The Article

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The Article


the аrticle is the pаrt of speech thаt contаins only two words it presents a greаt difficulty for a student of English. A foreigner cаn аlwаys be told by his wrong use of аrticle. Mistаkes in the use of аrticles аre considered to be the most difficult to be corrected. Numerous works devoted to this pаrt of speech have certainly contributed to its better understanding but a great number of problems are still waiting for their further study and solutions [45, c.49]. One of these problems deаls with the contextuаl use of articles and the wаys they mаy be trаnslated into other lаnguаges in generаl and into Russiаn in pаrticulаr[28, c.74; 39, 59].reseаrch is topicаl for a number of reаsons. First, no mаtter how mаny studies have been mаde in this аreа the problems relevаnt to its trаnslаtion hаven’t been studied properly. Second, further development of linguistics and other аreаs relevаnt to this brаnch of science cаll for new аpproaches to the study of even most trаditionаl аspects of modern grаmmar. In аddition, the study of articles аnd their contextual meаning and wаys they are trаnslаted into other lаnguаges is of greаt vаlue of teаching methods [39, c.83].object of this reseаrch is English аrticles.subject of the reseаrch is a study of use of English articles in various contexts such as narrow, wide and extralinguistic (extralinguistic) context and its translation into Russian.goal of our work is to make a systematic study of English articles, their contextual use and ways they are translated into Russian.compliance with the goal the following objectives are to be solved:

1.       To determine the place of the English articles in the system of the English language and to cover some theoretical questions concerned with the object of the research.

2.       To study a typical use of articles and its special difficulties.

.        To analyze contextual meanings of the English articles and ways of their translation into Russian.

.        To develop a set of exercises aimed at improving students’ skills in the use of the English articles.goal and the objectives of the research determine the structure of our work. consists of an introduction, 3 parts, conclusion and a list of literature.than 52 manuals, articles and other types of educational and research papers served as the material for our analyses. Besides, the use of articles in the works of W.S. Maugham, J. London and their translation served for our analyses in the practical part of the work.set of linguistic methods including a descriptive, analytical, contextual analysis was used in the course of our study. In addition a translational method was intensively used while analyzing the contextual peculiarities of the article and determining typical ways of their translation into Russian.results obtained in the course of our research were practical and theoretical techniques which were widely used in the course of my practice at the company in Karaganda. first part of the work deals with the general theoretical principles relevant to the English article and to the description of its traditional difficulties. Part II is devoted to the study of contextual semantic characteristics of English articles and the ways they are trаnslated into Russian.

1. Article as a part of speech. Theoretical and practical aspects

1.1 Definition of the Article

аrticle definite indefinite

The issues relevant to the nature of the English article have been the focus of attention of early descriptive English Grammar books since the 16th century and it is intensively studied nowadays.the 16th -18th centuries the article was considered as a noun determiner. There was, however, a different point of view when the article was included into the adjective. Besides, there existed different approaches to English articles. According to G. Mironets, the article was considered as part of the Noun, as a separate part of speech and as a particle. The terms ”definite” and ”indefinite” were first used by J.Howell in 1662 [45, c.56].

Being aware of numerous points of view regarding the status of the article in the English language we share the view presented by B. Khaimovich and B. Rogovskaya who considered the article a separate part of speech. They consider that the two words a(an), the form a separate group or class characterized by:

a)  the lexico-grammatical meaning of ”(in)definiteness”,

b)      the right-hand combinability with nouns,)     the function of noun specifiers [52, c.214]lexical meaning of a(n) in Modern English is a very weak reminder of its original meaning (OE. an=one). In spite of the long process of weakening there remains enough of the original meaning in a(n) to exclude the possibility of its being attached to a ”plural” noun.lexical meaning of the in Modern English is a pale shadow of its original demonstrative meaning.general lexico-grammatical meaning of these words, as usual, is not identical with their individual lexical meanings. It abstracts itself from the meaning of ”oneness” in a(n) and the ”demonstrative” meaning in the. Perhaps, the names of the articles (”definite”, ”indefinite”) denote the nearest approach to this lexico-grammatical meaning, which, for lack of a better term, might be defined as that of ”definiteness-indefiniteness” [52, c.215].article is a form word that serves as a noun determiner. It is one of the main means of conveying the idea of definiteness and indefiniteness.suggests that the object presented by the following noun is individualized and singled out from all the other objects of the same kind, whereas indefiniteness means a more general reference to an object [20, c.75].lexical meaning of the English articles is determined by its historical development. That is why after considering the historical development of the English articles their rendering into Russian becomes obvious. Under the influence of the historical processes that took place both in phonetical and grammatical structure of the English language the article as a part of speech has undergone major changes. Its origin goes deep into the history of the English language both definite and indefinite articles. This explains the fact that when translating articles we get equivalents (in other languages) of various types. That is why we consider it necessary to present all stages of the historical formation of the English article.

1.2 The historical development of the English articles. The definite article

The infinitive in Northumbrian often loses its final -n and ends in -a: drinca 'drink', sinza 'sing'. The 1st person singular present indicative ends in -u, -o (for West-Saxon -e): ic drincu 'I drink', ic sinzo 'I sing'. The 2nd person singular present indicative and the 2nd person singular past indicative of weak verbs often ends in -s (for West-Saxon -si): pu drinces 'thou drinkest', pu lufodes 'thou lo-vedst'. This means that the initial consonant of the pronoun 'pu did not join on to the verb forms. The 3rd person singular present indicative also, often ends in -s: he drinces 'he drinks'. The plural indicative present often takes the ending -as for West-Saxon -ap: hia drincas 'they drink'.cause of this spread of the -s-ending is not clear. It may have been partly influenced by the form is of the verb wsan.1st participle sometimes has the suffix -ande (for West-Saxon -ende). This is due to Scandinavian influence.plural present indicative of the verb wesan is arun (for West-Saxon sind).strong verbs become weak in Northumbrian. Thus class I verbs: stizan 'ascend' has stizede; zripan 'catch' zripede, hrinan 'touch' hrinade; class II verbs: reocan 'smell' has reohte, supan 'taste' supede; class III: bindan 'bind' has binde, drinzan 'insist' drinzde, swinzan an 'swing' swinzde, war pan 'throw' worpade, strxz-dan 'sow' strx^de, frejnan 'ask' fre^nade; class VI verbs: hebban 'lift' has hefde; class VII verbs: slsepan 'sleep' has slsepte, ondrsedan 'dread' ondnedde, sceadan 'divide' sccadade.these phenomena show that in Northumbrian a reduction of inflections was taking place in the ОС period already. This was probably partly due to Scandinavian influence.and head word.attribute usually precedes its head word, e. g. enzlisc zewrit 'English text', onzemanz oрurum mistlicum and manizfealdum bisum 'among other various and manifold affairs', hu zesжlizlica tida 'what happy times', se foresprecena hunzur 'the above-mentioned famine', ealle орrе bec 'all other books', жfter forрyrnendre tide 'after the passing time'. However, a numeral attribute may follow its head word, e. g. his suna twezen 'his two sons', рone naman anne 'the name alone'; also рa bee ealle 'all the books'.attribute often follows its head word when used in direct address: wine mm 'my friend', fre-drihten min 'my lord', Beowulf leofa 'dear Beowulf. An attribute consisting of the pronoun se and an adjective also follows its head word: Sidroc eorl se alda 'earl Sidroc senior'.genitive attribute usually precedes its head word: para cyninza zetruman 'the kings' troops', Norрmanna land 'the Northmen's land', Seaxna peod 'the Saxons' people', monizra manna mod 'many people's mood'. But sometimes it comes after its head word: on oрre healfe pжre ea 'on the oilier side of the riverstudying the declension of substantives in ME, we have to consider the Southern dialects, on the one hand, and the Midland and Northern, on the other.the Southern dialects, distinction between genders and between strong and weak declensions was to some extent preserved, but differences between various types of strong declension were obliterated. Later, distinction of genders was weakened in connection with the development of the definite article, which lost its declension altogether.

Parenthesis means that the sound in question could drop. A second form coming after a comma means that alongside of the first form due to phonetic development a second one appeared, due to analogy.feminine substantives, weak declension endings (-en, -ene) spread from the weak to other declension types; in the singular the -ii-cnding was dropped, and all eases of the singular number had the endmg -e. The -e was also joined on to substantives with a long root syllable, which had no ending in Hie nominative singular, such as iir 'honour', synn 'sin'. Only a few substantives remain outside this tendency, such as hond 'hand', might 'might', cow 'cow'.a result of these changes the following system of declension arose:

The -en-ending of the plural was also extended to two neuter substantives which had in OE belonged to the -es-stems, viz., child 'child' and el 'egg'. In OE the nominative plural of these substantives had been cildru and жzru; now they were changed into children and eiren.declension of substantives with a root stem, which had mutation in the dative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural, developed in ME Southern dialects in the following way:

The substantive boc 'book' lost its mutated forms: its plural is boken, bakes. The substantive burh 'borough' lost mutation in the dative singular and in the nominative and accusative plural. The dative singular form byriz > buri, biri, beri survived only as the second component of compound nouns - names of towns, which originally had the form of the dative case, such as Canterbury <OE Cantwarabyriz, dative of Cantwaraburz; Atter-bury < at pжer byriz 'at the city'.and midland dialects.Northern and Midland dialects all distinctions between different stems of strong declension and between strong and weak declension, and those between genders disappeared. The genitive singular ending of the ston and dor type substantives spread to all substantives; this also applies to the nominative and accusative ending -es (< OE -as) of the nominative and accusative plural ot the ston type substantives; it also spread to the genitive plural of all substantives.14-century literary English (Chaucer and Gower), developed from Midland dialect, the following declension system is found:

Substantives in -f and -th keep the alternation of voiceless and voiced consonants, e.g. lif 'life', gen. sing, lives, plural lives; path 'path', gen. sing, pathes [р], plural pathes [р].substantives with a root stem, which had mutation in the nominative and accusative plural, have the following system of declension-

Thus mutation is grammaticalized as a sign of plural number.neuter substantives preserved their nominative accusative plural form without an ending: thing, yer, hors, shep, swin, der. As will be readily seen, some of them are names of animals. Some masculine and feminine substantives also preserved plural forms without ending, e.g. winter, night. Gradually, however, the -es-ending penetrates into these words: thinges, yeres, monthes.substantives which belonged to the weak declension preserve their -n-plural: oxe - oxen; eye, ye - eyen, yen; fo - fon; to - ton. The substantive sceoh 'shoe', which had been a strong declension substantive in OE, acquired an -n-plural in ME: sho - shon. The weak en-ending also spread to the substantives brother -brethren, doghter - doghtren, and stister - snstren. Meanings which had been expressed by case endings now devolve to prepositions, in the first place of (for the genitive), to and wip for the dative.pronoun.OE forms of the demonstrative pronoun (or definite article) se, seo were changed into pe, peo on the analogy of the forms derived from the root p-. In Early ME forms like pe, peo, pat functioned both as demonstrative pronoun and as article. Since the 14th century, however, the form pat was only preserved as a demonstrative pronoun form., the declension system of the pronoun was undergoing changes. The form pos (from OE pas, nominative and accusative plural of the OE demonstrative pronoun pes) became the plural of pat.

Early ME declension.

However, in the 13th century declension of the definite article tends to disappear. Thus, while we find in Layamon's Brut (about 1200) phrases like to pan kinge (OE to pжm cyninze), mid pan flode (OE mid pжm flode), the Апогеи Riwle has, alongside of of pen epple (OE of рагт жpple) mid te word (te assimilated from pe after mid; OE mid ржт worde). Similar changes occur in other case and gender forms. In Late ME the definite article finally becomes invariable.

