Teaching English speaking at the beginning stage
Teaching English speaking at the beginning stage
year in many parts of the world a considerable number of persons find
themselves called upon to teach English to those whose mother tongue is not
English. Their pupils may be children or adults; and range from those who
already have some knowledge of English either in its spoken or written form to
those who know not a single word of the language.mother tongue of those who are
about to engage in such teaching is usually English, but to some of them
English is a foreign language in which they may or may not be proficient. But
in either case they find themselves taking on a job which is unfamiliar to
them. They have rarely been specially trained to teach English as a living
language and as a means of immediate communication.their pupils already have
some knowledge of English, the teacher more often than not has recourse to a
reading book, and causes his pupils to read - with or without the process of
translation. Or, if a command of the spoken language is the objective, they
content themselves with carrying on «conversation» with their pupils. In the
latter case such teachers find themselves at a loss. The various techniques of
teaching through conversation are usually unknown to them and, like the
veterans who came into this field before them, they pick up the devices of oral
teaching by dint of the process of trial and error.researching work is written
to show that there are a lot of different ways of teaching speaking to children
and adults on the beginning stage. There are The Oral Direct Method, Communicative
Approach, Penny Ur’s Methods, Topic Approach and others.we consider our task to
show how these methods work, so there are examples, which are in the practical
part of the work.work consists of different tips, which can help teachers to
work with children and adults. Psychological peculiarities of children and
adults are describing in this work.
object of the work is teaching
subject of the work is
researching the theme at the beginning stage.
purpose of the researching is
to study different methods of teaching English speaking at the beginning stage.
- to study what is the speaking itself;
- to study psychological peculiarities of children and adults;
- to examine different techniques of teaching speaking;
- to reveal how to deal with mistakes in oral speech.
It is a
well-known fact that when two persons, ignorant of each other's language, find
themselves in daily contact, with the necessity of communication by speech,
either will soon become able to use the language of the other with sufficient
proficiency for the purpose in view. We consider that the theme of the project
is the one of the main themes of teaching English speaking because it is very
important to teach oral English at the very beginning of the lessons to
continue studying without difficult problems.
should a teacher know about children
of learning and language learning
1. The Swiss
psychologist Jean Piaget(13) and his colleagues have demonstrated that children
in primary or elementary school are usually in the concrete operational stage
of cognitive development. This means that they learn through hands-on
experiences and through manipulation of objects in the environment. Children in
primary or elementary-school settings generally learn by doing. If this
principle were extended to the English teaching setting, it would mean that
children in language classes need to be active than passive; they need to be
engaged in activities of which language is a part; they need to be working on
meaningful tasks and use language o accomplish those tasks. So when the teacher
wants to teach children how to speak he should not only show them how to do it
but give them tasks and practical exercises.
2. This principle,
which comes from the work of the Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (15),
suggests that children need not only hands-on or direct experiences, but also
experiences where they are interacting with and learning from others, both
adults and other children. In terms of language classes, an implication would
be that children need to use the new language with each other and with the
teacher. Another implication would be that the teacher, as the one who knows
more English that the children, needs to interact with the children in English,
using the language that is related directly to activities in which children are
engaged. So when teacher wants his children to speak he should use not only method
of asking questions, but such methods of group work or work in pairs to teach
them how to speak to each other in informal situations.
acquisition occurs through learners figuring out how the language works,
through learners making and testing out hypotheses about the language. Language
acquisition involves the cognitive work of creative construction of the rules
of the language (7). So teacher should not be afraid of children’s mistakes,
when they speak and experiment with the new language, it is a natural and
inevitable part of language learning.
acquisition occurs through social interaction, through having to use the
language with others in authentic communication settings. Language develops as
speakers try out the language they are figuring out in situations with others,
and as others respond to their efforts. Interlocutors work together both to be
understood and to understand each other. So one of the methods of teaching
speaking is to give children tasks to speak to each other more then to speak to
teacher.principles suggest a communicative approach to language teaching, which
focuses on involving pairs and small groups of learners in authentic
communicative situations and in problem-solving and information-gap activities.
They suggest an approach in which the teacher uses English both to introduce
and oversee the activities and to talk with children as they work together. So
these principles help teacher, who wants his children to speak English, to be
focused on the communicative approach in teaching. (1)
Pic. 1. Principles of
learning and language learning
How a teacher can develop the Communicative Competence
Primary class teachers
are only too aware of their responsibility in this area of foreign language
acquisition and are anxious at all times that their pronunciation, intonation
and rhythm are accurate, if only to ensure that the results of their teaching
programs are validated and approved of by their secondary modern language
specialist colleagues. Speaking is demanding of teacher and pupil alike. For
the child it means discriminating between different speech sounds and being
able to produce them correctly, building up new pronunciation habits and
overcoming the bias of the first language, feeling the different stress
patterns in the new language, having the confidence to hear themselves express
their personality in a «foreign» medium, being content to inhabit a new
persona. In their own language they can express emotions, communicate
intentions and reactions, explore the language and have fun with it. If
teachers succeed in creating the right ethos and atmosphere, this is what the
child will reasonably expect to be able to do in the foreign language as well.
However, these expectations can be fulfilled (or thwarted) by the teacher.
Constancy of practice, a non-judge mental response to «errors», and an
acceptance of the child's use of the mother tongue will contribute to a more
creative, less circumscribed use of the foreign language.the foreign language,
as in the mother tongue, the child will speak spontaneously only when they
perceive the need, what Margaret Donaldson calls the «intention
to-say-so-and-so». Teachers can teach formulaic expressions and these will make
up a substantial portion of the child's repertoire contributing to their
growing sense of achievement. Indeed, their skilful use seems to contribute
greatly to communicative success. After all, nothing succeeds like success!
These are the child's «data» which they use to analyze how language works. But
how can we help the child go beyond these formulaic, short utterances? How can
we scaffold the child's attempts to communicate verbally in the foreign
often assume that there is something unique, other, unconnected to anything
else, about learning a foreign language. Teachers remind them of the basic and
essential functions of language and that not all communication need be verbal.
Non-verbal cues include:
reaction to other's
speech.sensitive teacher will alert the children to a common feature in speech:
we identify a setting, we pause, and then we focus. The need to communicate is
occasioned by children's excitement, by their determination to transmit a piece
of information to someone for whom they feel affection. The major problem
confronting teachers is that of identifying «needful» situations for their
pupils.is a natural tension, of course, between the authentic one-word answer
in response to questions such as what's your name? How are you? Do you like…?
And the fuller utterances which teachers might wish to encourage. But these
fuller utterances, often involving the use of finite sentences, can develop and
simultaneously demonstrate the child's growing communicative competence.
