal socio-psychological stimulus for learning. In addition, increased communication between participants of educational process helps to speed up exchange of information, communication and learning, accelerated development of skills and abilities. From the above we can conclude that the primary means of mastering the subject is communicating with partners in the group.
The principle of learner- centered communication is no less important. It is based on the impact of communication, his character and style for the implementation of rehabilitation and educational purposes. In conversation, each is both impact and exposed. Especially important place here is the knowledge of other people, which is a prerequisite of human communication. is a pivotal feature of collective activities and personality in the team. It is inseparable from the process of cognition. Personality-role communication in English with intensive training - this is not a piece of the educational process and methodical step lesson plans, and the basis of an educational learning process.
The principle role of the Organization of the educational process is closely linked with the previous two. The roles and masks in the group to a large extent contribute to the management of communication in the classroom. Teaching communication in an intensive training requires constantly active subjects of communication (all students) are not confined to just the perception of messages and responses to it, and try to express their attitude towards him, that is, I am a Mask always shows personality characteristics. Role play - this is one effective means of establishing the motive for foreign language students to communicate.
The principle of concentration in the organization of educational material and training process is not only qualitative but also quantitative characteristics of the intensive method. Of concentration is manifested in various aspects: academic hours of concentration, concentration of educational material. All this causes high intensity and density of communication, a variety of forms of work. This encourages teachers to work in constant search for new forms of presentation.
The principle of multifunctional exercise reflects the specificity of exercise in intensive teaching methods. Language skills are formed in the non-verbal conditions, fragile. Therefore, the most productive working believe the approach to learning a foreign language, which involves the simultaneous and parallel to the mastery of linguistic material and verbal activity. Polyfunctionality exercises can implement this approach. In a system of intensive training methods use a given grammatical form by a series of exercises, where the changing situation is realized at the same communicative intention. Moreover, for any student activity monofunctional, for the teacher is always multifunctional. In this method strictly required polyfunctionality.five principles discussed intensive language training provides a clear linkage discipline and training activities and thereby contribute to the effective implementation of learning objectives.Based methodology found it possible to use the upper secondary schools, except junior, as the first methodological principle of this technique can be formulated as follows:
The principle of necessity of logical thinking. Based methodology focuses on the conceptual, logical thinking students, but admits the possibility of using the school from the age, it becomes apparent formed a logical thinking. Application of Activity Based methodology would systematize and synthesize available to the students of language and speech experience.
The principle of activity. Activity Based methodology trainee activity is obvious. The need for this lies in its very title. This technique provides greater activity in a preliminary mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication on the basis of existing knowledge, training, skills, and use of language in speech.
The principle of the primary master language means. principle arose from the fact that the creators of Activity Based Training techniques consider wrong language means in the process of working with the content as reported. They believe that this makes it almost impossible to fully own language means.
The principle of using communicative units. Activity Based techniques identified a new communicative language unit, which resulted in a need to rethink the problem of language learning content, especially the principles of selection of grammatical knowledge.is evident from all of the above, the activity method has some specific tools inherent one. And if the previous method can be used with children at primary level, then this method is no such possibility. techniques described above can be subsumed under one title: The best learning to communicate - is communication. yet, despite the large number similarities, cannot miss differentiation methods, techniques, content of teaching foreign language, depending on the objectives and planned levels of tenure, the characteristics of pupils and the learning environment. Hence are the specific features of the methods of teaching English language.
.4 Practical aspect of ways of teaching
a theoretical part of this course paper it was spoken about various effective ways of teaching a foreign language. But if teacher wants effectively put them into practice, it is necessary to know how to use these methods at each separate lesson. Therefore, in a practical part of the given course paper the examples of various exercises will be shown for each of the methods, which were listed in a theoretical part. The teacher can adapt and make variations of them for his lessons.three large cards with wide on one, narrow on the second and broad on the third.class
1.Clear as much space as you can in your classroom so that students have access to all the walls and ask two students to act as secretaries at the board. Steak each of your card on one of the other three walls of the room. Ask the rest of the students to gather in the middle of the space.
2.Tell the students that youre going to read out sentences with a word missing. If they think that the right word for that sentence is wide they should rush over and touch the wide card. If they think the word should be narrow or broad they touch the respective card instead. Tell them that in some cases there are two right answers (they choose either).
