Immigration in Europe
Ministry of education and
science of Ukraine
Immigration in Europe
Chapter 1. General information on immigration
1.2. Global statistics
1.4. Supporting arguments
1.5. Opposing arguments
1.6. Political issue
Chapter 2. Immigration in Europe
2.4. United Kingdom
Chapter 3. Conclusion
Chapter 1. General information
Immigration is the movement of people into one
place from another. While human
migration has existed throughout human history, immigration implies
long-term permanent or forced indefinite residence (and often eventual citizenship) by the
immigrants: tourists and
short-term visitors are not considered immigrants. However, seasonal labor
migration (typically for periods of less than a year) is often treated as a
form of immigration. The global volume of immigration is high in absolute
terms, but low in relative terms. The International Integration and Refugee
Association estimated 190 million international migrants in 2005, about 3 percent of global population.
The other 97 percent still live in the state in which they were born, or its
successor state. The Middle East, some parts of Europe, little areas of South
East Asia, and a few spots in the West Indies have the highest numbers of
immigration population recorded by the UN Census 2005.
idea of immigration is related to the development of nation-states and nationality law. Citizenship of a
nation-state confers an inalienable right of residence in that state, but
residence of immigrants is subject to conditions set by immigration law. The
nation-state made immigration a political issue: by definition it is the
homeland of a nation defined by
shared ethnicity and/or culture. Illegal
immigration refers to immigration across national borders in a way
that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. Under this
definition, an illegal immigrant is a foreigner who either illegally crossed an
international political border, be it by land, sea or air, or a foreigner who
legally entered a country but nevertheless overstay their visa in order to live
and/or work therein.
The European Union allows
free movement between member states. Most are from former eastern bloc states
to the developed western European states, especially Italy, Spain, Germany and
Britain. Noticeably, some countries seemed to be favored by these new EU member
nationals than others. For example, there are large numbers of Poles who have moved to the UK, Ireland and Netherlands, while Romanians have chosen Italy and Spain. While France and Germany put in place
controls to curb Eastern European migration, the UK (along with Ireland) did
not impose restrictions.
Following Poland's entry into the EU in May
2004 it is estimated that by the start of 2007 375,000 Poles have registered to
work in the UK, although the total Polish population in the UK is believed hey
hoe to be 750,000. Many Poles work in seasonal occupations and a large number
is likely to move back and forth including between Ireland and other EU Western
According to Eurostat, Some EU
member states are currently receiving large-scale immigration: for instance Spain, where the economy has created more than
half of all the new jobs in the EU over the past five years. The EU, in 2005,
had an overall net gain from international migration of +1.8 million people.
This accounts for almost 85% of Europe's total population growth in 2005.
total 140,033 people immigrated to France.
Of them, 90,250 were from Africa
and 13,710 from Europe. In 2005,
immigration fell slightly to 135,890.
years, immigration has accounted for more than half of Norway's population growth. In
2006, Statistics Norway's (SSB) counted a record 45,800 immigrants arriving in
Norway — 30% higher than 2005. At the beginning of 2007, there were 415,300
persons in Norway with an immigrant background (i.e. immigrants, or born of
immigrant parents), comprising 8.3 per cent of the total population.
In 2004 the
number of people who became British citizens rose
to a record 140,795 - a rise of 12% on the previous year. This number had risen
dramatically since 2000. The overwhelming majority of new citizens come from Africa (32%) and Asia (40%), the largest three groups being
people from Pakistan, India and Somalia. In 2005, an
estimated 565,000 migrants arrived to live in the UK for at least a year, most
of the migrants were people from Asia,
the Indian sub-continent and Africa, while 380,000 people
emigrated from the UK for a year or more, with Australia, Spain and France most popular destinations.
emigration towards Southern
Europe is of special relevance. Citizens from the European Union
make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain. They mainly come from countries like
the UK and Germany, but the British case is of special interest due to its
magnitude. The British authorities estimate that the real population of UK
citizens living in Spain is much larger than Spanish official figures suggest,
establishing them at about 1.000.000, about 800.000 being permanent residents.