Teachers all know that to use a language creatively they must be able to
operate a system of underlying rules; otherwise they would remain at the level
of the phrase book. In order to make a foreign language really work for
learners, teachers have to go beyond lists of vocabulary (nouns, adjectives,
etc.) or lists of structures of functions. Teachers have to teach the language
as dynamic system, one that enables the learner to create language rather than
reproduce it and provide a learning context which is congenial to risk-taking,
uncertainly, problematic situations and a real sense of purpose.produce
appropriate language effectively, it is necessary to have a certain level of
competence in a number of aspects of language use. The Canadian researcher
Canale identified four components of communicative competence (pic. 2):
competence: knowledge of vocabulary, of sound and of grammar;
. Sociolinguistic competence:
knowledge of how to use the language appropriately in different types of
context, for example, deciding whether the situation dictates a formal/casual
response, complaining politely, refusing, etc.;
. Discourse competence:
knowing how to begin, develop and close a conversation, how to change the
subject, how to take turns, how to intervene, etc.;
competence: knowing how to cope when communication breaks down, asking for
clarification, making up words in the foreign language, avoidance tactics, etc.
Pic. 2. Four components
of communicative competence
in these «higher» levels
of language will be attained only if the child has opportunity to hear and use
language in situations where these competences (pic. 4) are authentically
required.as with the mother tongue, a foreign language is acquired through a
developmental process that focuses first on language use through meaningful
communicative activities, combined with steps along the way that sometimes
involve focus on language form with conscious self-editing and refinement of
the rules of the language.is needed is a consciousness-raising of the rules, a
focus on the components of the utterance so that the child can more control of
their speech. This is not to advocate a return to dry grammar/parsing lessons.
It is, rather, helping the child monitor the correctness and/or appropriateness
of their utterances, helping them focus on accuracy as well as fluency, on
social, discourse and pragmatic features of language use. But this seems far
away perhaps from the initial stages of developing speaking in the foreign
language. How do we start? By considering the functions of communication
through a range of stress-free and fun activities and by moving on to
structured opportunities for the child to explore and enjoy this new
language.is infinite range of activities - the context, which the teacher, or
the teacher and pupils jointly set up, will determine the activity - which will
encourage learners to engage emotionally and physically in the language
learning process and which will develop techniques to build up a powerful
visual and auditory memory and will make them fell able to risk making
mistakes. Language is associated with sound, music, movement, colour, drama and
thereby impregnated with meaning. There are memory games, songs, rhymes, poems,
stories which they will hear and want to adapt, make their own. There will be
opportunities for dramatization which will exploit the child's sense of theatre
and appreciation of audience, their awareness of register.the context of
foreign language learning the class teacher can do mach to promote the above,
in simple ways which are consonant with the ways the child will be learning in
other areas of the primary curriculum. For example, if we consider length of
utterance, the introduction of connectors (and, but, which) and modifiers
(rather, enough) can be introduced at an early stage in the process during the
daily routine slot where the children are talking about the weather. For
example:weather is fine today.weather is fine, but it is rather cold.only does
the child have the satisfaction of hearing themselves say «more», but they can
also be encouraged to reflect on the change in the intonation pattern occasioned
by the introduction of the connectors and modifiers. A pattern can then be
established in the child's mind. Equally, there is an expectation set up in
their mind that they should be willing to expand on utterances, giving
opinions, agreeing, disagreeing - all features of natural conversation in the
mother tongue. (3)need also to engage the child's activity in the foreign
language within the parameters of their current competence but always with an
eye to expecting more and celebrating more. Where breakdowns in communication
occur, as they will inevitably, then the sensitive teacher allows the child to
revert to the mother tongue and will translate for the child, thereby setting
up a paradigm of foreign language learning which is again consonant with the ways
in which the primary class teacher operates in other areas of the curriculum -
namely, providing «knowledge» on a need-to know basis, personalizing the input
according to the interests, needs and learning styles of each child. There is
an example that is given in practical part, showing how an activity can (a) be
connected to an area of the primary curriculum (Math’s); (b) allow the children
to move gradually from stress-free listening structured speaking to more
open-ended speaking; and (c) encourage the children to develop learning
strategies. It’s named Shapes.
a teacher should use in his work
first a teacher should know what a child learn by. There are some points.
Children learn by:
· Having more opportunities to be exposed to the second language
· Making associations between words, languages, or sentence patterns
and putting things into clear, relatable contexts
· Using all their senses and getting fully involved; by observing
and copying, doing things, watching and listening
· Exploring, experimenting, making mistakes and checking their
· Repetition and feeling a sense of confidence when they have
· Being motivated, particularly when their peers are also
speaking/learning other languageshave three main and important sources of
interest in the classroom. They are pictures, stories and games: the first
being obviously mainly a visual stimulates the second both visual and aural;
and the third using both visual and aural channels as well as activating
language production and sometimes physical movement (pic. 3).
Three very important sources of interest for children
importance of these sources:of aural stimulus is relatively easy to tolerate:
even young learners will work for a while in silence without searching for
something to listen to. This, however, is not true of the visual, which is a
very dominant channel of input: so much so, that if young learners are not
supplied with something to look at that is relevant to the learning task in
hand they will find and probably be distracted by something that is not.most
obvious type of visual material for children is the picture: and the more
clearly visible, striking and colourful the better. On the whole, professionally
drawn pictures or photographs are used: those in the textbook, or coloured
posters, or pictures cut from magazines. But there is also a place for the
teacher's own quick sketches on the board (however unprofessional and untidy!);
and of course for the children's own drawing.children love having stories told
to them (even adults continue to enjoy it!); and older ones begin to read for
themselves. Moreover stories - in contrast to pictures or even games - are pure
language: telling a story in the foreign language is one of the simplest and
richest sources of foreign language input for younger learners.most effective
combination in teaching is pictures and stories together: and the success of
use of picture-books with young learners has been attested by many.are
essentially recreational 'time out* activities whose main purpose is enjoyment;
language study is serious goal-oriented work, whose main purpose is personal
learning. Once you call a language-learning activity a 'game' you convey the
message that it is just fun, not to be taken too seriously: a message I
consider anti-educational and potentially demoralizing. Very occasionally we do
play real games in the classroom, (at the end of a course, for example, or as a
break from concentrated work); but to call something a game when our goal is in
fact serious learning may harm the learning - and/or, indeed, spoil the 'game'!
- as well as being dishonest.are some more sources of interest for children:
physical movement (dancing, gymnastics, aerobics); drama (mime, role play,
putting on plays); projects (exploring a topic and making booklets or displays
on it); doing decorative writing or other graphic design.further dangers are:
first, the tendency of some teachers to call activities 'games' for the sake of
raising initial motivation, when they are not in fact games at all ('Let's play
a game: I'll give you a word, you tell me how it is spelt!'); second, the
danger that the obvious activity and enjoyment caused by a game may obscure the
fact that its contribution to learning is minimal., another definition of
'games' ignores the implication of non-serious recreation and concentrates
rather on their quality as organized action that is rule-governed, involves
striving towards a clear goal through performance of a challenging task, and
provides participants and/or onlookers with a feeling of pleasurable tension.