.Tell the secretaries at the board to write down the correct versions of the sentences in full as the game progresses.
.Read out the first gapped sentence and have the students rush to what they think is the appropriate wall. Give the correct versions and make sure it goes up in the board. Continue with the second sentence etc.
.At the end of the strenuous part ask the students to tale down the sentences in their books. A relief from running! ( If the students want a challenge they should get a partner and together write down as many sentences as they remember with their backs to the board before turning round to complete their notes. Or else have their partner to dictate the sentences with a gap for them to try to complete.)can play this game with many sets of grammar exponents:
- Forms of the article; a, the and zero article
1.Pair the students and give them the two texts. Ask them to spot all the differences they can between them. Tell them that there may be more than one pair of differences per pair of parallel sentences. Tell them one item in each pair of alternatives is correct.
2.They are to choose the correct form from each pair.
.Ask them to dictate the correct text to you at the board. Write down exactly what they say so students have a chance to correct each other both in terms of grammar and in terms of their pronunciation. If a student pronounces dis voman for this woman then write up the wrong version. Only write it correctly when the student pronounces it right. Your task in this exercise is to allow the students to try out their hypotheses about sound and grammar without putting them right too soon and so reducing their energy and blocking their learning. Being too kind can be cognitively unkind.
5.To make this exercise more oral, pair the students and ask them to sit facing each other. Give Later-comer A to one student and Late-comer B to the other in each pair. They then have to do very detailed listening to each others texts.
.Feeling and grammarclass
- Ask the students to draw a quick sketch of a four-year-old they know well. Give them these typical questions such a person may ask, e.g. Mummy, does the moon go for a wee-wee? Where did I come from?. Ask each student to write half a dozen questions such a person might ask, writing them in speech bubbles on the drawing. Go round and help with the grammar.
- Get the students to fill the board with their most interesting four-year-old questions.
Variationscan be used with various question situations. The following examples work well:
- Ask the students to imagine a court room-the prosecution barrister is questioning a defense witness. Tell the students to write a dozen questions the prosecution might ask.
- What kind of questions might a woman going to a foreign country want to ask a woman friend living in this country about the man or the woman in the country?
- And what might a man want to ask a man?
- What kind of questions are you shocked to be asked in an English-speaking country and what questions are you surprised not to be asked?
- Ask three students to come out and help you demonstrate the exercise. Draw a picture on the board of something interesting you have done. Do not speak about it. Student A then writes a past simple sentence about it. Student B write about what had already happened before the picture action and student C about something that was going to happen, using the appropriate grammar.
I got up at eight a.m.ve just got off the busm going to work today
- Put the students in fours. Each draws a picture of a real past action of theirs. They pass their picture silently to a neighbor in the foursome who adds a past tense sentence. Pass the picture again and each adds a past perfect sentence. They pass again and each adds a was going to sentence. All this is done in silence with you going round helping and correcting.
Ask a student to draw a picture on the board of a person holding an umbrella. The umbrella looks like this.
- Explain to the class that this tulip-like umbrella design is a new, experimental one.
- Ask the students to work in small groups and brainstorm all the advantages and disadvantages of a new design. Ask them to use these sentence stems:
It/you can/cant…/you + present simple…/you will/wont…/you may/may not…
- For example: It is easy to control in a high wind, You can see where youre going with this umbrella
- Give the students large sheets of paper and ask them to list the advantages and disadvantages in two columns.
- Ask the students to move around the room and read each others papers. Individually they mark each idea as good, bad or intriguing.
- Ask the student how many advantages they came up with and how many disadvantages. Ask the students to divide up into three groups according to which statement applies to them:
I thought mainly of advantages.thought of some of both.thought mainly of disadvantages.
- Ask the three groups to come up with five to ten adjectives to describe their group state of mind and put these up n the board.
- Round off the exercise by telling the class that when de Bono asked different groups of people to do this kind of exercise, it turned out that primary school children mostly saw advantages, business people had plenty of both while groups of teachers were the most negative.
