Корпоративный имидж (Advertising and public relations)

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Корпоративный имидж (Advertising and public relations)

Advertising and public relations.

D. Ogilvy explains necessity for good and steady image so:

1.   The mark with steady reputation provides constant volume of manufacture and incomes
growing from year to year. The steady mark is extraordinary hardy, and this property in due
course gives huge economy of means.

2.   The marks with steady reputation provide higher prices in the market and ready sale.

3.   The marks with steady reputation are hardier. In competitive struggle of the prices they
survive much more easy, than unstable marks. They a little that lose with occurrence of new
"star" and quickly restore the authority, as soon as the novelty aspect of the appeared goods
begins to weaken.

4.   The marks with steady reputation give more, than from them they expect bring significant
arrived on each dollar, enclosed in them.

5.   The marks with steady reputation are always ready to approach. They always can expand
spheres of the influence.

6.   The marks with steady reputation use special wholesaler's love. And not only wholesalers, and
all others - distributors, customers, packers...

7.   The marks with steady reputation raise actives of the company, which owns them.

8.   The marks with steady reputation work on saving your time, money and energy. "They will
help you to transfer temporary failures.

The advertising is understood as is open the, relations, sponsored and paid by the seller, between it and buyer. Certainly, as well as at public relations, purpose of advertising - to influence public opinion. However this purpose is usually reached through open efforts on sale of the goods or services of firm. " The Advertising is a printed, hand-written, oral or graphic notification about the person, goods, services or public movement, is open outgoing from the advertiser and paid by him with the purpose of increase of selling, expansion of clientele, reception of votes or public approval ". As a rule, when speak, that the advertising is included into sphere PR, mean corporate advertising. There are some types of corporate advertising, including advertising of public relations, firm advertising, advertising on creation of distinctive image and advertising for attraction of fresh forces.

The advertising of public relations is a kind of corporate advertising and is used when the firm wants directly to communicate with the buyers to express the feelings or to emphasize the point of view. When the firm makes a decision to replace the name, trade marks, trade marks or firm spelling, and also in case of merge to other large company it uses advertising on maintenance of firm style. Last years by the term "corporate advertising" have begun to name all range of the advertising, which is not concerning the certain goods, and called to improve image of firm. Traditionally advertising of such type referred to as firm. The companies and even experts in advertising always subjected to doubt or simply incorrectly understood efficiency of corporate advertising. The retail dealers especially adhered to that opinion, that the corporate advertising has the advantages, however at all it forces the cash device to work faster.

It occurred because:

1. The corporations do not define the purpose of the companies.

2.   They do not measure results. In the recent interrogation which has been carried out
"Gallagher Report", only everyone fourth of the American advertisers has declared, that
estimates changes in public opinion after realization of the corporate advertising company. The
majority work blindly.

3.   Only little is known about effective methods of corporate advertising. The departments
of marketing and advertising agencies are well familiar with advertising of the goods, but when
the business reaches corporate advertising, they turn to the fans.

4.   Only few advertising agencies are familiar with corporate advertising. For them this
business is not basic. They know as to sell housewives a toilet paper, or to make the advertising
text for chewing rubber, or how to sell beer by the worker.

However corporate advertising requires the professionals, which feel as houses in the large business? "The Corporate advertising should not consider a public as concourse idiots. As against advertising the goods the corporate advertising company should be a vote of the president and its board of directors ".

Plus any advertising will not rescue image of firm, if it does not meet to its activity. As the outstanding expert in advertising Clint Sheyet has noted: "It is necessary to feel a discord of image and reality for a long time."

For example, if large high technologic the firm "IBM" has tried to create to itself an image of the manufacturer of the goods for a family circle, it quickly would lose trust to herself. D. Ogilvy -the founder and chapter of known agency "Ogilvy", always acted in support of corporate advertising. However majority of samples of corporate advertising induced on him horror, abundance of general places and recurrences ". Reacting on criticism and other factors, working in the market, the companies have leaded a number of serious changes in the corporate advertising companies.

>          To finish up to an audience the information on firm and its activity.

>          To attract the investors.

>          To correct shaking image.

>          To involve the qualified experts

>          To avoid the further stratification of firm on branches of activity.

>          To express on the important questions interesting for a public.

The concept of the trademark.

The trademark is not physical essence, except that the buyer thinks, feels and clearly imagines, seeing a symbol or name of the mark. The associations just also are that the majority of the people of image of the company think. The known trademarks - more "made out and substantial": they cause richer, stronger and more consecutive associations. To them concern (but the associations with the especial characteristics, symbols, characters (images), various styles of life and types of the user are not limited by them). All these taken together associations connected to individuality of the trade mark, create complex representation about image of the company, which not so differs from our representation about other people: they force us to think of the goods, as about the man. The man has the certain characteristics forming its individuality, it concerns and to image of the company. And just as we "concern" to other people, the buyer "has relation " with firms: the buyer can very zealously concerns to one goods, while other firm (for example, retail dealer by subjects of luxury) can be perceived as the warning to the buyer "

you not from my class ". Frequently it is possible to think of the company as about the man or about the woman, about modern or out-of-date, as about the usual industrial worker, or as about the elegant representative of a maximum class. Usually people characterize each other in hundreds adjectives determining individual abilities. The same man we can describe as intimate, silly, vigorous, aggressive etc. the company is similar also can be characterized as risky, rectilinear, unreliable, exciting and a little bit rough.