Children in general learn well when they are active; and when action is
channeled into an enjoyable game they are often willing to invest considerable
time and effort in playing it. If we design our games in such a way that they
are productive of language learning they become an excellent, even essential,
part of a programme of children's learning activities.as you can see the most
important thing in teaching children is to include game-like activities,
especially while teaching speaking. There are some games in the practical part
of the work (20).
1.1.4 What a
teacher should account in his work
talking about a fictional picture in a course book, children are creating their
own meanings. We all like to talk about ourselves and our lives. This makes the
lesson transcend the level of 'practice phase' and move into the realms of
'real communication.'children will relate to the teenage problem, as it's
likely to be one that they or their friends have had. It allows them to deal
with personal issues in a safe context, as they're talking about someone
else.the need to communicateactivities should involve an element of information
gap and demand that the children interact in order to complete the tasks. In
the first lesson, which is describing in the practical part, children have to
communicate because they can't see each other's drawing, the only way to get
the information is to speak. The ordering exercise in the second lesson also
helps them to focus. If the children are engaged, they are striving or
'pushing' to communicate. Any potential frustration when they find the 'gaps'
in their language skills is offset by the intrinsically interesting and
engaging nature of the tasks.of teacher feedbackalways, it's essential to give
feedback on content as well as language. Otherwise, the message we're giving to
our children is that only the language element is important.will you do about
correction of the 'form'? It's unlikely that the children will get everything
right first time. The teacher tries to select one element to correct
immediately, for example pronunciation of 'schwa', and then decide to review at
another time.'s important for elementary children to go beyond simple
repetition and manipulation of form. They sometimes need to get away from mere
'language practice' and to strive to communicate meaningfully about topics
which really concern them. This will inevitably mean mistakes, and sometimes
frustration. Both these are part of language learning and shouldn't be avoided.
If as teachers we give good quality feedback on content as well as language, we
will encourage the children to strive to create their own meanings through
the practical activities are
· Create an 'English Corner' by providing materials in English at
class such as comics and books, cable TV and Internet (with parental guidance!)
· Play language-based games in English such as Scrabble and bingo,
I-spy, 20 questions, Memory, Simon says etc.
· Use sticky labels or 'post-it' notes to label objects at class in
English. For example, using a picture or a poster you can label table, chairs,
· Collect music in English, get the lyrics from the Internet and
· Do craft activities in English. Make puppets and invent a little
show in English. Make posters (about their favourite star, sport, etc.); make
picture dictionaries with drawings and cut-outs.
· Take an 'English adventure outing'. Take children to a park
vertually. Using English only they have to say what they see such as, «The
children are riding their bikes», «The man is selling fruit», «There are some
boats on the lake» and so on. Other locations where you can do this are: the
supermarket, an office, a shopping centre.
· Make reading a habit
· Read to children in English. A short story or a few pages of a
book daily creates a life-long habit.
· You do not have to buy the books, you can join a library or
download text from the Internet.
· If you are concerned with your own pronunciation, there are plenty
of materials on the Internet that have the text read to the viewer. Also, there
are books that come with cassettes or CDs, so that children can read and listen
at the same time. You could do this together.
learning language child
1.1.6 How to
motivate a child to learn a language
Young children are often
eager, almost too eager. The problem arises when they are eager to do things
other than what you’re trying to teach them. Here are six tips to keep them
interested in class and motivated to do what you want them to do (pic. 4):
Tip 1: Keep
Think back to when you
were a child. If your teacher was not enthusiastic about what he or she had
scheduled for class that day, how did you feel about it? It’s the same with
young children today. If you, the teacher and often a role model for younger
children, think this is a neat activity, then they will too!
Tip 2: Encourage.kids thrive on praise and positive attention from the adults in
their lives. If you want them to like you and be motivated in your class, you
often just need to give them a lot of positive attention.
Tip 3: Play games
Children learn through
play. Oftentimes they don’t even realize they are learning if they are enjoying
the game. Just think children could sit there and fill out worksheet after
worksheet or they could play an English game and learn the same concepts.you
play games, you can use points and competition as a motivator, but not for kids
under six who may find the competition too stressful. For them, just playing
the game is motivating enough. You can also sometimes award extra credit, but
use it sparingly so that it remains «extra» and a special reward. Also if you
use it too much, children can have so much extra credit that it sways the
actual grades too much.
Tip 4: Get their
figuratively children like to work with their hands and whatever you can do to
get the items they are learning about in their hands is useful and fun for
them. This can be anything from having a sensory table filled with sand and
beach items when you want to teach them summer words to having them each bring
in a piece of fruit when you are teaching fruit words. Anytime you can get
young children up and doing instead of listening (often passively) you are
getting their hands dirty in the learning process.
Tip 6: Vary the
Alternate calm games
with lively ones to keep the children alert and motivated, but without letting
the class get out of hand. Good discipline is essential to effective learning
Pic. 4. Six tips to keep
children interested in class and motivated to do the tasks
are some more advices
how not to get disheartened when you have to teach beginners
1. Simplify your
Don’t be too fast. Be
very slow so that they feel good about listening to you. Sometimes, you will to
‘act’ to make them understand. Don’t feel shy to act. Use simple words.
2. Observe successful
Some teachers are
astounding in their approach and presentation. There is nothing wrong if you
sit in their classes and observe how they handle the session. Let not your ego
prevent you from learning good methodologies which can mould you as a teacher.
Don’t let the ego tell you that you know ‘everything’.the teachers must realize
that the rapport that you build with your students is the first step towards successful
teaching. If there is an emotional gap between you and your pupils, the
learning process will lack depth. Plan for your ‘first day’ class creatively.
As you know, the first impression is always the best impression.
3. Use of dictionary
If a language teaching
session is to be effective, the learners must be encouraged to use
dictionaries. As children search for words, they learn a lot of words. Language
sessions must be full of activities. They must be student centered. Many a time
the teacher plays passive role. If your session is dominated by your voice,
then reconsider the strategy. English classes must be boisterous but under the
control of the teacher.
4. Say ‘no’ to
traditional question papers
Don’t be a victim of
traditional question papers that are full of ‘fill in’ exercises. Question
papers must be appealing to the students. Don’t just focus on grammar. Add
passages that will require the use of dictionary (19).’ question papers must
have crosswords, scrambled words, pictures (family tree, emotions), and
dictionary pages for exploration. Add anything that will arouse curiosity in
the learners (Pic.5).