Advantages the students offered:a hot country you can collect rain water.wont drip round the edges.can use it for carrying shopping.s not dangerous in a crowd.s an optimistic umbrella.s easy to hold if two people are walking together.this umbrella youll look special.ll take less floor space to dry.umbrella makes people communicate. They can see each other.can paint this umbrella to look like a flower.ll get a free supply of ice if it hails.TALE FUN - JIGSAW STYLE! students into five equal groups. Each group will get one fairy tale to read. The stories are "The Ugly Duckling," "Snow White," "Hansel and Gretel," "Jack and the Beanstalk," and "The Three Little Pigs." Each group is responsible for collecting the following information:
Who are the characters in the story?
Where does the story take place?
What are the major events of the story?
Are there any magical or supernatural events? If so, what are they? the students read, discuss, and record the above information, split them into jigsaw groups. One person from each fairy tale assemble in a new group. In their new groups, students are each given three minutes to tell the other group members about the story they had read as well as the information they have collected. After that, the group has to create a poster and give a presentation that addressed two points:
. What do all five stories have in common?
. Using what you found in common, write your own definition for a fairy tale.is a well known theatre exercise which is extremely effective for encouraging controlled but spontaneous interaction in ESL classes.1 PRESENT by presenting a list of debate expressions such as those listed.2 MODELa discussion. Choose yourself as conductor and 4 other students to be conducted. First, the conductor presents a topic. He then selects a student and an expression for the continuation of the discussion.: Elephants shouldn't be allowed into Bangkok. Student B "Furthermore"B: Furthermore, the government should fine their owners.: Student A "On the other hand"A: On the other hand, people in Bangkok are very generous when they see elephants.: Student C "For example".C: For example, when they see elephants they feel compassion and give them food and money.: Student D "You may have a point".D: You may have a point. Nevertheless, the pollution and traffic are terrible for the elephants' health.3 WRITING reinforce the use of these expressions further, follow this activity by a debate or writing exercisemethod Activity
№1. My Favourites. Children prepare at home material (press-cuttings, pictures) which illustrates their interests, hobbies. At the lesson on the lists of colour paper they design the album where every pupil tells about his favourite things and pastime (about favourite colour, sport, town, etc.)
№2. Picture poem. Children are suggested to draw picture - poem, so that its shape is concerned with its meaning.Roleplay: 20-25 min: Oral fluency practice; politely disagreeing: Two housemates try to resolve their conflicts.short roleplay activity requires no materials apart from a blackboard. The situation is actually roleplayed twice, with some phrases for "politely disagreeing" introduced before the second round. The idea behind this is that the first round will hopefully help the students realise the importance of being polite in order to avoid arguments, and so they will be more receptive to the new language which helps them achieve this.only that these sentences are from two different people, A and B. Ask, "Who are these two people, and what are they talking about?" Give the students a minute or two to discuss it with a partner (make it clear that they should only discuss your question, not attempt to roleplay the situation yet!).the fact that A and B are housemates, and then explain the situation in more detail: they are not close friends, but they are living together in order to save money. However, lately B has been quite annoyed by some of A's habits. Write these habits on the blackboard, explaining them at the same time:: * plays loud music (all the time!)
* leaves his/her things all over the house (books, clothes, bags, etc on chairs, tables, and even the floor)
* doesn't pass on messages (if one of B's friends calls and leaves a message, A never remembers to pass it on)
* never buys food (when they moved in they agreed that A would buy the food one week, B the next week, and so on) who probably starts the conversation. B, of course. Suggest a polite conversation starter, such as:
"Could I have a word with you please?"get the students to roleplay the situation in pairs. Afterwards, get some feedback from a few pairs. Was the conflict resolved, and if so how?introduce and drill some phrases for politely disagreeing:
* No offense, but... (I don't like your music)
* I see your point, but... (I have a bad memory)
* I understand your feelings, but... (I can't concentrate) get the students to swap roles and repeat the activity, making use of the new phrases. It's a good idea to get them to swap partners too-this should help keep the momentum up. At the end, get more feedback on how their conversations turned out.you intend to ask the students to swap roles and also swap partners before the second round, you should plan it carefully to avoid wasting time. In most of my classes, the desks are arranged in three columns which are each two desks wide, so here is the way I managed it: for the first round, I assigned roles so that everybody on the left-hand desk was A and the others were B (check that everybody knows their role by getting them to put their hands up). Then for the second round, I simply asked all the "A" students to stand up and move to the desk in front of