The planned individuality should be compatible to functional or psychological advantages, which the trademark promises to the consumer. If the bank advertises good service, that, it is obvious, that individuality should be friendly, but effective service. The company Nike most advantageously has caused association of the trademark with emotions of competition, resoluteness, achievement, vigor and victory, believing, that its target market present and ambitious athletes are identified with many from them. The company Calvin Klein successfully has defined "sexuality" as the basic value, which is rather important for their line of aromas and underwear, and has tried to create such associations with the help of black-and-white advertising frequently hinting at sexuality. If the firm develops an expensive prestigious product important that the advertising emphasized idea of high quality and prestige. It can be reached, connecting a product with the prestigious persons, situations or events. If the advertising means are incompatible to a prestigious image, the program of marketing can fail. And on the contrary, if the firm offers a cheap product, the advertising can appear unsuccessful because of use higher prestige of means of its distribution.

The firm can find an individual structure through associations, created by advertising, with the certain types of the consumers (with the people, which are represented as the users) or such types of the people, which are usually used as an image (characters) in advertising. Search of the character (character - man, which is represented in the advertising messages and convinces the consumers, what exactly the given trade mark it prefers) frequently it happens deciding, as at sufficient recurrence the personal qualities of the character can be transferred on image of the company. So, symbolical sense connected with Michel Jackson and Madonna - probable, their antipublic, "bad" image - was that wanted to receive the company Pepsi with their support, that subsequently has helped Pepsi to involve youth and teenagers, components the basic part of the market non-alcoholic of drinks. Similarly company Coca-Cola hoped, that the figure of a pop-star George Michel could create image "young" and "modern". Key criterion at a choice of the character of the promoted mark should be presence of "conformity" or "similarity" between requirements of the mark and attributes of the character. The research shows, that the efficiency of the character is connected to a kind of production, supported by it. In experiment in comparison of influence of the expert of the typical consumer and celebrity in advertising inexpensive, but the good technical product (electronic calculator suffices) it is revealed, that the expert has appeared of the more effectively typical consumer or celebrity. Opposite, the celebrity is usually more effective in situations, when the product has a high element of psychological and "social" risk (for example, decorative costume jeweler).

In addition to these characteristic individual features the individuality of the trademark, is similar to individuality of the man, includes the associated feelings. We can think, that someone (or any trade mark) risky and exciting, connecting with this man (or mark) feeling of excitement, excitation or vivacity (for example, Pepsi).

Further, the individuality of the trademark also creates associations of this trademark with the certain important vital values. Examples of values can be aspiration fascinatingly live life, search of self-respect, requirement to be intellectual, desire of self-expression etc. Trade mark having bright individuality, can strongly associate with certain value in life and strongly to involve the people, giving the large attention of this value. It is not necessary, that the associations with the trademark were only positive and bright; they should be always clear and consecutive. But at creation of individuality of the trade mark it is especially important to take into account the social tendencies, i.e., as the certain values vary in due course, and to understand, how can the trade marks get such individuality, which for one generation seems modern, and for another -

out-of-date, and not appropriate to needs of this new, future generation. For example, the image

of luxury Cadillac rather involves the senior generation of the Americans, but is less interesting

and less to generation young (but also rich) buyers, which prefer to spend the dollars for

purchase BMW. It is extremely important, that the advertisers constantly watched as images,

which surround their trademarks, and behind possible change of appeal of these images.

For formation of image the social advertising is important also. The purpose of social advertising

is system of measures directed on change of the relations of public to any problem. For example,

recovery of a crawfish to a breast at the women and its preventive maintenance. Than has earned

to itself image of the careful company. For example mobile centers of care about the babies free-

of-charge distribute ""nappy" Pampers at urban and village fairs on all country, than create to

itself image of the careful and generous company.

The social advertising as the major tool PR is called to satisfy inquiries of a public and in it the

essential difference from trade advertising consists which frequently answers only interests of

the advertisers. And consequently the social advertising is close to PR, which works. " Certainly,

and the commodity advertising can be a part of PR-campaign, as it renders influence on

satisfaction of cumulative requirements in a society and directly influences formation of mutual

relation of organization with various layers of a society ". The advertising as process of

distribution of the information at the first stages of the development was carried out through the

newspapers and radio. But today is especially active as the main channel the TV is used.