Pic. 5. Working with
children versus teaching adults
first key thing that all
children’s teachers should remember is that the teaching of children and the
teaching of adults, both in technique and attitude, are entirely different
propositions.of all, since all teachers are adults themselves, it is in the world
of the adult they tend to teach while it is in the world of the child that the
youngsters are learning. Moreover, the last time the teachers were in
classrooms as children themselves was in college. And this is important to
remember, because it is the feature of teachers to teach as they have been
taught. Since young children are so different from teenagers and adults in
developmental terms, to take the same approach to the teaching of such
dissimilar learning groups would be and is a huge mistake.teachers who are
experienced and have strong theoretical background can forget or be blinded to
some of the most basic tenets of the classroom when teaching children, because
the ideal learning environment for the child is not what it is for the adult.
Veteran teachers might have a tendency to elevate a method or lesson plan to
primacy, but in doing so have a hard time actually communicating with young
chargers.as we can see, that when we want to teach children to speak English we
should think at first about their interests, their inner world, which is too
different from inner world of adults. Also as we know that children love
everything new, colourful, bright, they are fond of different games, toys and
etc. we should use such things in our teaching methods to motivate children,
make the lessons for them more real. If it is interesting for a child he will
take part in a lesson and will speak.
between children and adults in language learning
Young children learn languages betteris a commonly held view, based on many people's experience seeing
(or being) children transplanted to a foreign environment and picking up the
local language with apparent ease. The obvious conclusion from this experience
would seem to be that children are intrinsically better learners; but this has
not been confirmed by research. On the contrary: given the same amount of
exposure to a foreign language, there is some evidence that the older the child
the more effectively he or she learns; probably teenagers are overall the best
learners. (The only apparent exception to this is pronunciation, which is
learned more easily by younger children.) The reason for children's apparently
speedy learning when immersed in the foreign environment may be the sheer
amount of time they are usually exposed to the language, the number of
'teachers' surrounding them, and the dependence on (foreign-language-speaking)
people around to supply their needs ('survival' motive).truth of the assumption
that young children learn better is even more dubious if applied to formal
classroom learning: here there is only one teacher to a number of children,
exposure time is very limited, and the 'survival' motive does not usually
apply. Moreover, young children have not as yet developed the cognitive skills and
self-discipline that enable them to make the most of limited teacher-mediated
information; they rely more on intuitive acquisition, which in its turn relies
on a larger volume of comprehensible input than there is time for in lessons.
language learning in school should start early
people have argued for the existence of a 'critical period' in language
learning: if you get too old and pass this period you will have significantly
more difficulty learning; thus early learning in schools would seem essential.
But this theory is not conclusively supported by research evidence: there may
not be a critical period at all; or there may be several. The
research-supported hypothesis discussed above - that children may actually
become more effective language learners as they get older, particularly in
formal teacher-mediated learning situations - means that the investment of
lesson time at an early age may not be cost-effective. In other words, if you
have a limited number of hours to give to foreign language teaching in school,
it will probably be more rewarding in terms of sheer amount of learning to
invest these in the older classes.is also true that an early start to language
learning is likely to lead to better long-term results if early learning is
maintained and reinforced as the child gets older.
and adults learn languages the same way
immersion situation, where people are acquiring language intuitively for daily
survival, this may to some extent be true. In the context of formal courses,
however, differences become apparent. Adults' capacity for understanding and
logical thought is greater, and they are likely to have developed a number of
learning skills and strategies which children do not yet have. Moreover, adult
classes tend on the whole to be more disciplined and cooperative - as anyone
who has moved from teaching children to teaching adults, or vice versa, will
have found. This may be partly because people learn as they get older to be
patient and put up with temporary frustrations in the hope of long-term
rewards, to cooperate with others for joint profit, and various other benefits
of self-restraint and disciplined cooperation. Another reason is that most
adults are learning voluntarily, have chosen the course themselves, often have
a clear purpose in learning (work, travel, etc.) and are therefore likely to
feel more committed and motivated; whereas most children have little choice in
where: how or even whether they are taught.
have a longer concentration span
commonly notice that they cannot get children to concentrate on certain
learning activities as long as they can get adults to do so. However, the
problem is not the concentration span itself - children will spend hours
absorbed in activities that really interest them - but rather the ability of
the individual to persevere with something of no immediate intrinsic interest
to them. Here older learners do exhibit noticeable superiority, because they
tend to be more self-disciplined. One implication for teaching is the need to
devote a… of thought to the (intrinsic) interest value of learning activities
for younger learners.
is easier to motivate children
sense, this is true: you can raise children's motivation and enthusiasm (by
selecting interesting activities, for example) more easily than that of older,
self-reliant and sometimes cynical learners. On the other hand, you can ask it
more easily: monotonous, apparently pointless activities quickly bore and
demotivate young learners; older ones are more tolerant of them. Perhaps it
would be more accurate to say that younger learners' motivation is more likely
to vary and is more susceptible to immediate surrounding influences, including
the teacher; that of older learners tends to be more stable.
- subjects to authority
an adult class, the teacher's status as an authority is usually maintained
This, however, is based more on the teacher's being 'an authority on…' (the
language and how to learn it) than on their being a legally appointed superior:
a distinction expressed in the French terms enseignant and professeur
respectively. In any case, there is a certain deference on the part of the
learners: the teacher is expected to give instructions, the learners are expected
to respect and obey them. However, there is also the important factor of
accountability: in return for conceding authority to the teacher in the
classroom, adult learners demand ultimate returns in terms of their own benefit
in learning outcomes.
moment one person is placed in the position of having the right to criticize
the performance of another, the relationship becomes asymmetrical, dominance
being attributed to the assessor. Even if someone else actually checks a final
exam and passes or fails course participants, the teacher will be seen as
assessor in the daily classroom process; and this contributes to their role as
authority, already discussed above. In this aspect, there is little difference
between young and adult classes.
relationship can occur in adult classrooms just as it can in others; it is a
function of the methodology the teacher has chosen to employ rather than of the
age of the learner. Because of the less formal authority of the teacher with
most adult classes (as described in the paragraph 'Authority - subjects to
authority' above), adults are perhaps in a better position to assert their
right to question, criticize and generally participate actively; on the other
hand, they do tend to be more disciplined and conform more to teacher demands
than younger learners. The two factors probably offset one another, and it is
difficult to draw any firm conclusions about the 'typical' adult class in this
As a generalization,
adults take responsibility in society: for their own actions and for their
consequences. In the classroom also, adults take more responsibility for the
learning process, and rely less on the teacher's initiative in making
activities attractive or providing incentives. They are also usually more
motivated in the first place (partly because most of them are learning
voluntarily, while most children are given no choice!), and this motivation
tends to be relatively stable: it does not, for example, rise fall so much in
immediate response to more interesting or more boring teaching.although the
raising and maintaining of learner motivation is an essential and basic
component of teaching activity with all age groups, it usually demands perhaps
less investment of effort and time on the part of teachers working with adults.