According to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favoured destination for
West Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs
elsewhere in the EU.
Since 2000, Spain has absorbed around 4 million
immigrants, adding 10% to its population. Immigrant population now tops over
4.5 million. According to residence permit data for 2005, about 500,000 were Moroccan, another
500,000 were Ecuadorian, more than
200,000 were Romanian, and 260,000
were Colombian. In 2005
alone, a regularization programme increased the legal immigrant population by
immigration traditionally distinguish between push factors and pull factors. Push factors refer primarily to the motive for emigration from the
country of origin. In the case of economic migration (usually labor migration),
differentials in wage
rates are prominent. Poor individuals from less developed countries can
have far higher standards of living in developed countries than in their
originating countries. Escape from poverty (personal or
for relatives staying behind) is a traditional push factor, the availability of
jobs is the related
pull factor. Natural
disasters and overpopulation
can amplify poverty-driven migration flows. This kind of migration may be illegal
immigration in the destination country (emigration is also illegal
in some countries, such as North
and immigration are sometimes mandatory in a contract of employment: religious missionaries, and
employees of transnational corporations, international non-governmental organizations and the diplomatic
service can expect to work 'overseas'. They are often referred to as
their conditions of employment are typically equal to or better than those
applying in the host country (for similar work).
migrants, education is the
primary pull factor (although most international students are not classified as immigrants, but
may choose to do so if they refuse to return). Retirement migration
from rich countries to lower-cost countries with better climate, is a new type
of international migration. Examples include immigration of retired British citizens to Spain or Italy and of retired Canadian citizens to
the US (mainly to the state of Florida). Some,
although relatively few, immigrants justify their drive to be in a different
country for cultural or health related reasons and very seldom, again in
relative quantitative terms compared to the actual number of international
migrants world-wide, choose to migrate as a form of self-expression towards the
establishment or to satisfy their need to directly perceive other cultural
environments because economics is almost always the primary motivator for
constant, long-term, or permanent migration, but especially for that type of
inter-regional or inter-continental migration; that holds true even for people
from developed countries.
push factors include persecution
(religious and otherwise), frequent abuse,
bullying, oppression, ethnic cleansing and
even genocide, and risks to
civilians during war. Political motives
traditionally motivate refugee flows - to escape dictatorship for
migration is for personal reasons, based on a relationship (e.g. to be with family or a partner), such as in
family reunification or transnational marriage. In a few cases, an individual may wish
to emigrate to a new country in a form of transferred patriotism. Evasion of
criminal justice (e.g.
avoiding arrest) is a (mostly
negative) personal motivation. This type of emigration and immigration is not
normally legal, if a crime is internationally recognized, although criminals
may disguise their identities or find other loopholes to evade detection. There
have been cases, for example, of those who might be guilty of war crimes
disguising themselves as victims of war or conflict and then pursuing asylum in
a different country.
immigration come not only in legal form; natural barriers to immigration can
also be very powerful. Immigrants when leaving their country also leave
everything familiar: their family, friends, support network, and culture. They
also need to liquidate their assets often at a large cost, and incur the
expense of moving. When they arrive in a new country this is often with many
uncertainties including finding work, where to live, new laws, new cultural
norms, language or accent issues, possible racism and other exclusionary behavior
towards them and their family. These barriers act to limit international
migration: scenarios where populations move en masse to other continents,
creating huge population surges, and their associated strain on infrastructure
and services, ignore these inherent limits on migration.
arguments cited in support of immigration are economic arguments, such as a
free labor market, and cultural arguments appealing to the value of cultural
diversity. Some groups also support immigration as a device to boost
small population numbers, like in New Zealand and
Canada, or, like in Europe, to reverse demographic aging trends.
fully open borders is limited to a minority. Some free-market libertarians believe
that a free
global labor market with no restrictions on immigration would, in
the long run, boost global prosperity.