The other demonstrative pronoun, OE pes, developed in the following way in ME: singular this (from the OE nominative and accusative singular pis), plural thise, these; singular that (from the OE nominative and accusative singular neuter pжt), plural tho, thos

The Adjective.declension of adjectives underwent substantial changes in ME. Declension of adjectives had always been determined by agreement with substantives in number, gender and case. In Germanic languages the use of strong and weak adjective declension depended on whether the adjective was preceded by the definite article or a similar word, or not. The disappearance of grammatical gender in ME substantives and the reduction of case endings led to a considerable change in adjective declension, too. Besides, the characteristic weak-declension ending -en was dropped. So the only case ending in adjectives came to be -e, and the highly developed OE paradigm was reduced to the following system:

In the Northern dialects, declension of adjectives was completely lost: the only surviving case ending -e was dropped, and the adjectives became invariable. the other dialects adjectives in -e became invariable, such as newe, trewe.

The indefinite article.

Numeralsfrom 1 to 3 are declined.from 4 to 19 are usually invariable, if used as attributes to a substantive, but they are declined if used without a substantive. Numerals denoting tens have their genitive in -es or in -a, -ra, their dative in -um.

The word 'both' bezen, bu, ba is declined in the same way as twezen, tu, twa.consisting of tens and units are denoted in the following way: 22 twa and twentiz, 48 eahta and feowertiz.pronoun sum 'some' is sometimes used in a meaning close to the articles as in the sentence: wses sum bropor '(there) was a (certain) brother' pa stod him sum топ set purh swefn 'then (there) stood a (certain) man near him in his dream'., however, a substantive in an indefinite application is not accompanied by any determinative, as in the sentence he was swype spediz man 'he was a very rich man'.a few words the consonant v when followed by another consonant changed into u, as in hafoc, gen. sing, hafces > havkes > haukes and on the analogy of the genitive haukes a new nominative hauk was derived; nafozar > navgar > nauger 'auger'.word eventually lost its initial n- as a result of what is called metanalysis: the phrase a nauger was, as it were, reinterpreted as an auger, with the intial n- of the substantive apprehended as a final n of the indefinite article.are more examples of this kind of metanalysis. A substantive might either lose or acquire an initial n-. Thus OE ejete 'newt' acquired an initial n- owing to a reinterpretation of an ewte as a newte in ME. The ME substantive ekename 'additional name', 'nickname' also acquired an initial n-: an ekename > a nekename. The ME substantive naperon (from French naperon), on the other hand, lost its initial n-: a naperon > an apron.similar phenomenon is also found in some substantives whose final -s, originally belonging to the stem, was apprehended as a plural ending. Thus, OE жlmesse 'alms' (from Lat. alimosina from Greek eleemosyne 'pity') yielded ME alines > MnE alms; ME richesse (from French richesse) yielded MnE riches, apprehended as a plural form; OE byrzels 'grave' - ME buriel, MnE burial (it was also influenced by its synonym funeral, of French origin); French cerise, cherise yielded ME and MnE cherry.

In ME an indefinite article arose. As in many other languages, it had its origin in the numeral an 'one'. First signs of such development were already seen in OE. Then long a in an unstressed position was shortened, and there appeared an unstressed variant an. When the long ”a” changed into long open 9 the numeral became on; the divergence in sound between the stressed and the unstressed form furthered the separation of the article from the numeral.

When on or an was followed by a word beginning with a consonant, the -n was dropped, and there arose the variants o, a. With the numeral, this alternation was later abandoned, and the form ”on” came to be used in all environments. With the indefinite article, the alternation of an and a depending on the initial sound of the following word has been preserved until today.that the word the has its counterpart in the word a(n) it is possible to say that English has an article system represented by two words: a/an and the.OE, as we have seen, an article appeared when the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun was weakened. In this way a new grammatical category within the system of substantives came into being: the category of determination, represented by the opposition: article/absence of article.ME we see a further development in this field: a second article appears here from the OE numeral an. This development must be interpreted as a split in the category of determination, its marked member now splits into two varieties: the definite represented by the article the (from OE se, with substitution of initial s- by th- influenced by other case forms, which were derived from the root p-in OE already). Thus, the whole system of determination may be represented in the following way: 1st opposition: no article (unmarked) vs. article (marked); 2nd opposition: within the second item of the 1st opposition: definite article the vs. indefinite article a(n). The difference between OE and ME in this respect can well be illustrated by comparing the OE examples given above with the following example from Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, with the same substantive man:was an esy man to yive penaunce 'He was an easy man to absolve sins'.the indefinite article a was used in a context in which in OE there had been no article at all.conclusion, the article a(n) has become a part of the system having the same position as the article the, is confirmed by the fact such sentences as he was easy man have become impossible by Chaucer's time [1, c.174].

1.3 Article determination

Article is a determining unit of a specific nature accompanying the noun in communicative collocation. Its special character is clearly seen against the background of determining words of half-notional semantics [50, c. 179]. Whereas the function of the determiners such as this, any, some is to explicitly interpret the referent of the noun in relation to other objects or phenomena of a like kind, the semantic purpose of the article is to specify the nounal referent, as it were, altogether unostentatiously, to define it in the most general way, without any explicitly expressed contrasts.becomes obvious when we take the simplest examples ready at hand. Cf.: Will you give me this pen, Willy? (i.e. the pen that I am pointing out, not one of your choice.) - Will you give me the pen, please? (i.e. simply the pen from the desk, you understand which). Any blade will do, I only want it for scratching out the wrong word from the type-script. (i.e. any blade of the stock, however blunt it -may be.) - Have you got something sharp? I need a penknife of' a blade. (i.e. simply a blade, if not a knife, without additional implications.) Some woman called in your absence, she didn't give her name (i.e. a woman strange to me). - A woman called while you were out, she left a message (i.e. simply a woman, without a further connotation.)peculiarity of the article, as different from the determiners in question, is that, in the absence of a determiner, the use of the article with the noun is quite obligatory, in so far as the cases of non-use of the article are subject to no less definite rules than the use of it.into consideration these peculiar features of the article, the linguist is called upon to make a sound statement about its segmental status in the system of morphology. Namely, his task is to decide whether the article is a purely auxiliary element of a special grammatical form of the noun which functions as a component of a definite morphological category, or it is a separate word, i.e. a lexical unit in the determiner word set, if of a more abstract meaning than other determiners.problem is a vexed one; it has inspired an intensive research activity in the field, as well as an animated discussion with various pros and cons affirmed, refuted and re-affirmed. In the course of these investigations, however, many positive facts about articles have been established, which at present enables an observer, proceeding from the systemic principle in its paradigmatic interpretation, to expose the status of the article with an attempt at demonstrative conviction.arrive at a definite decision, we propose to consider the properties of the English articles at four successive stages, beginning with their semantic evaluation as such, then adding to the obtained data a situational estimation of their uses, thereafter analysing their categorial features in the light of the oppositional theory, and finally concluding the investigation by a paradigmatic generalization.mere semantic observation of the articles in English, i.e. the definite article the and the indefinite article a/an, at once discloses not two but three meaningful characterizations of the nounal referent achieved by their correlative functioning, namely: one rendered by the definite article, one rendered by the indefinite article, and one rendered by the absence (or non-use) of the article. Let us examine them separately.definite article expresses the identification or individualization of the referent of the noun: the use of this article shows that the object denoted is taken in its concrete, individual quality. This meaning can be brought to explicit exposition by a substitution test. The test consists in replacing the article used in a construction by a demonstrative word, e.g. a demonstrative determiner, without causing a principal change in the general implication of the construction. Of course, such an "equivalent" substitution should be understood in fact as nothing else but analogy: the difference in meaning between a determiner and an article admits of no argument, and we pointed it out in the above passages. Still, the replacements of words as a special diagnostic procedure, which is applied with the necessary reservations and according to a planned scheme of research, is quite permissible. In our case it undoubtedly shows a direct relationship in the meanings of the determiner and the article, the relationship in which the determiner is semantically the more explicit element of the two. Cf.:look at the apple-tree! - But look at this apple-tree! The town lay still in the Indian summer sun. - That town lay still in the Indian summer sun. The water is horribly hot. - This water is horribly hot. It's the girls who are to blame. - It's those girls who are to blame.justification of the applied substitution, as well as its explanatory character, may be proved by a counter-test, namely, by the change of the definite article into the indefinite article, or by omitting the article altogether [50, c.181] The replacement either produces a radical, i.e. "non-equivalent" shift in the meaning of the construction, or else results in a grammatically unacceptable construction. Cf.:... - Look at an apple-tree! - Look at apple-tree!... - A water is horribly hot. - Water is horribly hot.indefinite article, as different from the definite article, is commonly interpreted as referring the object denoted by the noun to a certain class of similar objects; in other words, the indefinite article expresses a classifying generalization of the nounal referent, or takes it in a relatively general sense. To prove its relatively generalizing functional meaning, we may use the diagnostic insertions of specifying-classifying phrases into the construction in question; we may also employ the transformation of implicit comparative constructions with the indefinite article into the corresponding explicit coparative constructions. Cf.:passed a water-mill. - We passed a certain water-mill. It is a very young country, isn't it? - It is a very young kind of country, isn't it? What an arrangement! - What sort of arrangement! This child is a positive nightmare. - This child is positively like a nightmare.procedure of a classifying contrast employed in practical textbooks exposes the generalizing nature of the indefinite article most clearly in many eases of its use. E.g.:door opened in the wall. - A door (not a window) opened in the wall. We saw a flower under the bush. - We saw a flower (not a strawberry) under the bush.for the various uses of nouns without an article, from the semantic point of view they all should be divided into two types. In the first place, there are uses where the articles are deliberately omitted out of stylistical considerations. We see such uses, for instance, in telegraphic speech, in titles and headlines, in various notices. E.g.:received room reserved for week-end. (The text of a telegram.) Conference adjourned until further notice. (The text of an announcement.) Big red bus rushes food to strikers. (The title of a newspaper article.)purposeful elliptical omission of the article in cases like that is quite obvious, and the omitted articles may easily be restored in the constructions in the simplest "back-directed" refilling procedures.. - The telegram is received, a room is reserved for the weekend.... - The conference is adjourned until further notice.... - A big red bus rushes food to the elliptical constructions, there are cases of the semantically unspecified non-use of the article in various combinations of fixed type, such as prepositional- phrases (on fire, at hand, in debt, etc.), fixed verbal collocations (take place, make use, cast anchor, etc.), descriptive coordinative groups and repetition groups (man and wife, dog and gun, day by day, etc.), and the like. These cases of traditionally fixed absence of the article are quite similar to the cases of traditionally fixed uses of both indefinite and definite articles (cf.: in a hurry, at a loss, have a look, give a start, etc.; In the main, out of the question, on the look-out, etc.).the elliptical constructions and fixed uses, however, we know a really semantic absence of the article with the noun. It is this semantic absence of the article that stands in immediate meaningful correlation with the definite and indefinite articles as widely acknowledged, the meaningful non-uses of the article are not homogeneous; nevertheless, they admit of a very explicit classification founded on the countability characteristics of the noun. Why countability characteristics? For the two reasons. The first reason is inherent in the nature of the noun itself: the abstract generalization reflected through the meaningful non-use of the article is connected with the suppression of the idea of the number in the noun. The second reason is inherent in the nature of the article: the indefinite article which plays the crucial role in the semantic correlation in question reveals the meaning of oneness within its semantic base, having originated from the indefinite pronoun one, and that is why the abstract use of the noun naturally goes with the absence of the article.essential points of the said classification are three in number.. The meaningful absence of the article before the countable noun in the singular signifies that the noun is taken in an abstract sense, expressing the most general idea of the object denoted. This meaning, which may be called the meaning of "absolute generalization", can be demonstrated by inserting in the tested construction a chosen generalizing modifier (such as in general, in the abstract, in the broadest sense). Cf.:(in general) begins with the beginning of human society. Steam-engine (in general) introduced for locomotion a couple of centuries ago has now become obsolete.. The absence of the article before the uncountable noun corresponds to the two kinds of generalization: both relative and absolute. To decide which of the two meanings is realized in any particular case, the described tests should be carried out alternately. Cf.:laughed with great bitterness (that sort of bitterness - relative generalization). The subject of health (in general - absolute generalization) was carefully avoided by everybody. Coffee (a kind of beverage served at the table - relative generalization) or tea, please? Coffee (in general - absolute generalization) stimulates the function of the heart.. The absence of the article before the countable noun in the plural, likewise, corresponds to both kinds of generalization, and the exposition of the meaning in each case can be achieved by the same semantic tests. Cf.:, planets and comets (these kinds of objects: relative generalization) are different celestial bodies (not terrestrial bodies: relative generalization). Wars (in general: absolute generalization) should be eliminated as means of deciding international disputes.distinguish the demonstrated semantic functions of the non-uses of the article by definition, we may say that the absence of the article with uncountable nouns, as well as with countable nouns in the plural, renders the meaning of "uncharacterized generalization", as different from the meaning of "absolute generalization", achieved by the absence of the article with countable nouns in the singular.much for the semantic evaluation of the articles as the first stage of our the situational assessment of the article uses, we must point out that the basic principle of their differentiation here is not a direct consideration of their meanings, but disclosing the informational characteristics that the article conveys to its noun in concrete contextual conditions. Examined from this angle, the definite article serves as an indicator of the type of nounal information "which is presented as the "facts already known", i.e. as the starting point of the communication. In contrast to this, the indefinite article or the meaningful absence of the article introduces the central communicative nounal part of the sentence, i.e. the part rendering the immediate informative data to be conveyed from the speaker to the listener. In the situational study of syntax the starting point of the communication is called its "theme", while the central informative part is called its "rheme".