them.Roleplays, each character's three prompt sentences could be written on a roleplay card instead of on the blackboard. In this case, the 4 conflicts still need to be written on the board.the Differences: 10-15 min: Oral fluency practice: Students speak in order to find the differences between two similar pictures.is a well-known activity, and a classic example of the principle of an "information gap" in communicative activities. If you put two pictures in front of a pair of students and tell them to talk about the differences, there is not much to motivate them. But if you arrange the activity so that each student only sees one picture, then an information gap is created. Cooperating with their partner to identify the differences becomes an act of genuine communication.suitable pairs of pictures are provided in many modern textbooks, this activity is included here to remind teachers that it is not too difficult to create picture pairs by oneself, especially with access to the internet. For example, cartoons can be adapted. A suitable picture can be found to fit with almost any theme-based lesson.first step is to find a suitable picture. These might come from books and magazines, or from the internet. For example, try a search on Google Images (note that the Advanced Image Search allows you to limit your results to black and white, or a particular size). There are also several websites which sell cartoons online, such as CartoonStock.Discussions that Work (Cambridge University Press, 1981), Penny Ur writes:
"The preparation of such pictures is fairly simple and fun to do. You need a black and white line drawing (not photograph) with a fair amount of detail but without shades of grey (these do not reproduce well). The content of the drawing should not entail vocabulary beyond the level of the students. You photocopy it and then make the requisite number of alterations to the original drawing, using either a black fibre-tip pen (for additions) or white type-correcting fluid (for erasures)." , the modifications could be done on a computer using even the simplest "paint" application. If you create any picture pairs in this way, please send them to us for inclusion on this page.the Resources section for examples.need to make enough copies so that each student will receive either one copy of "Version A" or one copy of "Version B".the students are already familiar with the concept, then you just need to repeat the "check" questions. But the first time you do this activity, it is helpful to explain the concept using the blackboard: draw two simple pictures with one or two differences and explain that partners will each receive one version. They must not show their pictures to each other, instead they have to talk to each other and circle the n differences. Check:
* Are these pictures the same? (no)
* How many differences are there? (n)
* Can you show your partner? (no)
* What do you do when you find a difference? (circle it) the activity, you can either provide the answers, or elicit the answers from the students, or simply tell the students to put the pictures side by side so that they can check whether the differences they found really exist or not.
3. Comparative characteristics of modern techniques of teaching English
.1 Features of techniques
.1.1 Communicative methodvery first specific feature of the communicative method is that the purpose of education is not mastery of a foreign language, but foreign language culture, which includes cognitive, educational, developmental and educational aspect. These aspects include the introduction and study of not only the language and grammar, but also its culture, its relationship with the native culture, as well as the failure of a foreign language, its nature, characteristics, similarities and differences with their own language. They also include the satisfaction of personal cognitive interests trainee in any of its activities. The latter provides an additional motivation to study a foreign language by students, who is not interested.second specific feature of the communicative approach is to capture all aspects of foreign language culture through communication. This communicative method first put forward the proposition that the communication should be taught only through communication that was for modern methods of one of the characteristic features. In the communicative teaching methodology communication serves as teaching, learning, development and education.feature of the proposed concept is the usage of all the functions of the situation. Communicative learning is based on situations which (unlike other teaching schools) are understood as a system of relationships. The main emphasis here is put not to play with the help of visual aids or a verbal description of the fragments of reality, and to create a situation as a system of relationships between the trainees. Discussion on the situation, based on the relationship of trainees, can make learning a foreign language culture as possible natural and close to the conditions of real communication.methodology also includes the acquisition and non-verbal means of communication: such as gestures, facial expressions, posture, distance, which is an additional factor in memorizing vocabulary and any other material.specific feature of the communicative approach is the use of conditional speech exercises, that is, those exercises that are based on full or partial repetition of the remarks of the teacher. As you gain knowledge and skills of the character of conditional speech exercises become increasingly complex, while the need for them does not exhaust yourself when statements trainees do not become self-sufficient and meaningful.