There are also groups which oppose border controls on ideological grounds -
believing that people from poor countries should be allowed to enter rich
countries, to benefit from their higher standards of living. Others are
advocates of world
government and wish to eliminate or severely limit the power of nation-states. This
includes the nation-state's ability to grant and deny individuals entry across
borders, which advocates of world government generally view as arbitrary and
unfair distinctions made on what should be one planet earth, thus eliminating
diversity and competition among states.
like New Zealand, which has experimented with both qualifications- and
job-offer-based entry systems, have reported that under the latter system
(where much weight is put on the immigrant already having a job offer), the
immigrants actually show a much lower uptake of government benefits than the
normal population. Under a mostly qualification-based system, many highly
trained doctors and engineers had instead been reduced to driving taxis.
1.5. Opposing arguments
anti-immigration themes include costs of immigration (potential free-riding on
existing welfare systems), labor competition; environmental issues (the impact
of population growth); national security (concerns of insular immigrant groups
& terrorism against the host country); lack of coordination &
cooperation among citizens (differences of language, conventions, culture); and
the loss of national identity and culture (including the nature of the nation-state itself).
from areas of high incidence is thought to have fueled the resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), chagas, hepatitis, and leprosy in areas of
low incidence. To reduce the risk of diseases
in low-incidence areas, the main countermeasure has been the screening of
immigrants on arrival. According to CDC, TB cases among foreign-born individuals
remain disproportionately high, at nearly nine times the rate of U.S.-born
persons. In 2003, nearly 26 percent of foreign-born TB patients in the United
States were from Mexico. Another third
of the foreign-born cases were among those from the Philippines, Vietnam, India and China, the CDC report said.
needs-driven immigration is opposed by labor-market protectionists, often
arguing from economic nationalism. The core of their arguments is that a
nation's jobs are the 'property' of that nation, and that allowing foreigners
to take them is equivalent to a loss of that property. They may also criticize
immigration of this type as a form of corporate welfare,
where business is indirectly subsidized by government expenditure to promote
the immigration and the assimilation of the immigrants. A more common criticism
is that the immigrant employees
are almost always paid less than a non-immigrant worker in the same job, and
that the immigration depresses wages, especially as immigrants are usually not unionized. Other
groups feel that the focus should be not on immigration control, but on equal
rights for the immigrants, to avoid their exploitation.
opposition to immigration is closely associated with nationalism, in Europe
a 'nationalist party' is almost a synonym
for 'anti-immigration party'.
argument of some nationalist opponents in Europe is that immigrants simply do
not belong in a nation-state which is by definition intended for another ethnic group. France,
therefore, is for the French, Germany is for the Germans, and so on.
Immigration is seen as altering the ethnic and cultural composition of the
national population, and consequently the national character. From a
nationalist perspective, high-volume immigration potentially distorts or
dilutes their national culture more than is desired or even necessary. Germany,
for example, was indeed intended as a state for Germans: the state's policy of
mass immigration was not foreseen by the 19th-century nationalist movements.
Immigration has forced Germany and other western European states to re-examine
their national identity: part of the population is not prepared to redefine it
to include immigrants. It is this type of opposition to immigration which
generated support for anti-immigration parties such as Vlaams Belang in
Belgium, the British National Party in Britain, the Lega Nord in Italy,
the Front National in
France, and the Lijst
Pim Fortuyn in the Netherlands.
One of the responses
of nation-states to mass immigration is to promote the cultural assimilation of immigrants into the national
community, and their integration into the political, social, and economic
structures. In Europe, where nation-states
have a tradition of national unification by cultural and linguistic policies,
variants of these policies have been proposed to accelerate the assimilation of
immigrants. The introduction of citizenship tests for immigrants is the most
visible form of state-promoted assimilation. The test usually include some form
of language exam, and some countries have reintroduced forms of language prohibition.
countries do not have the high population growth of the United States, and some
decline. In such circumstances, the effect of immigration is to
reduce decline, or delay its onset, rather than substantially increase the
population. The Republic
of Ireland is one of the only EU countries comparable to the United
States in this respect, since large-scale immigration contributed to
substantial population growth. Spain
has also witnessed a recent boost in population due to high immigration.