'transmitter - receivers' this is a relationship that depends more on the
teacher's chosen methodology than on the age of the learners, and can be true
for any class.
relationship entails a view of the teacher as an accepting, supportive
professional, whose function is to supply the expressed needs of the learner
rather than to impose a predetermined programme. It involves a perceptible
shift of responsibility and initiative in the classroom process from the
teacher and the learners themselves. It is a typically adult relationship, and
is unlikely to occur in classes of children; even in adult classes it is rare
to find it consistently used: perhaps only where the methodology known as Community
Language Learning is used. But occasional exchanges and some general 'fee' of
the counsellor-client relationship may enrich the interaction in many otherwise
conventional adult classes.
an essentially business relationship: the teacher has a commodity - knowledge
of the language - which the learner is willing to pay money to acquire. The
implication is a relative lowering of the prestige of the teacher, and greater
rights of the learner to demand appropriate results (value for money), and even
to dismiss the teacher if the results are not forthcoming. This relationship
may underlie quite a high proportion of adult learning situations, and the
juxtaposition of the traditional authoritative role of the teacher with their
role as employee or seller may be an uneasy one.
the implication is that the teacher is a mere source of knowledge to be tapped
by learners, and is virtually passive in classroom interaction: it is the
learner who tells the teacher what to do. Total and consistent implementation
such a teaching-learning relationship is difficult to envisage, but many adult
J classes may implement it partially, particularly where the students are
experienced learners who know what they want and how to get it, and/or where
the teacher knows the language but has no knowledge or experience of how to
1.3 What to do with the mistakes
children and adults, who learn English from the very beginning, making mistakes
is part of the natural process of learning.first step towards deciding how to
respond to mistakes is identifying them. Even for the most attentive listener,
this is not always as easy as it sounds, sometimes because of the lack of a
clear criterion of correctness, but sometimes also because a correct form may
be incorrect in context.for responding to mistakes include (21; 7):
it away for later;
correct it now., encouraging, praising and building confidence are what is
needed to help a child to overcome mistakes. Avoid overtly correcting your
child or you might discourage them. Tim and Marks offer to do these steps:
· Not interrupting but waiting for the end of what the speaker is
saying if it's something short, or a suitable pause if it's longer.
· Interpreting the intention and the nature of the incorrectness.
Asking for clarification may be the only way of finding out in some cases; in
other cases the intention will become clear from the broader context.
· Indicating that there's a mistake. Teachers often have non-verbal signals
for this. Sometimes it's important to acknowledge the general correctness, or
factual validity, of what the learner has said before focusing on the mistake,
so as to avoid giving the message that everything the speaker said was wrong.
· Indicating where the mistake is, if it can be localized. Some
teachers count off the words of an utterance on their fingers, and stop at the
one where the mistake is. Others repeat the utterance up to the mistake,
perhaps including the mistake in a questioning tone of voice.
· Giving a model of the correct version.
· Telling the learner what to do, e.g. Change the tense, Make it
· Asking questions to check understanding of a structure or lead the
speaker to use the correct one.
· Appealing to another learner, or to the whole class, for a
correction. Sometimes it happens anyway.
· Giving an explanation of what's wrong and why.
techniques that you can use are:
· Don't correct, 'model' the correct form of the language. So if your
child says «The boy wented home,» you can say, «Yes. The boy went home. What
did he do then?»
· Encourage children to correct themselves, this will build
confidence and deepen the learning process. Say «Almost right, try again…» or
show the child where the mistake is but do not give them the answer.
· Some correction is okay but be careful not to over-correct. A page
full of crossing out and corrections can be very demotivating, as is always
being told, «Wrong! Do it again!»
· Particularly in speech it is much better to let the child develop
their ideas and fluency than to keep interrupting with corrections. The ideas
are more important than the grammar.
· Keep their age and level of English in mind. Give lots of praise
and encouragement for every effort - they can't know everything.is very
important in speaking language. If a teacher interrupts a child regularly,
because he makes mistakes, the child can stop speaking and can be afraid to
speak at all. And an adult will feel ill at ease and humiliating, when a
teacher always correct his mistakes, and interrupt him.aim of this chapter was
to show the different attitudes to learning English from a child’s and an
adult’s sides. In the next chapter there will be describing some methods of
teaching English speaking to beginners.
Methods of teaching speaking
the important methods of teaching speaking is the Direct Method. To use this
method, teacher should think of what the stages of learning are.are three
stages of learning:
2.Fixing it in the memory by repetition.
3.Using the knowledge by real practice.
when the teacher says «This is a red book,» «This is my table,» the pupil is
receiving knowledge. When the pupil on many occasions answers the questions:
«What's this?» «What colour is it?' «Whose table is this?» he is fixing the
knowledge in his memory. But when in the ordinary course of duty he is told to
«Bring me the red book on my table,» and brings it, he is using the
knowledge.the giving and fixing of knowledge is the work of the teacher in the
ordinary course of the lessons. The using of the knowledge as a rule takes
place not in the course of the lessons but in the ordinary course of the day's
work.the teacher's first and chief business is to give knowledge and fix it in
the pupil's memory. He therefore
(b)Asks questions (e.g. fixes knowledge by practice).
obviously cannot give what he has not previously received. If you point to an
object and say «What's that?» the learner who has not previously been told what
the object is will be unable to answer..may be questions beginning with what,
who, where, which, how many, or questions beginning with is this, are you, do
you, have you, etc.or later however you must come to use the equally natural
indirect questioning. For instance instead of saying to someone, «What is
that?» we often say, «Tell me what that is?» or I want to know what that is.»
Or instead of saying «Is this the right way?» we often say, «Tell me whether
this is the right way» or «Can you tell me whether this is the right way?» or
«I want to know whether this is the right way»we rarely use such forms as «Say
to him, 'What is that?'» or Say this to him, 'Where are you going?'» We prefer
the shorter and more natural forms: «Ask him what that is» or «Ask him where he
is going.»quite early in the course of lessons the teacher should sometimes
replace direct by indirect questions. The following are samples of direct
questions and some of the indirect questions corresponding to them.Questions
this? Tell me
that? Please (Just, Now) tell me
Which one's that? I want
to know's it like? I want you to tell me
are you doing? Can you tell me
Where's he going? Do you
think you can tell memany are there? where he's going.
a stone? how many there are.
Are they ready? what
this ishe here?
Does he often come
here?you see him?
very good way to use indirect questions is for the teacher to tell one of the
pupils to ask questions of other pupils. This makes a useful and lively form of
drill-work. For instance:
(to X). X, ask Y what this is.