3.1.2 Project methodologyeffectiveness of the project techniques is provided to a greater extent by the intellectual and emotional richness of the education topics. Also we should note their gradual complication. But the distinctive feature is the fact of their concrete. From the outset of training the trainees are expected to participate in meaningful and complex communication, without simplification and primitivism.other distinguishing feature of the project methodology is a particular form of communicative and cognitive organization of students in draft form. That, indeed, appeared the name of the method.project is an independent, implemented by the trainees work, in which verbal communication is woven into the intellectual and emotional context of other activities.novelty of the approach is that the trainees are given the opportunity by designing the content of communications, starting with the first class. The course has a little number of texts. They are reproduced in the work of trainees on projects proposed by the authors.project is related to a specific topic and is developed within a certain time. Subject has a clear structure, is divided into subtopics, each of which ends with the task of project work.important is the fact that students have the opportunity to talk about their thoughts, their plans. to the work on the project creates a strong language base.specific skills are also a division into two types: learning to learn languages and skills of language users. For the development of the first kind of skills phonetic and lexical-grammatical exercises of training nature are used. These are exercises in imitation, substitution, expansion, transformation, restoration of individual phrases and texts. Their peculiarity is that they are given in an interesting way: as a text to check the memory, attention, games conjecture; puzzles, sometimes in the form of a soundtrack.grammatical skills and their training are usually conducted in the form of work based on the tables. All the exercises, most importantly, are running on the background of the development project submitted.practice in using language a large number of situations is given created by using verbal and object-like clarity.obvious here is that the specific features of the communicative and projective techniques have many similarities, are built on identical principles, but apply them in different ways of learning. In the first case the study is based on the use of situations, in the second - on the use of the projects.
.1.3 Intensive methodnow turn to the intensive method and consider its specificity. This method is based on the psychological term of suggestion. This is the first specific feature of intensive techniques. The use of suggestion can pass or shoot various types of psychological barriers in the trainees the following way. The teacher conducts classes in the light of psychological factors, emotional impact, using the logical form of training. It is also used in the classroom various art forms (music, painting, elements of the theater) to the emotional impact on students.suggestopedia training involves a concentration of training hours. At the senior stages, for example, it is advisable to devote six hours a week through the school component of the curriculum; they should be divided into three, two hours each. If necessary, the number of hours can be reduced to three., a specific feature of the intensive method is that suggestopedia widely based on the position of the different functions of the two hemispheres of the brain. Connecting the emotional factors in learning a foreign language will significantly intensify the process of learning, opening new perspectives in the development of methods of teaching foreign languages. The whole atmosphere of classes organized in such a way that the development of language is accompanied by positive emotions. On the one hand, this is an important incentive to create and sustain interest in the subject. On the other hand, the intellectual activity of students, backed by emotional activity, provides the most efficient memorization of material and mastery of speaking skills.distinguishing factor is the active use of role-playing games. Specifics of intensive training are laying in the fact that the educational communication keeps all socio-psychological processes of communication. Role dialogue - is both a play and learning, and speech activity. But in this case, if the position of students is role-play game communication - play activity or natural communication, where the motive is not in the content of activities, but outside it, from a teacher role-play game dialogue is a form of organization of educational process.to L.G. Denisova [10, 35], the main efficient moments of interactive methods of teaching foreign languages are:
creation of a strong motivation for immediate study, carried out with casual conversation and motivating communication closer to reality;
high and immediate impact of training: on the second day of classes, students interact in the target foreign language, using verbal clichés inherent in the core of training text - remember, the text of polylogue introduced for the first day of school;
the presentation and the acquisition of a large quantity of speech, lexical and grammatical units; for one presentation 150-200 new words, 30-50 verbal clichés and a few typical grammatical phenomena are introduced and assimilated.is also, of course, a specific feature. of the above is particularly intense techniques that provide greater effectiveness. These specific moments entirely differ from the two previous methods. Only one of them, perhaps, is similar. All three techniques considered essential for a successful learning teamwork in a positive emotional atmosphere. This intensive method pays more attention to activities such as speaking and listening.
.1.4 Activity Based methodare specific features for Activity Based Methods of teaching English? It should be noted that there are quite a lot of such learning tools specific to the Activity Based methods.the beginning, we note that the creators of this technique believe that we should teach separately design skills and the ability to work with content following information. In order to ensure a conscious mastery of linguistic tools and training in design, they must form before there will be a learning to work with content. From this follows another specific feature of this method.Activity Based method is a separation between the tentative mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication on the basis of existing knowledge, abilities, skills, use of language.really specific feature of Activity Based method is the selection of what is called linguistic communicative units. As for complete communication during training not only verbal status of linguistic units is required, speech status must be combined with freedom of choice in speech. Linguistic units which have the status of speech and provide a full communication with the terms of the freedom of choice, on the basis of meaning imparted called communicative language units.the last specific feature is the use of this method, a conventional version, which is used not only what students have mastered and what they are taught at this stage. shows that Activity Based technique differs significantly distinctive from the first three methods.
