Корпоративный имидж (Advertising and public relations)
Advertising and public relations.
D. Ogilvy explains necessity for good and
steady image so:
mark with steady reputation provides constant volume of manufacture and incomes
from year to year. The steady mark is extraordinary hardy, and this property in
course gives huge economy of
The marks with steady
reputation provide higher prices in the market and ready sale.
marks with steady reputation are hardier. In competitive struggle of the prices
much more easy, than unstable marks. They a little that lose with occurrence of
and quickly restore the authority, as soon as the novelty aspect of the
begins to weaken.
marks with steady reputation give more, than from them they expect bring
arrived on each dollar,
enclosed in them.
marks with steady reputation are always ready to approach. They always can
of the influence.
The marks with steady
reputation use special wholesaler's love. And not only wholesalers, and
all others - distributors, customers,
The marks with steady
reputation raise actives of the company, which owns them.
marks with steady reputation work on saving your time, money and energy.
help you to transfer
The advertising is
understood as is open the, relations, sponsored and paid by the seller, between
it and buyer. Certainly, as well as at public relations, purpose of advertising
- to influence public opinion. However this purpose is usually reached through open
efforts on sale of the goods or services of
firm. " The Advertising is a printed, hand-written, oral or graphic
notification about the person, goods,
services or public movement, is open outgoing from the advertiser and paid by him with the purpose of increase of selling,
expansion of clientele, reception of votes or public approval ". As
a rule, when speak, that the advertising is included into sphere PR, mean corporate advertising. There are some types of
corporate advertising, including advertising of public relations, firm advertising, advertising on creation of
distinctive image and advertising for attraction of fresh forces.
advertising of public relations is a kind of corporate advertising and is used
when the firm wants directly to communicate
with the buyers to express the feelings or to emphasize the point of view. When
the firm makes a decision to replace the name, trade marks, trade marks or firm
spelling, and also in case of merge to other large company it uses
advertising on maintenance of firm style. Last years by the term
"corporate advertising" have begun to name all range of the
advertising, which is not concerning the certain goods, and called to improve
image of firm. Traditionally advertising of such type referred to as firm. The companies
and even experts in advertising always subjected to doubt or simply incorrectly
understood efficiency of corporate advertising.
The retail dealers especially adhered to that opinion, that the corporate
advertising has the advantages, however at all it forces the cash device
to work faster.
It occurred because:
1. The corporations do not define the purpose
of the companies.
do not measure results. In the recent interrogation which has been carried out
Report", only everyone fourth of the American advertisers has declared,
changes in public opinion after realization of the corporate advertising
majority work blindly.
little is known about effective methods of corporate advertising. The
and advertising agencies are well familiar with advertising of the goods, but
the business reaches
corporate advertising, they turn to the fans.
few advertising agencies are familiar with corporate advertising. For them this
is not basic. They know as to sell housewives a toilet paper, or to make the
text for chewing rubber, or
how to sell beer by the worker.
However corporate advertising requires the professionals, which feel as
houses in the large business? "The Corporate advertising should not
consider a public as concourse idiots. As against advertising the goods the corporate
advertising company should be a vote of the president and its board of directors ".
Plus any advertising will not rescue image of firm, if it does not meet
to its activity. As the outstanding expert in advertising Clint Sheyet has noted:
"It is necessary to feel a discord of image and reality for a long time."
For example, if
large high technologic the firm "IBM" has tried to create to itself
an image of the manufacturer of the goods
for a family circle, it quickly would lose trust to herself. D. Ogilvy -the founder and chapter of known agency
"Ogilvy", always acted in support of corporate advertising. However majority of samples of
corporate advertising induced on him horror, abundance of general places and recurrences ". Reacting on
criticism and other factors, working in
the market, the companies have leaded a number of serious changes in the
corporate advertising companies.
> To finish up to an audience
the information on firm and its activity.
> To attract the investors.
> To correct shaking image.
> To involve the qualified experts
> To avoid the further
stratification of firm on branches of activity.
> To express on
the important questions interesting for a public.
The concept of the
trademark is not physical essence, except that the buyer thinks, feels and
clearly imagines, seeing a symbol or name of
the mark. The associations just also are that the majority of the people of image of the company think. The known
trademarks - more "made out and substantial":
they cause richer, stronger and more consecutive associations. To them concern
(but the associations with the especial characteristics, symbols, characters
(images), various styles of life and types of the user are not limited
by them). All these taken together associations connected to individuality of
the trade mark, create complex representation about image of the company, which
not so differs from our representation about other people: they force us to
think of the goods, as about the man. The
man has the certain characteristics forming its individuality, it concerns and
to image of the company. And just as we "concern" to other people,
the buyer "has relation " with firms: the buyer can very zealously
concerns to one goods, while other firm (for example, retail dealer by subjects
of luxury) can be perceived as the warning to the buyer "
you not from my class ". Frequently it is possible to think of the
company as about the man or about
the woman, about modern or out-of-date, as about the usual industrial worker,
or as about the elegant representative of a
maximum class. Usually people characterize each other in hundreds
adjectives determining individual abilities. The same man we can describe as
intimate, silly, vigorous, aggressive etc.