Y). Y, what is this?
(to X). It's a
stone (button, etc.).
(to X). X, ask Y where his belt is.
Y). Y, where's your belt?
(to X). It's
(to X). X, ask Y how many trees he can see?
Y). Y, how many trees can you see?
X). I can see three.
see any.above answers may be repeated to the teacher by X;(to Teacher). Y says
«This is a stone» (etc.), or Y says that this is a stone (etc.).to this
teaching device is the one in which the teacher tells one of his pupils to tell
another of the pupils something:(to X). X, tell Y what this is.
Y). Y, this is a piece of wood.
(to X). X, tell Y where I am.
Y). Y, the teacher is there (pointing).
(to X). X, tell Y what Z is doing.
Y). Y, Z is sitting down.
device can be used for commands at secondhand:
(to X). X, tell Y to come to me.
Y). Y, go to the teacher.
(to X) X, ask Y to give you a match.(to Y). Y, give me a match please.
Thank you.(to X). X, ask Y what he is doing.(to Y). Y, what are
you doing?(to X). I'm standing up.
the devices explained above may be used at a very early stage, the teacher
should of course use only words and forms that are familiar to his pupils. He
should obviously not say to X «Ask Y to give you a match» before the lesson on
giving things has been learnt. If the teacher says to X «Ask Y how many trees
he can see» before the lessons that introduce how many or can or see, Y will
not understand what the teacher is saying to him, far less be able to carry out
the command. In other terms, each use of indirect questioning, telling or
commanding must correspond to the actual lesson that is being given.
There are more
approaches, e.g. the topic approach, which can be useful for teaching speaking
2.2 The Topic
The topic approach
begins with a subject that is of relevance and/ or interest to the learners and
then designs activities for learner that will involve them in investigating
that topic and using language as an integral or central part of that
investigation. Advocates of the topic approach suggest that learner will be
more likely to be motivated to use the new language if their attention is
focused on a topic or subject that they have an interest in or care about.
Language objectives are thus integrated with content study (14).
2.3 Penny Ur’s
Ur (11) offers a variety of types of oral activities, including communication
games, but also including a wider variety of group activities. These she
classifies into three main types: brainstorming activities, organizing
activities, and compound activities.are several subtypes under each category.
We offer some examples of each in the accompanying list.activities
games: guess the object/ profession/ country; (clues: first sound or letter; a
piece of mime; strange picture; a puzzle clue).
connections: between incongruous prompts (verbal or pictorial); combining
elements into story; finding things in common.
from a central theme: listing objects with the same qualities; listing
different uses of the same object; associations; what will you need;
characteristics (e.g. of a good teacher, or a car).
and interpretations: doodles; pictures; sounds; faces; foreseeing results;
explanations for strange situations.activities
odd man out; categorizing.
differences: picture differences; alibi.
in order: picture sequence; sentence sequence.
rating; survival games; features and functions.
candidates: grant-winners; heirs; prisoners; victims; teachers.
problems: animals in a zoo; dinner placings; marital pairings.
versions: combining two or more similar texts into one which will make
most useful and important for elementary students are Organizing activities and
There are some practical
activities and parts of different lessons, which show how to use tips from
theoretical part of the work.
Communicative Approach: Shapes
A fun way of exploring
the concepts of colour, shape and size in a foreign language is illustrated in
the following graded series of activities around theme of «shapes».
. In groups the children
are given a variety of mathematical shapes of different colour, both large and
small. These can be cut out paper shapes. The first activity is simply to ask
the children to sort the pieces of paper into sets. Interestingly some children
will not only sort them into sets (the same colour, the same shape or the same
size) but will simultaneously sort them into sub-sets - colour, shape and size.
. They are then asked on
what criteria they sorted the pieces of paper and they are required only to say
. The teacher then asks
each group to bring a variety of shape, colours and size, for example, bring me
please two red big circles, three small green triangles and one big yellow квадрат. At this point
normally the children (or adults) start to remonstrate that (a) the teacher is
talking too fast or (b) there is too mach to remember and this provides the
teacher with the opportunity to talk about various strategies they might adopt
to overcome these perceived difficulties. These might include repeating
«silently» in their heads what the teacher is saying, whilst simultaneously
looking for the required shapes, and so on. It might include each child in the
group assuming responsibility for a particular shape or colour or size. When
the strategies have been discussed in each group and responsibilities
allocated, the game is played again - this time without a hitch and accompanied
by lots of laughter.
. The children are asked
to pick out a given shape, for example, a big green triangle. Thereafter they
have to form a line of 10-15 shapes changing one element each time, for example
a big green circle or a small green triangle. When they have completed the task
they say I change size or I change colour or I change form.
. Now they are asked to
make a line of 10-15 shapes changing two elements each time. On this occasion
they would say, for example, I change colour and size or I change form of
colour and an end or I change size and colour. This provides quite a demanding
task for some children and for some adults - not linguistically, but
conceptually, and it is revealing that the foreign language here is servicing
development in mathematical concepts and not being used solely as an end in
itself! There is much more intensity of motivation in having to access the
foreign language in order to come to terms with something here and now. They
are acquiring new subject-matter through the medium of the foreign language.
. The children then make
a picture using some of the shapes they have in front of them - this might be a
clown, a house, a street with vehicles - anything! Once the pictures are
complete, the children move around the classroom looking at and admiring their
classmates' compositions, commenting favorably on what they see - it is
stipulation of the activity that all comments should be positive and favorable
(it is nice / pretty / amusing).
. Finally each group has
to present its picture and be prepared to answer any questions which teacher or
other pupils might ask. The degree of fluency, accuracy and range will vary
greatly, but it provides the children with the opportunity to recycle and
revisit many of the language areas previously presented and practiced, for
example, name, age, likes and dislikes, colours, habitat, and so on. At this
point there is frequently a breakdown in the children's ability to talk: they
want to say much more than they have the resource for and this is one of many
object-lessons in language acquisition - it is a normal stage in linguistic
development and one that we as teachers should neither shirk from acknowledging
nor discussing with them. Because motivation is high, because they are engages
there is a greater likelihood that they will incorporate some of the coping language
which they will undoubtedly have been taught. How do you say…?, in this section
on developing the skills of speaking, it would be unwise not to mention the
child's love of language and sounds and the role we have as teachers in
encouraging this playing with language (3).