.2 Similarities of methods
objective of learning English is formulated as follows now: teach students to communicate in English. But when posed in this way it becomes a goal in itself. The purpose of education is much broader than the acquisition of certain skills and abilities, and opportunities for the subject English is much broader. Therefore, the purpose of teaching English language at present can be summarized as follows: to teach students not only participate in communication in English, but also actively participate in the development of the individual student.this reason, most modern techniques of teaching English based on the principle of active communication.involves the construction of learning as a model of the communication process. To make learning the basic features of the communication process, firstly, the need to go to personal communication with students, making the work with the audience composing the normal psychological climate. Secondly, it is necessary to use all modes of communication to solve this problem - interactive (when there is an interaction with the teacher the students on the basis of any activity other than teaching), perceptive (when there is a perception of each other as individuals, bypassing the status of teacher and student), information (when the pupil and teacher change their thoughts, feelings, and not words and grammatical structures). The third necessary condition is the creation of communicative motivations - needs, which encourages students to participate in communion with the aim of changing the relationship with the interlocutor. Communication should be constructed in such a way that there was a gradual mastery of verbal material.motivation for communication can be various incentives. When working with a project methodology is the work on joint projects. The same stimulus is used in distance learning, and intensive methods. Frequently, the situation used in the training, are problematic. These situations should contribute to the formation of different opinions among the trainees and should not give clear solutions. Discussion of these situations can throw together different views is the need to defend their point of view, there is a need to communicate in a foreign language. The use of problem situations also has another positive side, because it provides an opportunity to solve and educational problems as foster proactive personality is possible only when discussing situations which are based on true values.is also important to note that situations learning, case must permeate all stages of learning verbal material at all stages of learning.addition, almost all methods commonly use collective joint activity. The tendency of replacing the individual work by the group work developed for a long time. Teamwork is intensifying collective. The formation of skills and competencies takes place in the system of collective actions that contribute to internal mobilization capacity of each student. The forms of collective interaction are easily implemented in the classroom. It is a work in pairs, a work of three, a work in micro-groups and in the complete group. It should also be noted that the role-play game communication, constantly interacting with the personal, is its prerequisite and condition. The situations of role communication in which the skills and abilities of foreign language communication develops, provide a transition to a higher level of communication., collective work in all methods implemented in different ways. In the communicative approach - is to create situations like the real, presenting issues of concern and discussion. In the project method is also used by the group working together on projects.next feature which is found in all methods is a cognitive autonomy. Take into account that now the teaching of English should be based on a new basis, which performs the shift from the transfer of knowledge to the trainees ready Gathering them in the process of active teaching and learning activities, thus forming an active personality with creative thinking. This principle is widely used in the Activity Based method, as it is designed primarily for people with established logical thinking. In addition, it allows you to consciously master the linguistic resources and use them intelligently, as well as it ensures the formation of a strong knowledge and skills.the more widely used in foreign language teaching methods become features of intensive methods of teaching English. They are, for example, multifunctional exercise. It must be remembered that polyfunctionality is inherent and must be common to all speech exercises in the existing practice of teaching. After all, while there are several types of activities: listening, speaking, and certain grammatical knowledge.same is true with the conditional speech exercises, once a sentiment typical of the communicative method. Now they are also used in an interactive method.is another idea, found in virtually all methods, with minor variations. This is the principle of the educational process on the basis of its quantization and programming in the communicative conception. Quantization in this case being everything from goals and finishing materials, training process is divided into definite cycles. In the project methodology similar phenomenon is called the principle of systematicity, which is manifested not only in the division of material on topics and subtopics, but in the cyclical organization of educational process. The teaching process in distance education undergoes structuring, course structure is modular, so the student can clearly recognize your progress from module to module, or choose a module, depending on their qualifications. Even the Activity Based technique divides the course of learning English (foreign) language, as mentioned earlier, the tentative mastery of language means and subsequent mastery of communication.use this systematization of teaching for more specific goal-setting courses, in addition, the material is grouped according to themes, more convenient to remember, as well as its use and secure. , we see that the modern methods, despite the large number of specific features, have much in common, lying in their very basis.