the company is similar also can be characterized as risky, rectilinear,
unreliable, exciting and a little bit rough.
planned individuality should be compatible to functional or psychological
advantages, which the trademark promises to the consumer. If the bank advertises
good service, that, it is obvious, that individuality should be friendly, but
effective service. The company Nike most advantageously has caused association of the
trademark with emotions of competition, resoluteness, achievement, vigor and victory,
believing, that its target market present and ambitious athletes are identified with
many from them. The company Calvin Klein successfully has defined
"sexuality" as the basic value, which is rather important for their
line of aromas and underwear,
and has tried to create such associations with the help of black-and-white
advertising frequently hinting at sexuality.
If the firm develops an expensive prestigious product important that the
advertising emphasized idea of high quality and prestige. It can be reached,
connecting a product with the prestigious
persons, situations or events. If the advertising means are incompatible to a prestigious image, the program of
marketing can fail. And on the contrary, if the firm offers a cheap
product, the advertising can appear unsuccessful because of use higher prestige
of means of its distribution.
The firm can find an individual structure through associations, created
by advertising, with the certain types of the consumers (with the people, which
are represented as the users) or such types of the people, which are usually used as an
image (characters) in advertising. Search of the character (character - man, which is
represented in the advertising messages and convinces the consumers, what exactly the given trade
mark it prefers) frequently it happens deciding, as at sufficient recurrence the personal qualities of the character can be
transferred on image of the company. So, symbolical sense connected with Michel
Jackson and Madonna - probable, their antipublic, "bad" image
- was that wanted to receive the company Pepsi with their support, that
subsequently has helped Pepsi to involve youth and teenagers, components the
basic part of the market non-alcoholic of
drinks. Similarly company Coca-Cola hoped, that the figure of a pop-star George Michel could create image
"young" and "modern". Key criterion at a choice of the character of the promoted mark should be presence
of "conformity" or "similarity" between requirements of the mark and attributes of the
character. The research shows, that the efficiency of the character is connected to a kind of
production, supported by it. In experiment in comparison of influence of the expert of the typical consumer and
celebrity in advertising inexpensive, but the good technical product
(electronic calculator suffices) it is revealed, that the expert has appeared
of the more effectively typical consumer or celebrity. Opposite, the celebrity
is usually more effective in situations, when the product has a high element of
psychological and "social" risk (for example, decorative costume
In addition to
these characteristic individual features the individuality of the trademark, is
similar to individuality of the man, includes the associated feelings. We can
think, that someone (or any trade mark) risky
and exciting, connecting with this man (or mark) feeling of excitement, excitation
or vivacity (for example, Pepsi).
Further, the individuality of the trademark also creates associations of
this trademark with the certain important vital values. Examples of values can
be aspiration fascinatingly live life, search of self-respect, requirement to be intellectual, desire of
self-expression etc. Trade mark having bright individuality, can strongly
associate with certain value in life and strongly to involve the people, giving the large attention of this value.
It is not necessary, that the associations with the trademark were only
positive and bright; they should be always clear and consecutive. But at creation of individuality of the trade mark
it is especially important to take into account the social tendencies, i.e., as
the certain values vary in due course, and to understand, how can the trade marks get such individuality, which for
one generation seems modern, and for another -
out-of-date, and not
appropriate to needs of this new, future generation. For example, the image
of luxury Cadillac
rather involves the senior generation of the Americans, but is less interesting
and less to
generation young (but also rich) buyers, which prefer to spend the dollars for
purchase BMW. It is
extremely important, that the advertisers constantly watched as images,
which surround their trademarks, and
behind possible change of appeal of these images.
For formation of image the social
advertising is important also. The purpose of social advertising
is system of measures directed on change
of the relations of public to any problem. For example,
recovery of a crawfish to a breast at the
women and its preventive maintenance. Than has earned
to itself image of the careful company.
For example mobile centers of care about the babies free-
""nappy" Pampers at urban and village fairs on all country, than
itself image of the careful
and generous company.
The social advertising
as the major tool PR is called to satisfy inquiries of a public and in it the
difference from trade advertising consists which frequently answers only
the advertisers. And consequently the social
advertising is close to PR, which works. " Certainly,
and the commodity
advertising can be a part of PR-campaign, as it renders influence on
cumulative requirements in a society and directly influences formation of
of organization with various layers of a society ". The advertising as
of the information at the first stages of the development was carried out
newspapers and radio. But today is
especially active as the main channel the TV is used.