The first lesson: Talking
about my room (Using here is / there are / is there…? / are there…?)teach
or revise items of furniture and right, left, top, bottom and if a teacher
hasn't already taught these, «there is» and «there are».children should sit in
pairs back to back. If this isn't possible the teacher can use large card or
their books to 'hide' the individual child's work.child draws their ideal room
or favorite room in their house on the top half of a large sheet of paper. They
should not show anyone.the bottom half of the paper, each child draws an empty
'box'take it in turns to describe their room/ draw their partner's room on the
paper.teacher then comments on content and does a small amount of correction.second
lesson: Parents (Using adjectives which describe character /
comparatives)teach or revise 10 character adjectives e.g. kind, fair,
intelligent, honest etc.the list on the board.the children to decide which 8
qualities are important in a parent (or teacher).child writes their own
individual list of 7 in order of importance.then share their lists in pairs and
try to agree on one list.can then work in groups of four together and see how
similar or different their lists are.group representatives to give feedback to
the class.teacher can then comment on content and give a small amount of
correction if necessary.third lesson: Teenage advice (Using: should)or
write a simple story about a teenager with a 'problem'. The story should be
believable and should include a number of decisions. Leave it open-ended.the
story into four or five separate paragraphs so that at the end of each section
there is a decision to be made.then work in groups of four, with a
chairperson.out the first paragraph. Children read and decide for themselves
what they think s/he should do.then compare ideas.some brief open class
feedback from around the class, but don't correct errors.the same with each
paragraph, with feedback after each section. Monitor throughout.feedback on what
s/he should do at end of story from group representatives (19).
Direct Method: How to teach the names of subjects
the first lessons to be given to beginners are those that teach the names of
common objects. Many and repeated opportunities must be given for
(a) seeing the objects and hearing their names,
(c) pointing to the objects on hearing their names,
(d) answering such questions as What's this? What's that? What are
to say, the pupils must so associate the objects with their names that when
they hear the name they think of the object and when they see the object they
think of its name. All lessons that teach the names of objects come under the
heading of «Lessons based on the question what?»usual procedure is as
follows.The teacher first selects a number of objects, in batches of say from
10 to 20.he chooses too many at a time, the pupils are likely not to remember
them all; too many words at a time results in «mental indigestion».he chooses
too few at a time, the lesson is likely to be monotonous.objects should be
chosen wisely. They should be in the first instance the commonest and most
general objects - the things we talk about very often and not the things we
talk about rarely.for instance, tree before shrub, head before eyebrow, stick
before twig, etc.objects may be
(a) those that are usually to be found in the place where the lesson
is given, e. g. door, window, knife, match, book; or parts of the body and
articles of clothing.
(b) those collected specially for the purposes of the lesson, e. g. a
stick, a stone, a nail, a piece of wire, a piece of string, etc.
(c) those represented by pictures, such as those printed on picture
cards or wall charts, or by rough drawings on the blackboard.
teacher shows or points to each object in turn and names it. He says the name
clearly (but naturally) three or four times.should say, for instance pencil as
we usually say the word, not pen-sill; or garden (rhyming with pardon) and not
gar-den.is usually considered better and more practical to put a (an) or the
before the name. Thus, not simply table or chair, but a table, a chair or the
table, the chair.a, an, the (and other similar words) should be pronounced
naturally as in ordinary speech, and not as ay, Ann, or thee.
teacher shows or points to the same object saying this timeis a book (pencil,
button, etc.).is an envelope (umbrella, etc.).'s the door (window, etc.).is
usual to say This is a for small objects close to the teacher, and That's a for
larger objects a short distance away from him.a (or an) can be put before the
objects, it is usual to speak the door, the window, the table,
the floor, etc. meaning the one table, window, floor, etc., which
belongs to the room. Much must be left to the judgment of the teacher, who will
in each case use what seems to him the most natural form.teachers prefer to use
from the very start This is a book, This is an envelope, That's the - table,
etc., instead of merely book, a book, table, the table, etc.
Such words as this and
that should always be accompanied by a suitable gesture, thus:(tapping or
holding up the object) is a,(vigorously pointing to the object) is thefar the
pupils have been listening and looking; they have been receiving words and
sentences and not giving them.teachers at this point would begin making the
pupils say the words and sentences or answer the question What's this? But it
is generally considered wiser to give the pupils more chances of hearing and recognizing
words before they are called upon to speak. Other teachers even go so far as to
spend several lessons on. listening practice before allowing the pupils to say
anything. Their point is that the more the pupils have heard the words and
sentences repeated the more easily and correctly they will speak when the time
comes. And indeed if pupils are forced to say words before they have properly
«digested» them, they will generally say them with great difficulty and not at
all in the English way.
then proceed to the questions for yes or no answers. In all examples of
questions and answers the words printed in italics are to be emphasized or
Is this a book? Yes, it
is.this a pencil? No, it isn'tthis a pencil? Yes, it is.
generally find it amusing when they hear the teacher (when pointing to, a
table) ask himself: Is that a button? and before long will themselves call out:
No, it isn't.he can continue by asking himself «alternative questions» and
a book or a pencil? It's, a book.
a pencil or a button? It's a button.
the window or the door? It's the door.he should ask and answer a «series» of
three questions for each object always in the same order and in the following
1. Is this a book? Yes, it is.
2. Is this a pencil? No, it' isn't
3. What is it? It's a book.
4. Is that the door? Yes, it is.
5. Is that the window? No, it isn't
6. What is it? It's the door.
of questions and answers should be executed in regular drill-like manner so
that the «pattern» of the sentences stands out in a distinct rhythm.we shall
see later, this «series drill» is of great importance, and the teacher would do
well to practise the system until he can execute it (or cause it to be
executed) without the slightest hitch of hesitation. It is comparable to the
commands and movements of military drill in which the succession of movements
is carried out in perfect order and with machine-like accuracy.that:One is to
obtain yes as the first word in the answer.Two is to obtain no as the first
word in the answer.Three is to obtain the main answer.which words in the
questions and answers are stressed or put into prominence. The success of the drill
depends largely on this.also that the rise or fall of the voice must be
a book? (Voice rises on book.), it is. (Voice drops on is.)this a
pencil? (Voice rises on pencil.), it
isn't (Voice drops on isn't)
it? (Voice drops on is.)'s a book. (Voice drops on book.)
«series» and indeed all drill-like question-and-answer work should be used as
indicated and not varied by the substitution of Indirect for Direct questions
(see pp. 8-10). Indirect questions may be introduced later, when the pupils
have practised the Direct form until they are thoroughly familiar with it.
the pupils have had sufficient opportunity to hear the words and sentences (and
to grasp their meaning) they are called upon to say them.the first instance
they may repeat them after the teacher
a book. This is a book.'s the table. That's the table.
they must answer the questions:
Is this a book?
Yes, it is.
Is this a pencil?
Yes, it is.
Is this a button?
Yes, it is.
Is that the table?
Yes, it is.
Is this a pencil?
No, it isn't,
Is this a button?
No, it Isn't.
Is this a book?
No, it isn't.
It's a book.
It's a pencil.