On TV rollers and developed rollers. The roller lasts 15-20 seconds. In it the trademark, name of

firm is given, as a rule. In some cases of "pure" image - advertising the address and telephone it

are not specified. The basic task of a roller - constantly to remind of firm as such or about its


The developed roller lasts from 30 seconds and more. In it, besides those items of information,

which are resulted in a roller, the description, characteristic of the goods or service,

condition of delivery or granting of the discounts, condition of work is given.

Each advertising or information film, roller should have some "hook" as creative "invention".

the help of good corporate advertising it is possible to reach:

1.   It can create at a public representation about firm. "Invisible" and "remoteness" of many firms
are their basic lack. The people, to which it seems, that they know firm well enough, in 5 times
more often do about it positive responses, than about firm, about which they nothing know.

2.   The corporate advertising can make good impression on the local financiers, having allowed
you to increase the capital with the least expenses.

3.   It can justify of your employees and to involve more qualified experts. Public relation begins
with work with the employees. If your people understand your politics and are proud of firm,
they become your best advertising agents.

4.   The corporate advertising can influence public opinion on specific questions.

5.   Abraham Lincoln has told: "If you the public opinion does not support, you can not win. If a
public behind you can not lose". Movement and stop - typical model of action of modern
corporate advertising. That the corporate advertising was effective, on it is necessary to spend
serious means and years of work. The result does not come for one day - even if you will take
advantage of TV ". But the direct tools of the experts on PR play not a smaller role at influence
on a public and on formation of favorable image of the company.

The difference of advertising from public relations.

David Ogilvy speaks that; the large firm always was object of criticism - on the part of the manufacturers, ecologists, government, and officials of anti exclusive union. "If the large firm does not take in the hands the initiative on creation of the reputation, it doomed. If it would be possible, the corporations should rely on public relation, instead of on advertising ". However mass media reluctantly prints positive responses about activity of large firms. That is why there are more directors on public relations use advertising as the basic channel of the communications. Only it they can supervise concerning the contents, time and influence. Only it allows them to choose an own field of fight. PR the skill and persistence of the people depend only on experience, and the advertising is directly supervised. Therefore PR can be less exact, than advertising.

But nevertheless now advertising so it is a lot of that the consumers frequently aspire to avoid it and very skeptically concern that in it is submitted. That it to avoid, there are more companies, today, for realization of marketing a part of the budgets allocate on organization of public relations (public relations - PR). The budgets selected for organization PR, rise. By some estimations total amount of expenses on PR in USA makes approximately 8 billion dollars per one year. The largest advertising agencies incorporate of one or several PR-firm. The means of public relations differ from advertising by that, it is usual they are not sponsored and are not paid. Usually they take the form of clauses with news, interview or art stories. One more difference of advertising from public relations is the activity of the experts in this area on places. The professionals from advertising first of all are focused on selling and marketing. ("The Marketing is a complex of measures directed on development of business, and puts a ultimate goal - to organize marketing dialogue with the buyer on a constant basis, to increase profit on sale of the goods, services or ideas, to increase a share of the market, to strengthen benevolent image"). They consider process as research spent with the purpose of finding - out, whether there is in the market a requirement for the given goods or service, and also what means to satisfy this need. For the experts in advertising advertising and public relations are primary tools of marketing used for increase of selling of production of firm. Therefore they have got used to use advertising only as by a means of the message "of good news ". The experts in public relations consider the activity as process of construction of continuous mutual relation with various public groups. From their point of view, marketing and advertising are tools of public relations, which should use in commercial activity of firm. There are many ways, with which help the similar marketing is carried out. The majority these PR of tools have one general feature - distribution of the message about the company is carried out not obviously through paid advertising, and by obvious or implicit substitution of a probable source of the information by the third party, for example by advanced clause in the newspaper or magazine, sports or cultural measure or charitable action.

To the basic directions of practical realization PR it is possible to relate:

>        Purposeful complex of the forms and methods of improvement of contacts between firm and its numerous target audiences;

>        Development of the constructive recommendations on creation of public image of firm;

>        Realization of measures directed on elimination of barriers,  excessive handicaps (harmful, false hearings etc.)

> Preparation of measures directed on expansion of sphere of influence at the expense of elimination of the various reasons of understanding, activization of means of propagation, advertising, exhibitions, film-displays of the best firm samples and achievement. PR are not connected to immediate sale of the goods and services. They use advertising distant action deferred purchase, prepare for purchase of the potential clients. Therefore PR are focused on progress not of the goods, and firm, and not in the market, and in a society. In this connection the sources of financing of advertising and PR are various. The advertising charges appear usually in the budget of marketing, and the means on PR undertake from the strategic budget of

firm, from fund of its development. The PR-campaigns demand only 1-2 % of investments from turnover, and advertising campaigns 5-20 %.

PR are usually considered as a way for creation of a general image of corporation, before it will make a public on behalf of government, shareholders, employees etc., and as a means of counteraction to possible negative propagation.

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