In accord with the said situational functions, the typical syntactic position of the noun modified by the definite article is the "thematic" subject, while the typical syntactic position of the noun modified by the indefinite article or by the meaningful absence of the article is the "rhematic" predicative. Cf:.

The day (subject) was drawing to a close, the busy noises of the city (subject) were dying down. How to handle the situation was a big question (predicative). The sky was pure gold (predicative) above the setting sun.should be noted that in many other cases of syntactic use, i.e. non-subjective or non-predicative, the articles reflect the same situational functions. This can be probed by reducing the constructions in question on re-arrangement lines to the logically "canonized" link-type would care to verify the Incident (object), pray do so. -If you would care the incident (subject) to be verified, pray have it verified. I am going to make a rather strange request (object) to you. - What I am going to make is a rather strange request (predicative) to you. You are talking nonsense (object), lad. - What you are talking, lad, is nonsense (predicative).essential contextual-situational characteristic of the articles is their immediate connection with the two types of attributes to the noun. The first type is a "limiting" attribute, which requires the definite article before the noun; the second type is a "descriptive" attribute, which requires the indefinite article or the meaningful absence of the article before the noun. Cf.:events chronicled in this narrative took place some four years ago. (A limiting attribute) She was a person of strong will and iron self-control. (A descriptive attribute) He listened to her story with grave and kindly attention. (A descriptive attribute)role of descriptive attributes in the situational aspect of articles is particularly worthy of note in the constructions of syntactic "convergencies", i.e. chained attributive-repetitional phrases modifying the same referent from different angles. Cf.:longing for a house, a fine and beautiful house, such a house I could never hope to have, flowered into life again.have now come to the third stage of the undertaken analysis of the English articles, namely to their consideration in the light of the oppositional theory. The oppositional examination of any grammatically relevant set of lingual objects is of especial importance from the point of view of the systemic conception of language, since oppositions constitute the basis of the structure of grammatical mind the tacts established at the two previous stages of observation, it is easy to see that oppositionally, the article determination of the noun should be divided into two binary correlations connected with each other hierarchically.opposition of the higher level operates in the whole system of articles. It contrasts the definite article with the noun against the two other forms of article determination of the noun, i.e. the indefinite article and the meaningful absence of the article. In this opposition the definite article should be interpreted as the strong member by virtue of its identifying and individualizing function, while the other forms of article determination should be interpreted as the weak member, i.e. the member that leaves the feature in question ("identification") unmarked.opposition of the lower level operates within the article subsystem that forms the weak member of the upper opposition. This opposition contrasts the two types of generalization, i.e, the relative generalization distinguishing its strong member (the indefinite article plus the meaningful absence of the article as its analogue with uncountable nouns and nouns in the plural) and the absolute, or "abstract" generalization distinguishing the weak member of the opposition (the meaningful absence of the article).described oppositional system can be shown on the following diagram (see Fig. 2).

It is the oppositional description of the English articles that involves the interprctation of the article non-use as the zero form of the article, since the opposition of the positive exponent of the feature to the negative exponent of the feature (i.e. its absence) realizes an important part of the integral article determination semantics. As for the heterogeneity of functions displayed by the absence of the article, it by no means can be taken as a ground for denying the relevance or expediency of introducing the notion of zero in the article system. As a matter of fact, each of the two essential meanings of this dialectically complex form is clearly revealed in its special oppositional correlation and, consequently, corresponds to the really existing lingual facts irrespective of the name given to the form by the observer.

The best way of demonstrating the actual oppositional value of the articles on the immediate textual material is to contrast them in syntactically equivalent conditions in pairs. Cf. the examples given below.nounal positions for the pair "the definite article - the indefinite article": The train hooted (that train). - A train hooted (some train).nounal positions for the pair "the definite article - the absence of the article": I'm afraid the oxygen is out (our supply of oxygen). - Oxygen is necessary for life (oxygen in general, life in general).nounal positions for the pair "the indefinite article - the absence of the article": Be careful, there is a puddle under your feet (a kind of puddle). - Be careful, there is mud on the ground (as different from clean space)., correlative nounal positions for the easily neutralized pair "the zero article of relative generalization - the zero article of absolute generalization": New information should be gathered on this subject (some information). - Scientific information should be gathered systematically in all fields of human knowledge (information in general).the basis of the oppositional definition of the article it becomes possible to explicate the semantic function of the article determination of nouns for cases where the inherent value of the article is contrasted against the contrary semantic value of the noun or the nounal collocation.particular, the indefinite article may occasionally be used with a nounal collocation of normally individualizing meaning, e.g.:

Rodney Harrington laughed out loud as he caught a last glimpse of Allison Mackenzie and Norman Page in his rear-vision mirror (Gr. Metalious). After all, you've got a best side and a worst side of yourself and it's no good showing the worst side and harping on it (A. Christie).

Conversely, the definite article may occasionally be used with a nounal collocation of normally descriptive meaning, e.g.:still went in the evenings to bathe in the silent pool (S. Maugham).indefinite article may occasionally be used with a unique referent noun, e.g.:Latimer from beyond her murmured: "The sun here isn't a real sun" (A. Christie).zero article may occasionally be used with an ordinary concrete noun the semantic nature of which stands, as it were, in sharp contradiction to the idea of uncountable generalization, e.g.:glasses had a habit of slipping down her button nose which did not have enough bridge to hold them up (S.M. Disney). He went up a well-kept drive to a modern house with a square roof and a good deal of window (A. Christie).all these and similar cases, by virtue of being correlated with semantic elements of contrary nature, the inherent categorial meanings of the articles appear, as it were, in their original, pure quality. Having no environmental support, the articles become intensely self-dependent in the expression of their categorial semantics, and, against the alien contextual background, traces of transposition can be seen in their use.established the functional value of articles in oppositional assessment, we can now, in broader systemic contraposition, probe the correlation of the meanings of articles with the meanings of functional determiners. As a result of this observation, within the system of the determiners two separate subsets can be defined, one of which is centred around the definite article with its individualizing semantics (this - these, that - those, my, our, your, his, her, its, their), and the other one around the indefinite article with its generalizing semantics (another, some, any, every, no). The type of the division is such as to show the integration of the article meanings into the total semantic volume of the determiners. In other words, the observation inevitably leads us to the conclusion that the article determination of the noun as a specific grammatical category remains valid also in such cases when the noun is modified not by the article itself, but by a seminotional determiner. This is clearly seen in equivalency confrontations such as the following:unhappily the wife wasn't listening. - But unhappily his wife wasn't listening.whispering voices caught the attention of the guards. - Those whispering voices caught their attention.could a woman do in a situation like that? - What could any woman do in that sort of situation?least I saw interest in her eyes. - At least I saw some interest in her eyes.a word had been pronounced about the terms of the document. - No word had been pronounced about those terms.demonstration of the organic connection between the articles and seminotional determiners, in its turn, makes it possible to disclose the true function of the grammatical use of articles with proper nouns. E.g.:

"This," said Froelich, "is the James Walker who wrote "The Last of the Old Lords'" (M. Bradbury). Cf.: This is the same James Walker.came out to Iraq with a Mrs. Kelsey (A. Christie). Cf.: The woman was a certain Mrs. Kelsey.was like seeing a Vesuvius at the height of its eruption. Cf.: The sight looked to us like another Vesuvius.

"I prophesy a wet August," said Old Moore Abinger (M. Dickens). Cf.: Next August will be a wet month, unlike some other Augusts in retrospect.the exemplified grammatical uses transpositional features are revealed similar to those the article acquires when used with a noun characterized by a contrary semantic base. On the other hand, the analysis of these cases clearly stamps the traditional proper name combinations with embedded articles, both of the onomastic set (Alexander the Great, etc.) and the toponymic set (The Hague, etc.) as lexicalized collocations that only come into contact with the periphery of grammar.essential grammatical features of the articles exposed in the above considerations and tests leave no room for misinterpretation at the final, generalizing stage of analysis. data obtained show that the English noun, besides the variable categories of number and case, distinguishes also the category of determination expressed by the article paradigm of three grammatical forms: the definite, the indefinite, the zero. The paradigm is generalized for the whole system of the common nouns, being transpositionally outstretched also into the system of proper nouns. Various cases of asymmetry in the realization of this paradigm (such as the article determination of certain nouns of the types singularia tantum and pluralia tantum), similar to, and in connection with the expression of the category of number, are balanced by suppletive collocations. Cf.: 0 progress - a kind of progress, some progress - the progress; 0 news - an item of news - the news, etc.semi-notional determiners used with nouns in the absence of articles, expose the essential article meanings as in-built in their semantic structure.

Thus, the status of the combination of the article with the noun should be defined as basically analytical, the article construction as such being localized by its segmental properties between the free syntactic combination of words (the upper bordering level) and the combination of a grammatical affix with a notional stem in the morphological composition of an indivisible word (the lower bordering level). The article itself is a special type of grammatical auxiliary.[41, c. 164]

The pronunciation of the articles

The pronunciation of the articles and the spelling of the indefinite article depend upon the initial sound of the following word. The indefinite article is spelled as a before consonant and as an before vowel sounds. When stressed it is pronounced respectively as [ei] or [am]. However, since the articles are usually unstressed, the pronunciation of the indefinite article is generally reduced to the neutral vowel [ə] before consonants, and to [n] before vowel sounds, which depends entirely on the pronunciation and not the spelling of the following word, as can be seen in the table below.

[ə]                                      [ən]

a dog                                  an applehouse            an hourEuropean   an eagleunit           an uncleyear                                     an x-raymanuscript     an MP

The definite article is pronounced as [рi:] when stressed. When unstressed, it is pronounced as [рə] before consonants and [рi] before vowels:

[рə]                                       [рi]

the dog                               the applehouse  the hourEuropean  the x-rayunit the unclemanuscript                           the MP

Since the article is the opening element of a noun phrase, it is placed before the noun it refers to or before all the other noun premodifiers. The exceptions to this rule are as follows:

a)       the definite article may be preceded by the predeterminers all and

Are you going to cook all the cakes yourself? Both the answers were good.

b)      the indefinite article may be preceded by the predeterminers what,
such, quite:

What a sight I am in this hat!were such a queen, and I was such a nothing!are quite a scholar.) the indefinite article is placed after adjectives preceded by the adverbs too, as, so:was too difficult a problem for the child to solve. It's as good an excuse as any for breaking it up. I've never seen so miserable a creature as Jane was at the moment [46, c.84].