.3 Positive and negative aspects of techniques
determine how well each of the described methods, we will try to highlight and explore the pros and cons of each.communicative method has several positive aspects that should be actively used to work with him.and foremost, this is the purpose of training, which is not just mastering a foreign language, and learning a foreign language culture. This is achieved by subordinating and interrelatedness of all aspects of training. Following such installation, the teacher involves in the formation of the individual student, which is certainly a positive side.advantage of this concept is the interface and the balanced development of all activities (speaking, listening, reading, and writing). This factor is very important.good factor is the creation of an additional motivation, using interdisciplinary communication.the most important positive aspects were the use of communication as the main method of teaching English language, and use situations to realize this., the unjust will not say that the latter two factors are characteristic for the other techniques discussed in the research.technique does not have pronounced negative features. Perhaps it has minor issues, but they are not expressed as clearly as positive qualities.now turn to the intensive method., the biggest of its plus this is the fastest results. By the second day of classes the student to communicate in English using verbal clichés, studied at the first lesson.important are the psychological bases of advantage of this technique (of suggestion), which allow a psychologically comfortable in the classroom, but also used for more effective learning.plus is multifunctional exercise, repeatedly referred to earlier, as well as very well a lot of time given to activate the new vocabulary. At each cycle of training is recommended to spend up to 20-24 hours, including on the activation of a new material - 18-20 hours.are also some disadvantages in this method. For example, too much new material, which is given for a presentation (150-200 new words, 30-50 verbal clichés and a few typical grammatical phenomena).disadvantage is also the training, especially oral forms of communication: reading and listening comprehension, writing as a form of communication while becoming secondary, which is impossible to allow in any case.project methodology of foreign language teaching has distinct disadvantages, like the communicative method. In this case it is characterized by positive features, such as: capture the culture of designing, developing abilities to think creatively and independently, to predict the solutions to the task.positive feature is the extensive use of problem issues, it makes students think. is worth noting that the grammar is given most often in the form of tables, which greatly facilitates the acquisition and systematization of the students.course itself is very interesting and exciting, because it is widely used ego-factor. turn to Activity Based methodology, which has the following advantages., it is the formation of skills of choice of language when the speech based not only from the meaning imparted, but also the ability to construct a logical sequence. second positive feature is the possibility of constructing a system of grammar according to this method, using communicative units.technique also requires copious verbal practice. of Activity Based method is that the goal of learning English (practical, educational, educational and developmental) are not sufficiently interconnected, and the fact that the percentage of independent cognitive activity is lower than in other methodologies.all of the above, we can say that the ideal methods of teaching English does not currently exist. Although the communicative and design techniques nowadays are the most harmonious and relevant to the modern methodology.
all above-stated it is possible to draw the following conclusions.purpose of this work was to discover the most effective ways of teaching a foreign language to children.achievement of the purpose the works of home and foreign authors on the given problem have been studied.formation of interest to a subject the huge role is played by the person of the teacher. Therefore a pledge of successful mastering a foreign language by the pupils is professionalism of the teacher which should in the work not only take into account the methodical principles underlying teaching, but also to be in constant search of new receptions and means of teaching which will recover a lesson, will make it fascinating, cognitive and remembered.most useful for this purpose are the following receptions and methods: methods of constructivism, communicative methods, methods of projects and discussions, games and role games, etc.course work have been analysed all these methods and the receptions raising quality of training to foreign language on the basis of studying of various techniques of teaching, used in work with children. Many of receptions can be applied with success at teaching children of younger and more advanced age. The resulted techniques are interesting from many points of view, simple in application and can add essentially existing operating time of teachers foreign (including English) language.some of the methods are let be omitted by the teacher (like silent way, synthetic or analytic (every teacher choose his own way to work with students) all of these must be included in the learning process. They act like general concepts giving you a full length of techniques to apply within one method. They dont give strict directions of how to apply them but a wide space for creative work.considered modern teaching methods. Is there a general framework, which underlies all these methods? Yes, of course, the basis of these techniques is the number of general methodological principles. But first I must say that all these four methods have the common goal of education - to teach students to communicate in English, as well as participate