As political issue
political debate about immigration is now a feature of most developed
countries. Some countries such as Italy,
and especially the Republic
of Ireland and Spain,
have shifted within a generation, from traditional labor emigration, to mass
immigration, and this has become a political issue. Some European countries,
such as the United Kingdom and Germany, have seen major immigration since the
1960's and immigration has already been a political issue for decades.
Political debates about immigration typically focus on statistics, the
immigration law and policy, and the implementation of existing restrictions. In
some European countries the debate in the 1990's was focused on asylum seekers,
but restrictive policies within the European Union have sharply reduced asylum
seekers. In Western Europe the debate focuses on immigration from the
Enlargement of the European Union and new member states of the EU, especially
politics of immigration have become increasingly associated with others issues,
such as national
and in western Europe especially, with the presence of Islam as a new major religion. Some components
of conservative movements
see an unassimilated, economically deprived, and generally hostile immigrant
population as a threat to national stability; other elements of conservative movements
welcome immigrant labor. Those with security concerns cite the 2005 civil unrest in France that point to the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy
as an example of the value conflicts arising from immigration of Muslims in Western Europe. Because of all these associations,
immigration has become an emotional political issue in many Western nations.
Chapter 2. Immigration in
As of 2006,
the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that 4.9 million foreign-born
immigrants live in France (8% of the country's population): The number of
French citizens with foreign origins is generally thought to be around 6.7
million according to the 1999 Census conducted by INSEE, which ultimately
represents one tenth of the country's population. (Ranked by the largest national
groups, above 60,000 persons)
Most of the
population from immigrant stock is of European descent (mainly from Greece,
Italy, Spain, and Portugal as well as Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, and the
former Yugoslavia) although France has a sizeable population of Arabs and
Africans from its former colonies, the proportion of immigrants in France is on
par with other European nations such as the United Kingdom (8%), Germany (9%),
the Netherlands (18%), Sweden (13%) and Switzerland (19%). Estimates of each South
and Southeast Asian (i.e. Indians and Vietnamese) and Latin American (Haitians,
Chileans and Argentines) nationalities living in France are under 50,000 each.
Michèle Tribalat, researcher at INED, it is very difficult to estimate the
number of French immigrants or born to immigrants, because of the absence of
official statistics. Only three surveys have been conducted: in 1927, 1942, and
1986 respectively. According to a 2004 study, there were approximatively 14
million persons of foreign ancestry, defined as either immigrants or people
with at least one parent, grandparent, or great-parent emigreé. 5.2
million of these people were from South-European ascendency (Italy, Spain, Portugal);
and 3 million come from the Maghreb (North Africa).
In 2004, a
total of 140,033 people immigrated to France. Of them, 90,250 were from Africa and 13,710 from Europe. In 2005, immigration level
fell slightly to 135,890. The European Union allows
free movement between the member states. While the UK (along with Ireland and Sweden ) did not impose
restrictions, France put in place controls to curb Eastern European
In the 2000s,
the net migration rate was estimated to be 0.66 migrants per 1,000 population a
year. This is a very low rate of immigration compared
to other European countries, the USA or Canada. Since the beginning of the
1990s, France has been attempting to curb immigration, first with the Pasqua laws, followed
by both right-wing and socialist-issued laws. The immigration rate is currently
lower than in other European countries such as United Kingdom and Spain; however, some say it is doubtful that
the policies in themselves account for such a change. Again, as in the 1920s and
1930s, France stands in contrast with the rest of Europe. Back in the 1920s and
1930s, when European countries had a high fertility rate, France had a low
fertility rate and had to open its doors to immigration to avoid population
decline. Today, it is the rest of Europe that has very low fertility rates, and
countries like Germany or Spain avoid population decline only through
immigration. In France, however, fertility rate is still fairly high for
European standards, in fact the highest in Europe after Ireland, and so most
population growth is due to natural increase, unlike in the other European
countries. This difference in immigration trends is also due to the fact that
the labor market in France is currently less dynamic than in other countries such
as the UK, Ireland or Spain , this may even be a more relevant factor than low
birth rates (because Ireland has both the highest fertility and the highest net
immigration rate in Europe, whereas Eastern European countries such as Poland
or Ukraine have both a low fertility and a high net emigration rate, as well as
a high unemployment rate).
according to the UK Office for National Statistics, in the three
years between July 2001 and July 2004 the population of the UK increased by
721,500 inhabitants, of which 242,800 (34%) was due to natural increase, and
478,500 (66%) to immigration. According to the INSEE, in the three years between January 2001
and January 2004 the population of Metropolitan
France increased by 1,057,000 inhabitants, of which 678,000 (64%)
was due to natural increase, and 379,500 (36%) to immigration.