1.4 The functions of articles

use of the the Indefinite Article

. With countable nouns, both concrete and abstract, the indefinite article is used when we want to name an object (thing, person, animal, abstract notion), to state what kind of object is meant:.g.     He gave her a cigarette and lighted it.came a tap at the door, and a small elderly manthe room, wearing a cloth cap.function may be called the nominating function. It is the main function of the indefinite article with countable the same time, owing to its origin from the numeral one, the indefinite article always implies the idea of oneness and is used only before nouns in the singular (including such words as alms, barracks, bellows, works, headquarters, etc. which may be singular in meaning).of the above mentioned structural meanings the indefinite article may have some other functions, which are to be regarded as its additional meanings (or additional functions). As will be seen, they always result from the principal function. We may trace the following additional meanings in the indefinite article.indefinite article may express indefiniteness, since when we just name an object it is often indefinite in our mind..g. He's got a job now.was going to tell us a story.this additional meaning is not necessarily expressed by the indefinite article. Thus we may hardly speak of the indefiniteness of the object in the following examples:’re a scientist and your attitude should be realistic. ’ve a brother in Dorset and 1 could stay with him.indefinite article may have the classifying meaning since by naming an object we often refer it at the same time to a class of similar objects and thus contrast it to other classes of objects. This function is clearly manifest when the noun is used as a predicative or in apposition, also when it is introduced by as or like..g. She is a war orphan.saw Ann talking with her cousin, a shy youth of twenty. city looked to him as brilliant as a precious stone. told him that he could not treat Charles like a would be far-fetched to speak of the classifying meaning in such cases as:has a father whom he goes to see quite often. are going to a concert tonight.just naming an object the speaker is likely to make reference to an object that is new to the hearer. So the indefinite article is often used to introduce a new element in the sentence. Since a new element is, as a rule, important and attracts attention, a noun with the indefinite article frequently becomes the centre of communication and as such is marked by strong stress. This additional meaning expressed by the indefinite article may be called the communicating function. It is often found alongside of the main nominating function and sometimes becomes very prominent..g. That evening he made a confession. think he is a stupid fellow. His anger had taken on a different tone.contrast to this, the definite article, which usually indicates that a definite object is meant and that it is not new to the hearer, often serves to show that the noun is not the centre of communication. Compare the following sentences:door opened and a young girl came in. door opened and the young girl came in.the first sentence we do not know who is behind the door and a young girl is the new element in the sentence. Whereas in the second sentence we already know that there was a girl behind the door and the new information contained in the sentence is that she now came in. The two variants differ in intonation: in the first sentence a young girl is marked by stronger stress whereas in the second one came in becomes more prominent.the communicating function of the indefinite article is important and sometimes becomes very prominent, it is to be regarded only as an additional meaning: we may find sentences in which a noun with an indefinite article does not serve as the centre of communication and is not marked by strong stress (a) and, vice versa, a noun with a definite article marked by strong stress may become the most important element of communication (b):

a)       A camel can carry heavy loads.

An engagement should come on a girl as a surprise, pleasant or unpleasant, as the case may be.

b)      It was the first spring day.

a)   a hundred, a thousand, a minute, a mile, etc.;

b) after the negative not: not a word, not a trace, not a thought,etc.;

c)   in some set phrases: one at a time, at a draught (as in: heemptied his glass at a draught), a stitch in time saves nine, etc.

In certain patterns and set phrases the indefinite article acquires the meaning of the same, as in:are much of a size.are of an age.of a feather flock together.the following pattern the indefinite article is said to acquire distributive force: once a month, twice a week, three times a year, etc.should be pointed out that all the above mentioned additional meanings of the indefinite article result from its main nominating function and from the meaning of oneness which is always implied with countable nouns. Depending on the context those meanings may or may not be expressed by the article. Sometimes more than one additional function finds its expression in the sentence. Thus in I am a teacher the classifying and the communicating meanings are clearly seen; in He bought a book indefiniteness is expressed along with the communicating is only the nominating function alongside of the idea of oneness that is always uppermost when the indefinite article is associated with countable nouns.

. With uncountable nouns, the indefinite article serves to bring out a special aspect of the notion expressed by the noun. In this case its function may be called aspective..g. A dull burning anger rose in his chest. He had almost a supernatural courage. Her presence stirred him usually to a shy swift eagerness.this case the noun is usually qualified by an attribute which also brings out a special aspect, though occasionally it may be used without any attribute:.g. There was a warmth between them, a sense of waiting.its aspective function the indefinite article is devoid of the idea of oneness, which may be proved by the fact that we do not find such plurals as burning angers or supernatural courages. aspective use of the indefinite article is mainly characteristic of literary style. In bringing out a special aspect of the notion expressed by the noun the author usually strives for expressiveness, desiring to attract the attention of the reader to this or that particular noun. With the attention focused on the noun, the latter generally becomes the centre of communication and thus the aspective function of the indefinite article is usually found side by side with its communicating function.

. With nouns which have no reference to the category of countabil-ity (i.e. nouns denoting unique things and notions) the indefinite article has the same meaning as with uncountable nouns: it is used in its aspective function and at the same time its communicating function becomes very prominent..g. The moon hung in the sky, a young silver moon in the pale summer night.was sure in those days that a brilliant future was awaiting his son.use of the Definite Article.

. When used with countable nouns, both concrete and abstract, the definite article has two distinct functions.) It may be used with singular and plural nouns to show that the noun denotes a particular object (thing, person, animal, abstract notion) or a group of objects as distinct from the others of the same kind. We may also say that the definite article serves to single out an object or several objects from all the other objects of the same class. This function is called the defining function of the definite article. e.g. Ann herself had no doubt of the reason behind Mr. March's invitation. I called at her house on my way home one night, just after we had all received the letters asking us to dine; 1 found Ann alone. For the first time in the years 1 had known her, her courage would not answer her. As we stood on the steps, we felt the smell of fallen leaves coming from the garden.the demonstrative force which is inherent in the definite article owing to its origin becomes quite prominent. This occurs in a number of phrases, such as nothing of the kind, at the time, at the moment, under the circumstances, has been said, the definite article serves to indicate that the noun with which it is associated is not the centre of communication, i.e. that the attention of the speaker is not focused on that object. But it has also been pointed out that the definite article may be associated with a noun which is the centre of communication.) The definite article may also have the generic function with countable nouns.nouns in the singular it serves to indicate that the noun becomes the symbol of the class, that it is meant as its composite image:.g. The tiger has always had the reputation of being a man-eater.was a streak of the gambler in her.nouns in the plural it is used in this function only when the idea of collectivity is emphasized:.g. "I shan't have time for your moral sensitivity, "he said, "until've beaten the fascists and got a decent world."

. With uncountable nouns the function of the definite article may be called restricting. The definite article restricts the abstract notion expressed by an uncountable noun to a concrete instance (a); it also restricts the material denoted by a concrete uncountable noun to a definite quantity, portion or to a definite locality

(b):.g. a) I did not wish to betray the anxiety 1 felt.rested in the certainty that his duty was done.) "Robert, "said Aunt Lin, coming in pink and indignant, "did you know that you left the fish on the hall table and: it has soaked through to the mahogany?" As we came out into the cold damp air she shivered.

. When the definite article is associated with nouns which have no reference to the category of countability it has its defining function. It naturally refers to a definite object, as the noun denotes a thing or notion that is unique:.g. The moon set, and in the sky the countless stars shone with their terrifying brilliance.each knew that this quarrel was different from those in the past.of the Article (The Zero Article)absence of the article (the zero article) has only one function with common nouns and this is synonymous with the main structural meaning of the indefinite article: it is the nominating function.function of the absence of the article may be found with countable nouns in the plural; it is parallel to the use of the indefinite article with singular nouns. But while the indefinite article is associated with the idea of oneness, the zero article always implies more-than-oneness:.g. As Robert got out of the car Marion came round the corner of the house, wearing gardening gloves and a very old skirt. her friends came to tea, my mother would give me some pennies to buy apples or a magazine. sleeps very soundly. She had a splitting headache and took an aspirin and sleeping pills. road led across a stream and then through woods and open clearings.the indefinite article, the zero article may convey some additional meanings. It may sometimes express indefiniteness and perform the classifying and the communicating functions.nominating function of the zero article is also found with uncountable nouns, both abstract and concrete (names of materials):.g. Last night I felt friendship and sympathy for Henry, but today he has become an enemy. he is so interested in justice he might do something about that.asked for water and drank thirstily. place smelled of dust.grammars point out the introductory function of the indefinite article and the anaphoric function of the definite article. It is not correct, however, to regard the use of the indefinite article with nouns mentioned for the first time and the use of the definite article to refer back to an object which has already been mentioned as structural meanings inherent in the articles themselves. We rather deal with certain situations here in which the nominating function of the indefinite article and the defining function of the definite article are manifest.above description of the various functions of articles and their significant absence may be summed up in the table.can be seen from the table, the use of the articles depends on the character of the noun. But in English there are many polysemantic nouns which may be countable in one meaning and uncountable in another. As a result, the functions of the articles vary in accordance with the different meanings in which a noun appears.

Countable nouns

Uncountable nouns

Nouns having no reference to the category of countability

The indefinite article

With singular nouns - the nominating function + oneness Additional functions:  1) indefiniteness 2) classifying 3) communicating 4) any 5) a certain 6) numeric 7) the same 8) distributive

The aspective function   Additional functions:  communicating

The aspective function   Additional functions:  communicating

The definite article

With singular and plural nouns 1. the defining function 2. the generic function

The restricting function

The defining function

Absence of the article

With plural nouns - the nominating function + more-than-oneness Additional functions: 1) indefiniteness 2) classifying 3) communicating

The nominating function

Note. The above description of the functions of articles shows that their use is built up around a number of oppositions. There arc two main types of these.. Oppositions based on the category of number:

opposition is found when the article is associated with uncountable nouns or nouns having no reference to the category of countability.

We find the two above given kinds of opposition within the same function of the indefinite article and the zero article, i.e. the nominating function.. Oppositions based on the structural meaning of the articles:

, we find one more special kind of opposition where the indefinite article in its aspective function is opposed to both the definite article and the zero article, neither of which possesses aspective force [29, c.87].use of the indefinite articlenouns are used with the indefinite article:

. When the speaker presents the object expressed by the noun as belonging to a certain class. In this case the indefinite article has the meaning of 'какой-нибудь, какой-то, один' (in the meaning of 'некий').has a watch of her own.the green surface of the lake a little boat, with white wingsfluttering, rocked in the dewy breeze. (Voynich)beside them grew a rose-bush covered with scarlet hips. (Voynich)the plural no article is used in this case. If the idea of number is implied the noun is preceded by the pronoun some.liked the room because there were flowers in it.

"I have brought you some flowers..." "1 hate to wear flowers." (Voynich)

. With a predicative noun, when the speaker states that the object denoted by the noun belongs to a certain class.Sharp's father was an artist. (Thackeray)

"Is your brother an agreeable man, Peggotty?" "Oh, what anman he is!" (Dickens)works as a chemist. (Cronin)the plural neither the article nor the pronoun some is used.are good children, no doubt. (E. Bronte) "... they were business men when I was in the nursery." (Voynich)the conjunction as a predicative noun is often used without an article.was engaged as governess.

3.       When the noun is used in a general sense. What is said of one representative of a class can be applied to all the representatives of the class. The article has the meaning of 'every'.

A drowning man catches at a straw.the plural neither the article nor the pronoun some is used. Real friends should have everything in common. (Wilde)

4.       There are cases when the indefinite article preserves its old original meaning of 'one'.

A stitch in time saves nine.had hardly spoken a word since they left Riccardo's door... (Voynich)meaning is generally found with:

(a)     nouns denoting time, measure and weight.