It's a button.
Is this a book or a pencil?
It's a book.
Is this a pencil or a button?
It's a pencil.
Is this a button or a book?
It's a button.
1. Is this a book?
Yes, it is.
2. Is this a pencil?
No, it isn't
It's a book.
the pupils are proficient in answering such questions in more or less
drill-like form, the question may be asked in irregular order:
Ms? It's a stone.
the table or the floor? It's the table.
the window? No, it isn't.
a match? No, it isn't.
that? It's the wall.
1. At a certain moment (this depending on the aptitude and
proficiency of the pupils) various pupils in turn will be called upon to play
the part of teacher, and will carry on the work of naming and questioning - the
objects and types of questions being of course those with which they are
end of the lesson the list of suitable words is given (17).
The Topic Approach: Animals
In thinking about
animals the following content might be identified:
· Physical characteristics of animals.with this content, it would
then be possible to identify specific language-learning goals, which would be
that children would be able to:
a variety of animals by name (This is/That is a ___.)
· Describe animals according to their size (It’s big, small, etc.),
colour (It’s brown, white, etc.)learners could use what they already knew as
they worked with the subject matter of animals in English as they increased
their English abilities. The activity, which is described below, is appropriate
because it involves children actively, because allows children and teacher work
together and learn from each other, and because paired and group work provide
for the social interaction and the experimentation with language that are
central parts of language development.of children receive cards with pictures
of animals on them, but not al the pairs receive the same animals. One at a
time, the teacher holds up a card and names an animal, saying for example:
«Here is a picture of a horse. Who else has a picture of a horse?» all of the
pairs who have a horse give the cards to the teacher, and teacher and children
can count the number of horse cards that were distributed around the room. This
activity may be repeated several times as a way of introducing the names of
different animals. The cards could also be used for paired games such as
Concentration or Memory, where children take pairs of cards, turn them upside
down and mix them up, and then take turns trying to match the pairs by turning
over two cards at a time. To make language essential to the game, a rule is
that when you find a pair you have to identify the animal. Additionally, animal
bingo games could be constructed to identify particular animals within the
context of participating in a game that is fun.activity just described is tied
both to the topic of animals and to the language goals set out previously. The
focus of this activity has been listening and speaking - that is, children’s
understanding and production of spoken English. (14).
· Bingo - Use
numbers, letters of the alphabet, or word families: furniture, fruits, sports,
jobs, colours, actions
· Memory - Put
10 everyday objects on a tray. Say what they are in English, cover them. Can
your child remember what's there and tell you in English? You can also use
photos from magazines or newspapers of different word families.
· Alphabet Game - Say
a letter of the alphabet. Can your child find an animal, something to eat, etc.
beginning with that letter? Or ask your child to write five words beginning
with one letter.
· Spy - Say that you are
thinking of something beginning with a letter. Your child has to guess what it
is. Example. «I spy with my little eye, something beginning with W.» «Is it
water?» «No.» «Is it Window?» «Yes!»
· Twenty Questions -
Think of an object or animal. Your child has to ask questions to find out what
it is. Example: «Is it big?» «No.» «Is it very small?» «No.» etc…
· Definition Game - Give
your child a definition, they have to guess what you're defining. Example: «It
is very big and it has a long nose.» «Is it an elephant?» «Yes!»
· Treasure Hunt - Your
child has to find the things, or follow the clues you've written in English
To sum up our work we
just want to say that it is very important to teach English speaking to
children from the very beginning of their learning. As we have said children
are transplanted to a foreign environment and pick up the local language with
apparent ease. Adults are also can be taught in spite of their age.
work there were described psychological peculiarities of children and adults,
examined different techniques and methods of teaching speaking, revealed how to
deal with mistakes in oral speech.is also a big sum of different activities,
which are very useful for every English teacher, who works with elementary
students, children and adults.were used materials from different English books
for teachers, materials from Internet. They are theoretical and practical, such
as descriptions of different games, lessons, activities.is a good help for
teacher in putting marks to speakers, giving the appraisal to learners while
their speech. We have known about adult’s attitude to teachers, their motivation
sphere, and how children can be motivated to learn and to speak.have viewed
such techniques as The Direct Method, which is based on questioning; The
Communicative Approach, which is based on group work and work in pairs; The
Topic Approach, which is based on giving topics to learners to make them speak;
Penny Ur’s oral activities, which include brainstorming activities, organizing
activities, and compound activities.such researching work we have been
convinced of actuality of this theme because when a teacher comes to the class
of beginners he does not know what to start with, how to work with those who
know nothing about English. And a lot of researchers and pedagogies found and
write different techniques for us, young specialists, to help us in working with
beginners. Speaking is important and difficult skill, which should be learned
how to teach it to learners at the elementary stage of English teaching.
1. Alison Hurrell: Foreign language learning in primary schools,
Council of Europe, Strasboutg. 1997
2. Bowen, Tim, Marks, Jonathan. Inside teaching. - VIII, 176
p.: ill. - Oxford, 1994
. Bygate, Martin. Speaking. - X, 125 p.: il. - Oxford; New
. Ellis, G. and J. Brewster. The Storytelling Handbook for
Primary Teachers. Harmondsworth: Penguin 1991.
5. Isela Shipton, Alan S. Mackenzie and James Shipton, The child
as a learner. British Council
6. Jim, Heinemann. 'Learning Teaching' Scrivener. 1994
. Lindfors. J. Children’s language and learning, 2nd
ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. 1987.
8. Lynch, Tony. Communication in the language classroom. - XVI,
174 p.: fig. - Oxford; New York, 2001
9. Morgan, J and M. Rinvolucri. Once Upon a Time. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press. 1993.
. Nic Underhill. Testing Spoken Language. A handbook of
oral testing techniques. Cambridge University Press. 1987, 117 p.
. Penny Ur. Discussions that work. Task-centered fluency
practice.: Cambridge University Press, 1981. - 122 p.
. Peter Grundy. Beginners. Oxford University Press: 1994,
13. Piaget. J. The language and thought of the child. Cleveland,
Ohio: World Publishing Company. 1955.
14. Teacher development: making the right moves. - 278 p.:
fig. - Washington, 1996
. Vygotsky. L. Thought and language. New York: Cambridge
University Press. 1962.
16. Wright, A. Storytelling with Children. Oxford: Oxford
University Press 1997.
17. Г. Пальмер. Методы обучения англ. устн. Речи. Гос. Уч-пед.
Изд. Министерства просвещения РСФСР Лен. отделение: Ленинград - 1963, 87 стр.
18. www.englishteachersforum.com. Motivating young children to
learn English. By Shelley Vernon
19. www.englishteachersforum.com. Don’t get disheartened when you
have to teach beginners.
21. www.englishclub.com Learn English: Young Learners