Great Britain (Великобритания)
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland occupies territory of the British Isles which are situated to the north-west of Europe. They consist of two main
islands: Great Britain and Ireland. England is in the south of the island of Great Britain, Scotland is in the north and Wales is in the west. Northern Ireland is situated in the north-eastern part of Ireland. Its western coast is
washed by the Atlantic Ocean. In the east the island of Great Britain is washed
by the North Sea. The Irish Sea, the North Channel and the St. George’s Channel
separate Ireland from Great Britain. Great Britain is separated from France by the English Channel, which is 32 km wide in its narrowest part. In everyday
speech “Great Britain” is used to mean the UK.
climate of Britain is usually described as cool, temperate and humid. As the
weather changes with a wind, and Britain is visited by winds from different
parts of the world, the most characteristic feature of Britain’s weather is its variability. Summers are not hot and winters are not cold in Britain. The snow never lies for long on the ground. As a rule there is no ice on the
waters of rivers and lakes. So we may say that the British climate has 3 main
features: it is mild, humid and changeable. That means that it’s never too hot
or too warm.
changes very often.
is the official, but not the only language used in the country.
Britain has been many centuries in the making. The Romans conquered most part of
Britain, but were unable to subdue the fiercely independent tribes in the
West and in the North. Further waves of invaders followed: Angels, Saxons,
Jutes, Vikings and Normans. All these contributed to the mixture we call
English. For many centuries this country was known simply as England. It had a strong army and navy. It waged numerous colonial wars. England, once the “work shop of the world”, was the first to become a highly industrial
are no big rivers in Great Britain. The biggest are Severn and Thames. The Severn in England is the longest river. It is 350 kilometers long. It flows
south – west into the Irish Sea. There are a lot of mountains in Great Britain, but they are nit high. The highest mountain - Ben Nevis - is in Scotland. The flora of the British Isles is much varied and the fauna is similar to that of
the north-west of Europe. The country is not very rich in natural resources but
there were suffice for the Industrial Revolution to start.
London is the
capital of the Great Britain.
was founded by the Romans. It is very old city. It is two thousand years old. London is only the capital of the country; it is also a huge port.
London is situated upon both banks of the Thames. There are 17 bridges across the river. The
population of London is over 8 million people.
London has got three parts of London, the West End, and the East End. The City of London is the oldest part of London. You can see narrow streets and
pavements there. There are many offices, films and banks in this part of London. The City of London is the financial centre of the Great Britain.
West End is the centre of London. There are many sights in the West End. They are many, for example, the Houses of Parliament with Big Ben. It is
interesting that the clock “Big Ben” came into service in 1859. Big Ben is
biggest clock bell in Britain. It weight 13.5 tons.
other interesting place is Westminster Abbey, which was founded in 1050. It is
situated in the centre of London. Many great Englishmen were buried in the Abbey:
Newton, Darvin and others.
official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. It was built in
the 18th century. There are many nice squares in London. Trafalgar Square is one of them and it is in the centre of West End. One can see a statue of
Lord Nelson in the middle of this square.
are many museums, libraries and galleries in London. The Gallery is one of the
well – known galleries in London. Henry Tate was a sugar manufacturer. He was
found of paintings and collected many pictures.
British Museum is a very interesting place in London. It was founded in 1753.
The library of this museum has a lot of books.
East End of London is the district for the working people. There are many
factories, workshops, docks there. There are many cars and buses in London. There is a tube (an underground) in London, too. It is a nice one.
can say that the City is the money of London, the West End is the goods of London, the East End is the hands of London.
Britain is highly industrialized, this
was the country in which the earliest developments of modern industry.
Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy. A parliament is the group of
people who make the laws of their country. British laws are made in the House
of Lords and the House of Commons. The main political parties in Great Britain are the Conservative, Labour, Liberal and Social – Democratic Parties.
largest cities of Great Britain besides London are: Birmingham, Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Bristol, Leeds, and Edinburgh. The most
important seaports are: London, Liverpool, Belfast, Glasgow and Cardiff.
Литература: Т. Ю. Журкина «55 устных тем по английскому языку»
МОСКОВСКАЯ ГОСУДАРСТВЕНАЯ АКАДЕМИЯ
ПРИБОРОСТРОЕНИЯ И ИНФОРМАТИКИ
Реферат по английскому языку
г. Сергиев Посад