A week or two passed. (Ch. Bronte)

"I'll overtake you in a minute," said Godfrey. (Eliot)

(b)     the numerals -hundred, thousand, million and the nouns

dozen, score.seems to have half я dozen languages at his finger-tips. (Voynich)nouns in the plural some is used. Oliver's sobs checked his utterance for some minutes. (Dickens)use of the definite articlenouns are used with the definite article:

. When the noun denotes an object or objects which the speaker singles out from all the objects of a given class. An object is singled out in the following cases:

(a)     when the speaker and the hearer know what particular object is meant. No special indication is necessary.

How did you like the play?have got the magazine.

У меня есть этот журнал (журнал у меня).

Note. - It should be borne in mind that there is a difference between knowing what object is spoken about and knowing the object itself.

. A. I do not care to speak to the girl. I have never seen her.'t you speak to her? B. But I do not know the girl either. . A. Who told you about it?

в: a girl.

A.     What girl?.    My sister.

In the first dialogue the speaker and the hearer do not know the person at all, but they know whom they mean, so the definite article is used. In the second the speaker knows the person, but he presents her to the hearer merely as one of a class, so the indefinite article is used.

(b)     when the speaker uses an attribute pointing out a particular object.

This is the house that Jack built.

(c)     when the situation itself makes the object definite.

The wedding looked dismal. The bride was too old and the bridegroom was too young. (Dickens)an object is singled out from all the objects of a given class the definite article retains its demonstrative meaning, and the English use the definite article much oftener than the demonstrative pronouns this or that. Thus the Russian sentence Дайте мне эту книгу should be rendered in English by Let me have the book.a rule the definite article is not translated into Russian. However, there are cases when it must be rendered by этот.told me before you wished to be a governess; but, my dear, if you remember, I did not encourage the idea. (Ch. Bronte)... я не одобрила эту мысль.

2.       When the noun denotes a thing unique (the sun, the moon,
the universe) or a class.

The sun was getting warmer. (Abrahams) The bourgeoisie is cowardly. (London)indefinite article can be used when we mean a certain aspect in which the sun, moon and sky appear to us, a certain state of the sun, the moon, the sky. In this case an attribute is used.pearl-white moon smiles through the green trees. (Ch. Bronte)

3.       With nouns used in a generic sense.

A noun used in a generic sense denotes a genus taken as a whole, a thing taken as a type, a genre.tiger has always had the reputation of being a man-eater. The telephone was invented in the 19th century. The tragedy and the comedy first appeared in Greece.the noun man is used in a generic sense no article is used.felt that his trust in man had been cruelly destroyed. (Eliot)the noun woman is used in a generic sense it is used with the definite article or occasionally without an article.had always been interested in that mysterious being - the. (Bennett)is man's helpmate.noun used in a generic sense should not be confused with a noun used in a general sense.noun used in a general sense denotes an object regarded as an individual representative of a class.detective story helps to while away the time.

(Every or any detective story is meant here.)noun in a generic sense denotes the whole class.Doyle is a master of the detective story. (The detective story is regarded here as a certain genre.)notes on the use of the Definite Article. definite article is used:

(1)     with nouns modified by adjectives in the superlative degree.

Miss Tox had the softest voice that ever was heard. (Dickens)

(2)     with nouns in word-groups the first component of which is some, many, none, most and the second a noun with the preposition of.

Most of the gentlemen looked both angry and uncomfortable. (Voynich)

(3)     with nouns modified by the pronoun same and the adjectives wrong (не тот), right (тот), very (именно тот, тот самый).

То all invitations he replied with the same courteous and positive refusal. (Voynich)do wish we had not opened the door of the wrong room. (Jerome)

«... именно тот (как раз тот) человек, который мне нужен». Signora Grassini hated Gemma for the very expression of her face.

Синьора Грассини ненавидела Джемму за само выражение ее лица.

(4)     with substantivized adjectives and participles

Only the simple and the humble were abroad at that early hour. (Bennett)conveyed some of his love of the beautiful to Cowperwood. (Dreiser)listeners noted something beyond the usual in his voice. (Galsworthy). - With countable abstract nouns the use of the articles is the same as with class a capital idea if only one could carry it out. (Voynich)use of articles with class nouns modified by attributes.definite article is used when a noun is modified by an attribute which shows that a particular object is meant, i. e. by an attribute which might be called a particularizing attribute [20, c. 67] A particularizing attribute is used to single out an object from all the objects of the class, to point out one particular object or group of objects. The use of a particularizing attribute implies the idea of 'тот, который'; 'именно тот, этот'.particularizing attribute can be expressed by an of-phrase or an attributive clause. It is always used in post-position.knocked at the door of a very neat house. (Marryat)letters that I have here have come to me quite by accident. (Dreiser)particularizing attribute should not be confused with a descriptive attribute.descriptive attribute is used to describe an object or to give some additional information about it.a fortnight I got a long letter, which I considered odd. (E. Bronte)post on her left was occupied by Mr. Erskine of Treadley, an old gentleman of considerable charm and culture. (Wilde)use of a descriptive attribute does not affect the use of the article. The same articles would be used if there were no attribute in January he called at the seminary to return a book which he had borrowed. (Voynich)have just spoken to the woman, who seems to have changed her mind. (Bennett)went side by side, hand in hand, silently toward the hedge, where the May flower, both pink and white, was in full bloom. (Galsworthy)the first example the indefinite article is used with the noun book because the object denoted by it is presented as belonging to a class. The noun woman is used with the definite article because the speaker and the hearer know what particular person is meant. The noun hedge is used with the definite article because the situation makes the object definite.) Nouns of material nouns of material used in a general sense, when a certain material as such is meant, no article is wholesome.hearing what had happened, she (Katie) ran for warm water... (Voynich)a definite part of the substance is meant (when the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute or is made definite by the situation), the definite article is used.gulped down a glass of the sherry which Cornelius hadbrought. (Heym)meat was good and White Fang was hungry. (London)an indefinite part of the substance is meant, some is used.took some bread and cheese with us, and got some goat's milk up there on the pasture. (Voynich)of material denoting different sorts of material are countables and the articles are used according to the general use of articles with class nouns.pleasure to give a good wine to a young woman who looked so well. (Galsworthy)use is very rare.) Abstract nouns abstract nouns are used in a general sense, no article is used.there is life there is hope.abstract nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes the idea definite, they are used with the definite article.(Cowperwood) was the courage and force of his father, the spirit and opportunity of his brothers, the hope of his children, the dignity and significance of the Cowperwood name. (Dreiser) Last night I heard Carmen and enjoyed the music.1. - It should be borne in mind that abstract nouns modified by an attribute in pre-position are used without articles unless they are modified by particularizing attributes: English literature, Russian art. Soviet music.2.- The abstract noun weather is never used with the indefinite article. What fine weather! It is burning weather. (Ch. Bronte)the noun weather is used in a general sense, the definite article is used.are people who say that the weather can influence people's mood. (Bennett)nouns can be used with the indefinite article. In this case the abstract noun denotes a certain kind (оттенок) of a quality, feeling, state, etc. The noun nearly always has a descriptive attribute.clever you are, Mr. Hopper. You have a cleverness quite of your own. (Wilde)her eyes there was an eagerness, which could hardly be seen without delight. (Austen)indefinite article is used with the nouns period, population, distance, height, salary, etc. followed by of + numeral + noun.was out of the city for a period of ten days. (Dreiser)proper nouns ) Names of persons.

1.       Names of persons are used without articles. looked at Lanny and Celia. (Abrahams)

2.       Names denoting the whole family are used with the definite article.

The Dashwoods were now settled at Berton. (Auston)

3.       When names of persons are used, to denote a representative of a family, the indefinite article is used.

"Florence will never, never, never be a Dombey," said Mrs. Chick. (Dickens)

4.       Names of persons modified by a particularizing attribute are used with the definite article.

You're not the Andrew Manson I married. (Cronin)tall blond man of forty is not much changed in featurethe Godfrey Cass of six-and-twenty. (Eliot)

5.       Names of persons used as common nouns take the article according to the general rule on the use of articles.

Swithin smiled and nodding at Bosinney said, "Why, you are quite a Monte Cristo." (Galsworthy)has been called the Raphael of music.

6.       Nouns denoting military ranks and titles such as academician, professor, doctor (both a profession and a title), count, lord, etc. followed by names of persons do not take the article. In such cases only the proper noun is stressed: Colonel'Brown, Doctor'Strong. Common nouns denoting professions followed by names of persons are generally used with the definite article. In this case both nouns are stressed.

The painter Gainsborough has left many fine pictures.. However if the name of a person is nearly always used with the common noun denoting his profession, the word group becomes an indivisible unit and the article may be omitted: judge Brown.

7.       Nouns expressing relationship followed by names of persons do not take the article: Aunt Polly, Uncle James,

She turned to Cousin Clixam. (Bennett)expressing relationship not followed by a proper noun and the nouns nurse, cook, baby do not take the article when used by members of the family.

"I'd like to see Mother," said Emily. (Galsworthy)other people's relations are meant, the article is used. The son is as clever as the father.

8.       The use of articles with names of persons modified by adjectives is varied.

In most cases no article is used with names of persons modified by the adjectives old, young, poor, dear, little, honest, lazy.

... she is the widow of poor Giovanni Bolla... (Voynich) He saw that old Chapin wanted to moralize a little. (Dreiser)modified by other adjectives and participles names of persons take the definite article.thought Amelia worthy even of the brilliant George Osborne. (Thackeray)astonished Tom could not say a word.

. Names of persons modified by the adjective certain are used with the indefinite article.heard it from a certain Mr. Brown.) Geographical names.. Geographical names like all the other proper nouns are used without articles: England, France, Moscow, London.same holds good when a geographical name is modified by an attribute in pre-position: Soviet Russia, North America, Latin America, Central Asia.. - The word groups the Soviet Union, the United States are always used with the definite article.

2.       Geographical names modified by a particularizing attribute are used with the definite article.

The Philadelphia into which Frank Algernon Cowperwood was born was a city of two hundred and fifty thousand and more. (Dreiser)

3.  With names of oceans, seas, rivers the definite article is used: the Pacific Ocean (the Pacific), the Black Sea, the Thames, the Ohio River.

4.  Names of lakes do not take the article if the word lake is used, which is nearly always the case; if it is not mentioned we find the definite article: Lake Windermere, Lake Ontario, the Ontario.

5.  With names of mountain chains the definite article is used: the Urals, the Alps.

With names of mountain peaks no article is used: Elbrus, Everest.

6.       With names of groups of islands the definite article is used: the Hebrides, the Bermudas.

With names of single islands there is no article: Madagascar.

7.       The names of the following towns, countries and provinces are used with the definite article: the Hague, the Netherlands, the West Indies, the Ruhr, the Riviera, the Crimea, the Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Congo. The Lebanon is generally used with the definite article, occasionally without the article.

8.       Names of streets and squares are used without articles: Oxford Street, Wall Street, Trafalgar Square, Russell Square.

There are a few exceptions: the High Street, the Strand.) Names of hotels, ships, newspapers and magazines.of hotels, ships, newspapers and magazines are used with the definite article.he added that the Independent had accepted and was about to publish two poems which he had been able to write because of her. (Dreiser)three men came to the turning at the corner of the Grosvenor Hotel. (Hichens)) Names of cardinal points.the names of cardinal points the definite article is used: the North, the South, the West, the East.the expressions from East to West, from North to South no article is used.) Names of months and days.a rule names of months and days are used without a spring month. My day off is Friday.these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute the definite article is used.May of 1949 will always rest in my memory.Trotwood came on the Friday when David was born.of days are used with the indefinite article when we mean one of many Mondays, Fridays, etc.Crusoe found his servant on a not remember exactly when he came from Moscow, but Isure it was on a Monday.of months are used with the indefinite article when modified by a descriptive attribute.cold May is the usual thing in Leningrad.) The use of articles with nouns modified by proper nouns.a noun is modified by a proper noun in the genitive case no article is used.met Robert's father.noun modified by a proper noun in the common case is used with the definite article.summer I visited the Tretyakov Gallery.