On TV rollers and
developed rollers. The roller lasts 15-20 seconds. In it the trademark, name of
firm is given, as a
rule. In some cases of "pure" image - advertising the address and
are not specified. The
basic task of a roller - constantly to remind of firm as such or about its
The developed roller
lasts from 30 seconds and more. In it, besides those items of information,
resulted in a roller, the description, characteristic of the goods or service,
condition of delivery or granting of the
discounts, condition of work is given.
advertising or information film, roller should have some "hook" as
the help of good corporate
advertising it is possible to reach:
It can create at a
public representation about firm. "Invisible" and
"remoteness" of many firms
are their basic lack. The people, to which it
seems, that they know firm well enough, in 5 times
more often do about it positive responses, than about firm, about which
they nothing know.
corporate advertising can make good impression on the local financiers, having
you to increase the capital
with the least expenses.
can justify of your employees and to involve more qualified experts. Public
with the employees. If your people understand your politics and are proud of
they become your best
corporate advertising can influence public opinion on specific questions.
Lincoln has told: "If you the public opinion does not support, you can not
win. If a
behind you can not lose". Movement and stop - typical model of action of
advertising. That the corporate advertising was effective, on it is necessary
serious means and years of work. The result does not come for one day - even if
you will take
of TV ". But the direct tools of the experts on PR play not a smaller role
on a public and on formation
of favorable image of the company.
The difference of
advertising from public relations.
Ogilvy speaks that; the large firm always was object of criticism - on the part
of the manufacturers, ecologists,
government, and officials of anti exclusive union. "If the large firm does
not take in the hands the initiative on creation of the reputation, it doomed.
If it would be possible, the
corporations should rely on public relation, instead of on advertising ".
However mass media reluctantly prints
positive responses about activity of large firms. That is why there are more directors on public relations use
advertising as the basic channel of the communications. Only it they can
supervise concerning the contents, time and influence. Only it allows them to choose an own field of fight. PR the
skill and persistence of the people depend only on experience, and the
advertising is directly supervised. Therefore PR can be less exact, than advertising.
But nevertheless now advertising so it is a lot of that the consumers
frequently aspire to avoid it and very skeptically concern that in it is submitted. That
it to avoid, there are more companies, today, for realization of marketing a part of
the budgets allocate on organization of public relations (public relations - PR). The
budgets selected for organization PR, rise. By some estimations total
amount of expenses on PR in USA makes approximately 8 billion dollars per one year. The largest
advertising agencies incorporate of one or several PR-firm. The means of public relations
differ from advertising by that, it is usual they are not sponsored and are not
Usually they take the form of clauses with news, interview or art stories. One more difference of advertising from
public relations is the activity of the experts in this area on places. The professionals from advertising
first of all are focused on selling and marketing. ("The Marketing is a complex of measures
directed on development of business, and puts a ultimate goal - to organize marketing dialogue with the buyer on a
constant basis, to increase profit on sale of the goods, services or ideas, to
increase a share of the market, to strengthen benevolent image"). They consider process as research spent with
the purpose of finding - out, whether there is in the market a
requirement for the given goods or service, and also what means to satisfy this need. For the experts in
advertising advertising and public relations are primary tools of marketing used for increase of selling of
production of firm. Therefore they have got used to use advertising only as by a means of the message "of good
news ". The experts in public
relations consider the activity as process of construction of continuous mutual
relation with various public groups. From their point of view, marketing and
advertising are tools of public
relations, which should use in commercial activity of firm. There are many
ways, with which help the similar
marketing is carried out. The majority these PR of tools have one general feature
- distribution of the message about the company is carried out not obviously
through paid advertising, and by obvious or
implicit substitution of a probable source of the information by the third party, for example by advanced clause in
the newspaper or magazine, sports or cultural measure or charitable
To the basic directions of practical
realization PR it is possible to relate:
> Purposeful complex of the forms and methods of improvement
of contacts between firm and
its numerous target audiences;
of the constructive recommendations on creation of public image of firm;
Realization of measures directed on elimination of barriers, excessive
handicaps (harmful, false
> Preparation of measures directed on expansion of sphere of
influence at the expense of elimination of the various reasons of understanding,
activization of means of propagation, advertising, exhibitions, film-displays of the best firm samples
and achievement. PR are not connected to
immediate sale of the goods and services. They use advertising distant action
deferred purchase, prepare for purchase of the potential clients. Therefore PR
are focused on progress not of the goods, and firm, and not in the market, and
in a society. In this connection the sources
of financing of advertising and PR are various. The advertising charges appear usually in the budget of marketing, and the means
on PR undertake from the strategic budget of
firm, from fund of its development. The PR-campaigns demand only 1-2 %
of investments from turnover,
and advertising campaigns 5-20 %.
PR are usually considered as a way for creation of a general image of
corporation, before it will make a public on behalf of government, shareholders,
employees etc., and as a means of counteraction to possible negative propagation.