in the development of individual students.principle of all these techniques is the principle of active communication, is a basis which is taken the situation of different nature (from the social and living up problem). The situations are realized through working in groups (teamwork), but these principles are both a student-oriented, and most effectively implemented in a positive psychological atmosphere where all feel comfortable and are in an atmosphere of mutual understanding and active interaction, sharing not only information but also emotions. Another significant point described methods is to create additional motivation for high interest of students in the learning process. Also worth mentioning is that in modern methods plays an important role independent cognitive activity of students. Not welcome submission of the finished material to students, they should show more independence, because it promotes memorization. The basic idea of these methods is the same: the best way of learning is communication., regardless of such a large number of similarities, each technique has its own specific features. Thanks to them these techniques differ from each other and become separate, independent phenomenon in the methodology. Specific features of each technique gives their own identity, they also cause all the positive and negative qualities that are inherent in each of them.the analysis of positive and negative traits, we can conclude that the most effective, successful and harmonious is the communicative method of learning foreign culture. , however, the task of this research is not to identify the best methods of teaching English, but the allocation of their main features, which is designed to facilitate teacher selection methods for use.should be noted that the choice of teaching methods should take into account not only their own preferences, and, above all, should focus on the age, abilities, interests and psychological characteristics of students. Focusing on them, you can choose the most appropriate and effective method.work may also be useful in the creation and development of other techniques and also to highlight the major trends in methods of teaching English language today.current methods are communicative-oriented. One of their main features is creativity of students. It is creative tasks, as is evident from this work are now a sign of modernity. They allow you to build a new work not only on spoken word but also in other activities.regard to the practical application of methods, I think that does not necessarily use the same method. It would be best to integrate several methods by combining their best side, for students. the moment there is no universal technique, since the effectiveness of a method depends on many factors. At the present stage of development methodology is the integration methods. We can say that the early formation of an integrated method that incorporates the best elements of different methods.
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Purpose of the Strategy:
Bellanca (1992) explains that the purpose of the KWL strategy is to help students identify prior knowledge and experience as a bridge to a new concept, lesson, or unit (p.10).
In the KWL strategy the teacher serves as a facilitator of learning in the classroom, utilizing the students to create part of the lesson plan and identifying key concepts that need to be addressed before the lesson ends. Bellanca (1992) stated that it is the teachers role to plan a strategy to ensure students will have the questions they raised answered before the lesson ends.
In the KWL strategy the learner is asked to construct their learning experience by identifying what they know, analyze what information they do not know, and reflect upon what they learned. The strategy asks that the learner work as part of a small and large group to brainstorm ideas about the concept or topic. This strategy helps students to realize that learning is an ongoing process by asking them what I want to know now (Marzano & Pickering, 1997).
Prior Knowledge Needed by the Learner:
The process of asking good questions is essential to this educational strategy. Because of this, it is also important that students are able to ask appropriate questions that help them develop a deeper sense of understanding about the concept or topic. However, Bellanca (1992) noted that questioning is not an intuitive process and may be difficult for students who have grown up in one right answer classroom may lack motivation and/or the know-how to ask questions.(1992) also discusses the importance of using the DOVE guidelines to help students in the brainstorming process. Therefore, students need to have an understanding of what the DOVE guidelines are:= Defer judgment; accept others ideas; avoid criticism and put-downs= Originality is OKAY= Variety and Vastness of ideas; explore many ideas; search for the best ideas= Expand by piggybacking on others ideas; associate; build on others. also need to have the ability to recall information (K step), analyze information (W Step, and evaluate what has been learned (L step). With practice and use of this strategy in the classroom, students may further develop these skills but they are important to have as they begin to work with this strategy.
Steps/Parts of the Strategy:
There are several easy steps when utilizing the KWL strategy. In essence, a teacher helps students identify what they already know about the topic, what they would like to know, and what they have learned (Ogle, 1986 in Marzano & Pickering, 1997). However, Bellanca (1992) offers a much more detailed list of steps to help teachers use the KWL strategy in the classroom:
. Draw the KWL chart on the board or on the overhead.
2.Label each column and explain its use (the K column is for things they already know about the topic, the W column asks them what they want to know about it, and the L column is for what they learned after they complete the lesson or topic).