The sailor led him back to the little irregular square by the

Medici Palace. (Voynich)OF ARTICLES WITH NOUNS IN SOME SET EXPRESSIONS)The use of the indefinite article with nouns in set expressions.

1. in a hurry - второпях

Things done in a hurry are done badly.

2. to have a mind to do something (a great mind, a good mind) - иметь желание что-либо сделать, быть склонным что либо сделать

I have a great mind to have a serious talk with her.

3. to fly into a passion - прийти в бешенство

If you contradict him, he will fly into a passion.

4. to get in a fury (in a rage) прийти в ярость

If you contradict him, he will get in a fury (in a rage).

5. to take a fancy to (chiefly with names of living beings)- проникнуться симпатией,  почувствовать расположение

I wonder why she took a fancy to the little girl.

6. in a low (loud) voice - тихо(громко)

Don't speak in a low voice.

7. a great many (with countables) - много

I have spoken to him a great many times.

8. a great deal (with uncountables) - много

We can't skate today, there is a great deal of snow on the ice.

9. it is a pity - жаль

It is a pity you did not go to the concert last night.

10. it is a shame - стыдно

It is a shame not to know these elementary things.

11. it is a pleasure - приятно

It is a pleasure to read beautiful poetry.

12. as a result - в результате

As a result of the inhabitants strenuous efforts the damaged city was soon rebuilt.

13. to have a good time - хорошо провести время

Last night we went to an evening party and had a very good time.

14. to be at a loss - быть в недоумении

She was at a loss what to say.

15. at a glance - сразу, с первого взгляда

She saw at a glance that something had happened.

b)The use of the definite article with nouns in set expressions.

1. it is out of the question - об этом не может быть и речи

Will you go to the theatre tonight?" "It's out of the question you have lots of things to do."

2. to take the trouble to do something - потрудиться

You had a difficult text to translate and you did not take the trouble to consult the dictionary.

3. in the original - в оригинале

4. to play the piano (the violin, the harp) - играть на рояле (скрипке, арфе)

She plays the piano very well.

5. to keep the house - сидеть дома

She has a cold and will have to keep the house for a couple of days.

6. to keep the bed - соблюдать постельный режим

She has a bad cold and will have to keep the bed for a couple of days.

7. on the whole - в целом

On the whole Tom is a pleasant fellow, but sometimes he has whims.

8. the other day (refers to the past) - на днях

I met him the other day.

9. on the one hand. on the other hand - с одной стороны.с другой стороны

On the one hand he certainly excites suspicion, but on the other hand we have not enough evidence against him. (Qppenheim)

10. to tell (to speak) the truth говорить правду; To tell the truth, - по правде говоря

He always speaks (tells) the truth.

11. to be on the safe side - для верности

I am almost sure of the pronunciation of this name, but to be on the safe side let us consult the pronouncing dictionary.

) Nouns in set expressions used without an article.

1. out of doors - на дворе, на улице, вне дома

The children spent most of the time out of doors.

2. to take to heart - принимать близко к сердцу

Don't take things too much to heart.

3. to take offence - обижаться

If he had heard your remark, he would have taken offence.

4. to give (to get, to ask) permission - дать (получить, просить) разрешение

I asked permission to keep the book a little longer.

5. to lose heart - терять мужество, приходить в уныние

Не found the subject very difficult at first, but he did not lose heart.

6. at present - в настоящее время

He went on working hard and finally mastered it. You may go home, we don't want you at present.

7. from morning till night - с утра до вечера

Не worked in his little garden from morning till night.

8. from head to foot - с головы до ног

She was dressed in furs from head to foot.

9. from beginning to end - с начала до конца

The whole story is a lie from beginning to end.

10. at first sight - с первого взгляда

Не fell in love with her at first sight.

11. by chance -случайно

They met quite by chance.

12. by mistake - по ошибке

I have brought the wrong book by mistake.

13. for hours - часами

Не could read for hours.

14. for ages - целую вечность

I have not seen you for ages.

15. by land, by air, by sea - cyшей, по воздуху, морем

I like travelling by sea.

16. to go to sea - стать моряком

My sister wants to be a doctor, and my brother wants to go to sea.

17. on deck - на палубе

We spent hours on deck.

18. to keep house - вести хозяйство

Her sister keeps house for her.

19. at sunrise - на рассвете

We left the town at sunrise.

20. at sunset - на закате

We arrived at the village at sunset.

21. at work - за работой

Whenever I come, he is always at work.

22. at peace - в мире

We want to be at peace with all countries.

23. by name - по имени

His cat, Snowball by name, was playing on the carpet.

24. in debt - в долгу

Mr. Micawber was always in debt.

) The use of articles with predicative nouns.stated above a predicative noun is used with the indefinite article if the speaker states that the object denoted by the noun belongs to a certain class.a predicative noun is modified by a particularizing attribute, the definite article is the student you wanted to speak to.a predicative noun denotes a post which can be occupied by one person at a time, either no atricle or the definite article is used.. Henderson is manager, not under-manager any longer. (Lindsay) Montanelli was director of the theological seminary at Pisa. Comrade N. is the dean of our faculty.article is used with predicative nouns after the verbs to turn, to commence, to appoint, to elect. turned traitor.

Компейсон стал предателем.

Shakespeare commenced actor.

Шекспир начинал как актер.appointed him head-teacher.

Его назначили старшим преподавателем.predicative noun sometimes has an adjectival character, especially when it is followed by the adverb enough. In this case no article is used.Bolla isn't fool enough to believe that sort of stuff?

Неужели Болла настолько глуп, чтобы поверить подобному

вздору?a predicative noun in an adverbial clause of concession is placed at the head of the clause, no article is he was, David understood that Creakle was an ignorant man Хотя Давид был ребенком, он понимал, что Крикль - невежественный человек.nouns son and daughter used predicatively take the definite article when modified by an of phrase, though there may be several sons and daughters in the family.was the son of a fisherman. Becky Sharp was the daughter of an artist.) The use of articles with nouns in apposition and nouns forming part of an apposition are used with the indefinite article if the speaker states that the object expressed by the noun in apposition belongs to a certain class.want to introduce you to Comrade В., a great friend of mine.the plural no article is used.want to introduce you to Comrades B. and D., great friends apposition or nouns forming part of an apposition are used with the definite article if they are modified by a particularizing attribute.В., the student you have mentioned, has come.the noun denotes a well-known person or work of art, the definite article is generally used., the great Russian poet, died in 1837., the immortal tragedy by Shakespeare, was written in theyears of the 17th century.if the person or the work of art is not widely known the indefinite article is used., a comedy by Shakespeare, is hardly ever staged.article is generally used with a noun in apposition when the apposition expresses a post which can be occupied by one person at a time. Occasionally the definite article is used.Petrov, director (the director) of the Medical Institute, is going to deliver a lecture.Smirnov, dean (the dean) of the English department, has left for Moscow.nouns used in address take no article. Come downstairs, child. (Voynich)) Place of the article.usual place of the article is before the noun if it is not modified by an attribute; if the noun is modified by an attribute, the article is placed before the latter. However, there are cases when the article follows the attribute.

1.       The definite article follows the attribute expressed by thepronouns both, all.

Both the stones were interesting. All the stones were interesting.

2.       The indefinite article follows the attribute expressed by an adjective after so, too, as.

Mr. Pickwick could not resist so tempting an opportunity ofhuman nature. (Dickens)compel me to tell you that this is too serious a matter totreated in such a fashion. (Dreiser)was as black a house inside as outside. (Dickens)

3.       The indefinite article follows quite, such, what (what in exclamatory sentences).

She is quite a child.'ve never heard of such a thing.a wonderfu' piece of luck!indefinite article either precedes or follows rather.enquiry envolved the respected lady in rather a delicate. (Dickens)stop and interchange a rather heated look. (Dickens)) Ways of expressing the meaning of the English articles in Russian.meaning of the English article may sometimes be expressed in Russian by means of:

(a)     cases.

Pour the water into the glass.

Налейте воду в стакан. some water into the glass.

Налейте воды в стакан.

(b)     word order.

A woman came up to me and asked what time it was. Ко мне подошла женщина и спросила, который час. The woman has come. Женщина пришла.

(c)     the words один, какой-то, какой-нибудь (the indefinite article), этот, тот самый (the definite article).

A man is waiting for you downstairs.

Вас внизу ждет какой-то человек.

Do you know Nina? Yes, I do. I like the girl immensely.

Вы знаете Нину? Знаю. Мне очень нравится эта девушка.

Special difficulties in the use of articles.) The use of articles with the nouns day, night, morning, evening.nouns day, night, morning, evening are used without articles:

(a)     if day und morning mean 'light' and night and evening mean 'darkness', or if they denote a certain part of the day.

The sun had gone and night had come. (Abrahams)is meant for work, night for sleep.was evening. The river was before them. (Dreiser)

(b)     in the expressions by day. at night, from morning till night. It is easier to work by day than at night.

The definite article is used when these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.will never forget the day when he met her. The night was warm and beautifully still. (Voynich)definite article is also used in the expressions: in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening.indefinite article is used when the noun is modified by a descriptive attribute.spent a sleepless night.the nouns morning and evening are modified by the adjectives early and late, no articles are used because these adjectives do not describe the morning or night, but only show the time.was early morning when the train pulled into the little siding. (Abrahams)) The use of articles with names of seasons.of seasons are used without articles if they show a certain time of the year.was spring. I like spring.definite article is used when these nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.happened in the spring of 1930, The spring was cold and rainy.indefinite article is used when these nouns are modified by a descriptive attribute.was a cold spring.names of seasons are modified by the adjectives early or late, no articles are used.was early spring.) The use of articles with the nouns school, college, bed, prison, jail.nouns school, college, bed, prison, jail are used without an article when they lose their concrete meaning and express the purpose for which the objects denoted by these nouns serve.these nouns denote concrete objects the articles are used according to the general principle.

(a) School, at school |

> to be a schoolboy (schoolgirl) go to school be at college - to be a student of a college to leave school - to finish or drop one's studiesbegins at five.went to College in the North. (Gow and D'Usseau)history since he left school had been indicated in the last. (Thackeray)was at seventeen that he decided to leave school.go to the school - not as a pupil (the building is meant)leave the school - to leave the buildingwent to the school yesterday to attend a parents' meeting.left the school at 7 o'clock.worked at a school in Siberia.

(b)     Bed.

to go to bed - ложиться спатьbe in bed - лежать в постелиnow you had better go to bed. Good-night. (Voynich)be in the bed

> an article of furniture is meantbe on the bed portrait was on the wall beside the bed. (Voynich)

(c)     Prison, jail.

to be in prison (in jail) - to be a prisonerbe sent to prison

> as a prisoner

to be put in prison . Dorrit was in prison many years. Mr. Dorrit was sent to prison for debt.last they had heard of him was that he was in jail for having killed a person in a fight. (Abrahams)be in the prison

>not as a prisoner (the building is meant) go to the prison. Dorrit's family lived in the prison.prison proper dated from 1822. (Dreiser)) The use of articles with the noun town.noun town when used with prepositions does not take an:

(a)     when we mean the nearest town (if we live in the country) or the town we liv.e in.

You cannot go to town to-morrow. (Austen) What can you have to do in town...? (Austen)

(b)     when the noun town is opposed to the noun country.

He was not used to country life, having spent twenty years in town.the noun town is used with the definite or indefinite article.want to go to the town where I was born.) The use of articles with the names of meals.of meals are used without articles.did you have dinner?dinner ready?is cooking dinner.they were at breakfast, the letters were brought in. (Austen)have finished breakfast, ring the bell. (Ch. Bronte)definite article is used when the nouns are modified by a particularizing attribute or when the situation makes them definite.dinner we had to-day was very substantial. The dinner was a success.indefinite article is used if the name of a meal is modified by a descriptive attribute.a hearty breakfast the four gentlemen sallied forth to walk to Gravesend. (Dickens)) The use of articles with names of languages.of languages when they are not followed by the noun language are used without articles:knows English.the peculiar use of the definite article in: (1) It is a translation from the English (the French, etc.), (2) What is the English (the French, etc.) for 'сосна'?definite article is used if the noun is modified by a particularizing attribute:English of America differs from the English of England.the noun language is mentioned the definite article is used: the English language, the German language.of articles with nouns modified by certain adjectives, pronouns and numerals. ) Most.

(a) Most + adjective.definite article is used when most serves to form the superlative degree of an adjective.

This is the most interesting chapter in the book.

The use of the indefinite article shows that a high degree of a quality is meant. Most has the same meaning as very, exceedingly.found that the old maid had been a most devoted daughter and sister. (Ch. Bronte)- Occasionally the form of the superlative degree does not express comparison, but a high degree of a quality.listened with the most profound attention. He listened with the deepest attention.same phenomenon is found in Russian:

Он слушал с глубочайшим вниманием.

(b) Most + of + noun.definite people or things are meant the noun is used with the definite article and most is followed by the preposition of.of the flowers in the garden were planted by the schoolchildren.of the gentlemen looked both angry and uncomfortable. (Voynich)say most, not most of the, when we do not mean definite people or things. The noun is used in a general smell sweet.) Few, a few, the few; little, a little, the little.means 'мало', it has a negative meaning.few means 'несколько', it has a positive meaning. few means 'те немногие (которые)'.

He was a very good man. There are few like him in the world to-day. (Abrahams)left after a few moments. (Dreiser)need not fear to hear the few remaining words we have to say. (Dickens)means 'мало', it has a negative meaning.little means 'некоторое количество', it has a positive meaning. little means 'небольшое количество (которое)'.

We can't go skiing to-day. There is too little snow.have a little time. Let us take a walk in the garden.'t waste the little time you have.) Two, the two; three, the three, etc.means 'два'.two means 'оба, те два'.students entered the room.two friends travelled together.

The two books you lent me proved very interesting.

d) The second, a second.second is an ordinal numeral meaning 'второй'.second attempt proved more successful than the first.second means 'another, one more'. Having eaten the gruel, Oliver asked for a second portion.the third, a third, the fourth, a fourth, etc. we see the same difference in meaning.made an experiment which proved his theory. He made a second, a third, a fourth experiment with the same results.second time means 'once more'.rang the bell, but nobody answered it, so I had to ring a second time.) Another, the other.pronoun another has two meanings:

(a)     'какой-либо другой'.

Give me another pen, I don't like this one.

(b)     'еще один'.

I am thirsty; 1 should like another cup of tea. The other means 'определенный другой'. There are two books here, take one and I'll take the other.) Last, the last.modified by the adjective last are always used with the definite article except in the expressions last month, last year, last week, last summer (winter, autumn, spring).last word remained with George.summer, in Switzerland, he was quite well. (Voynich)) Next, the next.means 'будущий' when referring to time: next month, next means 'следующий': the next room, at the next lesson. Next time means 'в следующий раз'.

We shall discuss this matter next time.reference to time viewed from the past both next and the next mean 'следующий'.spent a fortnight in Kiev. The next week was spent in Odessa (or: Next week was spent in Odessa).) A number, the number.number of means 'many'. It is rendered in Russian by много, ряд.number means 'число, количество'.father and a number of his cronies were in the dining-room. (Dreiser)number of mistakes he makes is startling.of the articlethe article is not used where we naturally expect to find it in accordance with the rules. No change of meaning is observed in these cases.article is often omitted in newspaper headings, telegrams, in stage directions.Blast Kills Woman. (Dally Worker) Girl Gymnast Keeps Title. (Moscow News)article is often omitted with homogeneous members closely connected with each other and joined by the conjunction and. In most cases they go in pairs.breakfast was taken away, and that meal over, it was the general custom of uncle and niece to separate. (Ch. Bronte)[20]analyses of theoretical and practical aspects of the English articles enabled to make the following conclusions:

1.       Considering the process of the historical development of the English articles there appeared two concepts according to the first of which the article is the notional part of speech and according to the second it is one of the forms of Adjectives. Most scientists supported the first point of view in the 19th century, but at the same time there existed a theory that included the article into the class of Pronouns or into the class of Adjectives. In the 20th century the article was not considered to be a notional part of speech by a wide range of scientists. In our work we support the thought that the article is a notional part of speech as it posesses three characteristics (the lexico-grammatical meanings of ”(in)definiteness”; the right-hand combinability with nouns; the function of noun specifiers) which make us believe that the English article is a notional part of speech.

2.       The syntactical role of the article consists in marking off a noun or a noun phrase as a part of the sentence.

.        The morphological value of the article lies in indicating the substantivization of other parts of speech, mainly adjectives or participles, also pronouns, adverbs, numerals.

.        The main functions of the indefinite article are: classifying, generic and numerical.

.        The two main functions of the definite article are specifying and generic.

.        The absence of any article, which is sometimes referred to as the zero article, is as meaningful as their actual use. It is regularly observed with countable nouns in the plural, with non-counts used in a general sense, with proper nouns.

.        The omission of an article differs from the absence of an article in that it is stylistically or traditionally determined.translation contextual indefinite

2. Lexico-grammatical aspects of translation of the definite and indefinite articles

to a concrete detailed analyses of ways and methods of rendering English articles into Russian it is very important to mention the category of Definiteness and Indefiniteness as it can give a considerable semantic shade of meaning.

2.1 The Category of Definiteness and Indefiniteness

noun in English and Russian, as in other languages, possesses the semantic category of definiteness and indefiniteness [39, c.412].In other words, when a noun (even a proper name) or family/geographical name is taken out of its context to which it belonged, its meaning may not be definitely understood, i.e. identified. Thus, the proper names Mykola, Petro or Anatoliy when used for the first time (eg. I met Petro/Mykola yesterday evening) may not be definite enough for the listener or collocutor who may inquire: which Petro/Mykola? Your friend/cousine Petro/Mykola? You mean your co-student Petro/Mykola? etc. Even when one uses the geographical name like Beskyd the real meaning of this proper noun may not be clear to the listener who has not enough preliminary information about the used name. This is because "Beskyd" may be the name of a mountain in the Carpathians as well as a tourist camp or a hotel there. Similarly identified must also be many other nouns in Russian despite its being a predominantly synthetic by structure language. Similarly when one hears the English king's name Charles, one would naturally inquire which king Charles? The first, the third or the fifth? Only when the substantivized numeral is added (Charles the First or Charles the Third, etc.), will the King's name become definite (clearly and finally indentified).

The category of definiteness and indenfiniteness may be identified in English and Russian both at language level (when the noun is out of a concrete context) and at speech level, i.e. in oral presentation or in a written microtext. The main means of making the noun definite in English is to use the definite or indefinite (zero) article or any other determining or identifying adjunct. For example: Bristol (zero article) means the town of Bristol, whereas the Bristol is the name of a hotel or an inn, ship, etc. Similarly even with such a proper noun as Россия which, when used without the definite article, means the country of Russia, but when presented in inverted commas it will mean anything: готель " Россия ", концертний зал " Россия " or an agricultural en terprise/joint venture " Россия ". The definite article may also determine, i.e. make definite some other groups (or single) nouns as, for example, those denoting generic nouns or unique objects on the globe, or even in the universe as in the following sentences: The lion is a wild animal. The sun is a bright celestial body. The Bible is a holy book of all Christians.

The category of definiteness may be also indicated by syntactic, i.e. lexico-syntactic means. Even when preceded by a numeral (the first or the second congress) it remains far from semantically identified. Only when explicated by one more identifier - the first congress of ecologists, the noun congress becomes more or less exhaustively identified.category of indefiniteness apart from being indicated in English by the indefinite article a/an, may also be made explicit by the indefinite pronouns any, some, etc., and by the numeral one as well as by the indefinite article plus an adjectival, participial or any other adjunct. Eg: There is some boy wants to see you. (King) "Was there a Mr Palgrave?" (H.E. Bates) - "there's a marvelously good restaurant called L'Ocean about six or seven miles down the coast". (Ibid.) Cf. expression of indefiniteness in Russian is likewise realized with the help of the indefinite pronouns, through the indefinite numeral or via the indefinite pronouns, plus the adjuncts expressing the characteristic features of the person or object. English where indefiniteness is expressed via the corresponding markers, in Russian it may sometimes be expressed also through grammatical shifting of the indefinite noun into the final position of the sentence [39, c.417]. For example:

The door opened and the teacher entered the classroom.

Дверь открылась и учитель вошел в класс.

To express indefiniteness, the noun will be shifted to the final position:

The mutiny on the Bounty is the most famous of all mutinies at sea, and it was probably the most gentle - although three of the mutineers were eventually hanged from the yardarm of a Royal Navy ship in Portsmouth Harbour.

Мятеж на «Баунти» - са­мый известный из всех морских мятежей и, по­жалуй, самый бескров­ный, хотя трое мятежни­ков и были в конце концов повешены на рее военного фрегата в Пор­тсмутской гавани.

2.2 Rendering of the contextual meaning of the definite and indefinite articles

researchers do not pay enough attention to the translation of the articles. But nevertheless some of them (I.V.Korunets, V.I.Karaban) [28,39] consider that when rendering the lexical meaning of the definite and indefinite articles into Russian one should consider that they are meaningful and attention should be payed to their functional meanings in the sentences or word-combinations. of the researches who supports the idea of the necessity of translating definite and indefinite articles is Korunets. He thinks that the article, both the definite and indefinite, is a functional word serving to identify or determine the noun (cf. to work-the work), the superlative degree of its quality (the tallest tree) or the order of nouns in a word-group (the first step) or in a row of similar nouns. In some prepositional phrases and word-combinations the definite and indefinite articles, however, may change their lexico-grammatical nature (become a particle), as in the expression the more, the better (чим більше, тим краще), or acquire some peculiar grammatical, functional and lexical meaning; the article may be lexicalized as in the Alps/the Carpathians Альпи/Карпати, at the baker's/butcher's. Such and the like lexicalized articles, naturally, in no way weaken or lose their determining, i.e., grammatical function. As a result, their lexical meaning is inseparable in these cases from their functional meaning. The determining and lexicalizing nature of the definite and indefinite articles also manifests itself in several set expressions (cf. in the cart, in a word, what a pity, all of a sudden, etc.)

1). On several other occasions the definite/indefinite article may acquire some lexical meaning in contextual environment (only for a time) and thus serve as a peculiar means of «expressive connotation»1. This kind of articles is each time endowed in different contextual environments with some quite different meaning, which may be, nevertheless, of implicitly different semantic and lexico-grammatical/ logically-grammatical type, as for instance, that of a demonstrative, possessive, identifying, indefinite or some other pronoun: Cf.: He lived more poorly than an artisan. (S. Maugham). Carot never sold a picture.

) That of an adjunctive/identifying adjective and a specifying or modal particle:... and she had acquired a reputation for neatness and accuracy (Maugham). She would have called him a fish. (Carrol).

) A distinctly nominal or rather nominalizing meaning. The latter can be explicitly illustrated in the following sentence. He (Mr. Gills) took it (the bottle) up and having surveyed and smelt it said with extraordinary expression: «The?» «The», returned the instrument maker. (Ch. Dickens)real meaning of thus emphasized article can be disclosed only in the sentence that follows, where Mr. Gills fills the glass with liquour and drinks it. Without the broader context it would certainly be impossible to guess what this definite nominalizing article stands for in the extract. Nor is it always easy for our students to identify in some sentences the rhematic and the thematic function of article; and to express their meaning. Therefore, the occurrence of lexically meaningful articles is not occasional or accidental, for it is predetermined by context. Due to this, the number of lexically meaningful articles in different speech substyles often varies. Their occurrence can also depend on the personal taste of the author who may be more or less inclined to use them in his narrative. But whatever their quantity, none of the lexically meaningful articles should be ignored о overlooked in the passage under translation and its meaning must be correctly rendered in the target language.order to faithfully convey each kind of the aforementioned meaningful articles, the student will be advised first of all to subject the whole passage, which is to be translated, to a thorough content analysis in order to select possible lexical substitutes for the article in the target language. The substitutes in languages like Russian, which have no functionals of the kind, can differ by their logico-grammatical nature, as well as be contextually synonymous Because of this the choice of the contextually equivalent substitutes depends much on the translator who, when selecting a fitting lexical equivalent for the article, has to take some factors into consideration These include first of all the semantic factor playing a predominant role, and the stylistic factor eliminating an unnecessary repetition of the same equivalent substitute in sentences close by. In other words, the co-occurrence of the same synonymous substitutes must bе strictly regulated. Besides, the translator has to keep it in mind, that some contextual meanings of the definite article may seem similar 1.1 those of the indefinite article and vice versa. Hence, the translator should be no less attentive to the style of his target language pas sage which in its turn will help him achieve a faithful translation of sentences or the passage as a whole, where both the defining and the nominalizing lexically charged articles are used.conveying the lexical meanings of the definite and indefinite articles into Russian, attention should be paid to their functional meanings in the sentence/word-combinations. Thus, the meanings of the definite article are usually expressed through different Russian attributive pronouns, adjectives, participles, adverbs or cardinal/ordinal numerals. The meaning of the numeral one, on the other hand, is always expressed only through the indefinite article, which is historically derived from this part of speech. Cf.: Most of felllows in the Quarters share a studio. (Maugham).nominalizing articles are mostly rendered through the parts of speech having the functions of attributes to the noun: «... I believe that a young person in a city tea-shop has left her situation. (Maugham).emphatically used articles, on the other hand, have usually particles for their contextual equivalents in Russian: But I must content myself with a few paragraphs. (Maugham).rhematic use of the articles introducing the new information, a new core of an utterance, and its thematic use repeating the already known information about an object or event is often disclosed in Russian sentences by other than lexical means, as will be shown further. Still, the bulk of meanings which the lexically charged articles can acquire due to their syntagmatic environment in speech are those of pronouns. This can also be seen from the citied illustrations on the forthcoming pages.

Realization of the contextual meanings of the definite article

The definite article when endowed with the lexical meaning in a sentence or passage can have various realizations in Russian. It is expedient to begin with the most common of them which may refer not only to nouns but to other parts of speech as well, as for example:

) as the demonstrative pronoun:

What his sister has seen in the man was beyond him. (J.London)

Что его сестра нашла в этом человеке позади нее.

All cited instances in illustration of the lexical meaning of articles, unless indicated otherwise, have been picked up from J.London's works and their translations in Russian

The argument is unconvincing.

Аргумент не убедителен.

3) as the possessive pronoun:

The room was situated over the. laundry

Комната находилась над прачечной. Його кімната була/ знаходилась над пральнею...

4) as the identifying pronoun.

The many possibilities opened up by the solution were not availed of.

Многие возможности открывшиеся в святи с решением не были использованы.

5) as the relative pronoun.

Did you hear the thing I had to say?

Слышал ли ты новость которую я тебе должен был рассказать?

6) as the indefinite pronoun

For the moment she thought she was going to be sick.

На какой то момент она подумала о том что ей будет больно.

7) as the identifying attributive pronoun:

The toil meant nothing to him.

Труд ничего не значил для него

8) as an adjective or adjectivized participle (according to the contextual meaning):

Martin Eden did not go out to hunt for a job in the morning.

Мартин не пошел искать работу утром.

9) as a particle emphasizing the attributive pronoun, numeral or some other part of speech:

 It needed the excitement of getting a part or a first night…

Необходимо получить волнение в первую ночь

rheme, the notional element in the utterance, is more frequently indicated in English by the indefinite article determining the noun in the initial position. When translated into Russian, however, the rhematic noun, as has long been noticed1, occupies a terminating position in the sentence/clause (when the utterance is a composite sentence):correct selection of thematic and rhematic nouns, identified by the definite and indefinite articles and by their respective placement in the sentence, facilitates the faithful conveying of the logical sentence perspective in the target language.

Realization of the contextual meanings of the indefinite article

Strange as it may seem but very often, almost predominantly, the indefinite article is endowed in speech/text with lexical meanings, which may coincide with those of different pronouns. The only exception is made for the meaning of the cardinal numeral «one» from which the indefinite article historically originates. No wonder that the contextual meanings of the lexically charged indefinite article can sometimes be, as will be seen further on, quite unexpected. The most frequent and common of these meanings can be expressed, as has been mentioned already, in one of the following ways:

1) In some contexts, however, the indefinite article may acquire a lexical meaning which corresponds either to the Russian cardinal numeral один, to the ordinal numeral перший or to the indefinite pronoun. The indefinite article may also mark the rheme of the utterance as in the sentence: Only for an instant he hesitated, then his head went up and his hand came off. (J. London) In this sentence any of the above-given substitutes may be quite faithful, since the cardinal or ordinal numeral and the indefinite pronoun are equally fitting in the utterance, which in Russian will have another position:

)By the indefinite pronoun, without the attendant meanings of the cardinal or ordinal numerals

4) when the lexically meaningful indefinite article precedes the noun under logical stress, it functions as the demonstrative pronoun, which is translated into Russian.

) As one of the possessive pronouns (according to their contextual meaning).

6)      As the negative pronoun оr the negative particle
(when the determined noun is preceded by the negative particle not):

)        as the relative adjective цілий which is lexically equivalent in the sentences below to the Russian identifying pronoun.

8)More common in Russian contextual substitutes for the lexically meaningful indefinite article are, however, different relative adjectives, the most often used.

) The contextual meaning of the indefinite article may sometimes be expressed in Russian through different adverbs.above-given lexical realizations of the determining and identifying functions of the definite and indefinite articles would be incomplete without the illustration of some other meanings, which they may acquire in contextual environment. The choice of the semantically fitting substitute for the definite or indefinite article then rests entirely with the translator, who is well acquainted with the text/ work under translation. Since the style of the text may often influence or predetermine the choice of the necessary synonym, care should be taken in order not to neglect the possible ways of expression in Russian either. Thus, the lexical meaning of the indefinite article a in the sentence - I didn't dare show my face at Court for a month. (0. Wilde) - could be faithfully expressed in Russian either through the identifying pronoun весь or by its lexical equivalent at sentence level, which is the relative adjective цілий. But the translator of The Picture of Dorian Gray (R. Dotsenko) has suggested for this particular case a more acceptable contextual version.

10)     The broader context often predetermines the employment of lexically equivalent variants which could scarcely ever be offered for a narrow context. The kind of contextual substitutes can be seen in the examples below, where Russian demonstrative and other pronouns, adjectives, numerals, etc., are contextually/semantically enforced by emphatic or modal particles. Thus, the contextual meaning of the indefinite article below is expressed through an adjective enforced by an emphatic or some other particle or group of particles.

) The contextual meaning of the indefinite article may be ex
pressed through the interrogative or indefinite pronoun also enforced
by some emphatic particles.

Note: Apart from the above-cited contextual meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles there may be some other (implicit) meanings of them. Thus, the definite article may sometimes have the following additional realizations in Russian.) that of a pronominal word-group of an emphatic force:

The identifying definite article may include in its semantic information some specifying function and meaning too:implicit contextual meanings of the modifying and identifying definite article the can often be given a true and faithful explication i.e. realization in translation only after a thorough study of the broader content as well. Cf.:) Sometimes the article may substitute an implicit identifying/ interrogative pronoun and a particle expressing the contextual meaning of the emphatically used noun with the definite article. This can be seen in the following exclamatory sentence:picture of contextual realizations of meanings pertained to the determining and identifying articles would be incomplete without some illustrations of their «deep», as one might call them, or interphrasal and superphrasal meanings, which the articles may acquire in some contexts. The interphrasal meaning of the definite or indefinite article may be elicited already from its contextual meaning at the level of the sentence. Cf.:meaning of the noun with the indefinite article (an expression) is clearly perceived from the content of the sentence where it may also be substituted.or less transient is also the meaning of the underlined noun with the definite article in the following sentence.some cases, however, it is next to impossible to translate a noun with the implicit meaning of its identifying or specifying article without an inquiry into the broader context of the whole work, as in the following sentence.goes without saying that such a descriptive translation of the noun (a scholarship) could be offered only by a translator well acquainted with the content of the preceding sentences or even of the whole paragraph.are, naturally, many more contextual realizations of the" lexical meanings, pertaining to the definite and the indefinite articles, which they may acquire in a text/at speech level.view of the diversity of possible lexical realizations, which the English articles may have in speech, the student will be warned to employ not only their single word equivalents to express their meanings in Russian. A thorough study of the broader context may sometimes help to find a more fitting substitute for a lexically charged indefinite or definite article in Russian. Thus, in the sentence He had a face that reminded me of a frog. (W.Lewis) and But how in heaven’s name could they raise a sum like that? the bold type indefinite article a can not be denied the meaning of the demonstrative pronoun таке. All this must be borne in mind when dealing with the lexically meaningful articles in the sentences of the exercise below. Unfortunately, the restricted space of the manual makes it impossible to give regular passages with the implicit (contextual) meanings of the definite and the indefinite articles.analyses of more than 500 cases of translation of English articles into Russian enabled to make the following conclusions:

1.       The meanings of the definite article are usually expressed through different Russian attributive pronouns, adjectives, participles, adverbs or cardinal/ordinal numerals.

2.       The meanings of the indefinite article are usually expressed through the cardinal numeral one, by the indefinite pronoun, as the demonstrative, as one of the possessive pronouns, as the negative pronoun, or the negative particle, as different relative adjectives, the most often used being;as different adverbs, as an adjective enforced by an emphatic or some other particle or group of particles, as am interrogative or indefinite pronoun also enforced by some emphatic particles.

3.       The category of Definiteness and Indefiniteness which influences the way of rendering from English into Russian a lot is equally pertained to both contrasted languages.


results of our research enable use to draw some general conclusions.

1.       Article is a determining unit of specific nature accompanying the noun in communicative collocation. Two articles in the English language - definite article the and indefinite one a - have different meanings and different functions. The use of the articles has generally grammatical meaning and falls under definite rules.

2. The definite article has developed from the Old English demonstrative pronoun. Hence the indefinite article originates from the Old English numeral one.

3. The article is a notional part of speech as it posesses three characteristics (the lexico-grammatical meanings of ”(in)definiteness”; the right-hand combinability with nouns; the function of noun specifiers)

. The syntactical role of the article consists in marking off a noun or a noun phrase as a part of the sentence.

. The morphological value of the article lies in indicating the substantivization of other parts of speech, mainly adjectives or participles, also pronouns, adverbs, numerals.

. The main functions of the indefinite article are: classifying, generic and numerical.

. The two main functions of the definite article are specifying and generic.

. Since the meaning of the article comes to the fore in certain contexts it should not be ignored in the translation. The analysis of the works of S.Maugham, J.London translated into Russian showed that translators reproduce the meaning of the definite article through different Russian attributive pronouns, adjectives, participles, adverbs or cardinal/ordinal numerals. The meanings of the indefinite article are usually expressed through the cardinal numeral one, by the indefinite pronoun, as the demonstrative pronoun, as one of the possessive pronouns, as the negative pronoun, or the negative particle, as different relative adjectives, the most often used being;as different adverbs, as an adjective enforced by an emphatic or some other particle or group of particles, as am interrogative or indefinite pronoun also enforced by some emphatic particles.


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