2006 demographic statistics have been released, and France's birth and
fertility rates have continued to rise. The fertility rate increased to 2.00,
the highest of the G-7 countries, and for the first time approaches the
fertility rate of the United States.
1 January 2005, a new Immigration Law came
into effect that altered the legal method of immigration to Germany. The practical
changes to the immigration
procedures and limitations were relatively minor. Traditionally, Germany has
not considered itself a country with a need for large numbers of immigrants and
has limited entry accordingly.
to Germany as a non EU-citizen has not become
easier under the new law as it continues to limit the recruitment of foreign employees. This
limitation applies most particularly to unskilled or
semi-skilled employees. In order to obtain a work permit one must demonstrate
a justified individual need or public interest in the employment. Without a
concrete job offer one has almost no chance of getting a residence
permit. Different rules apply to refugees, asylum seekers, EU
citizens, family members of German citizens, and close relatives of individuals
already living in Germany.
the prospective employer has to announce this engagement to the employment centre (Arbeitsagentur).
The “Arbeitsagentur” only agrees to issue a residency permit if there is no
German or otherwise privileged foreign employee available for the employment.
are exceptions, in particular for highly qualified employees. The judgement of
whether an applicant is highly qualified or not can based on various factors,
including education, the type of job, or a salary above a certain threshold. The
threshold is currently set at 85.500 €
p.a.) Highly qualified employees might immediately receive a permanent
residence permit (“Niederlassungserlaubnis”). Spouses and children moving with
them are allowed to work without having to get additional permits (this
exception includes other relatives in limited situations). The process is
similar to highly skilled immigrant programs in the United States and other
European countries. The German scheme is similar to ones operated by other
European countries, for example the United Kingdom's Highly Skilled Migrant Programme. The major
difference is that the salary threshold is the highest of any European country
with similar work visas. For example, Austria's income requirements are around
50% less that of Germany.
can get a residence permit, so long as the government finds that the job would
fulfill a superior economic interest, fulfill a regional need, or have an
expected net positive effect on the economy. Furthermore, the sponsor must guarantee
the financing. Once an immigrant has met those requirement, an individual
inquiry will take place as to whether a German citizen or preferred immigrant
could perform the same job function. As a general rule these requirements will
be assumed if at least ten jobs will be created and 1 million € invested. The assessment of the requirements
will conform to the quality of the business idea, the entrepreneurial
experience of the applicant, the capital
expenditure, the effects on employment and out–of–school education, and the
contribution to innovation
and research. A residence
permit to work self-employed could also be issued, if there are mutual benefits
according to international
law. After three years one may apply for and receive a permanent
residence permit “Niederlassungserlaubnis”, so long as the planned idea is put
into practice successfully and one's livelihood is secured.
students can stay for one year after a university degree in
order to find a job matching their qualifications.
population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the
spectacular demographic boom by the 60's and early 70's. Then, the birth rate
plunged by the 80's and Spain's population became stalled, its demographics
showing one of the lowest sub replacement fertility rate in the world,
only second to Japan's. Many demographers have linked Spain's very low
fertility rate to the country's lack of any real family planning policy. Spain
is the Western European country that spends least on family support (0.5% of
GDP). A graphic illustration of the enormous social gulf between Spain and the
rest of Europe in this field is the fact that a Spanish family would need to
have 57 children to enjoy the same financial support as a family with 3
children in Luxembourg.
emigration/immigration terms, after centuries of net emigration, Spain, has
recently experienced large-scale immigration for the first time in modern
history. According to the Spanish government there were 4,145,000 foreign
residents in Spain in January 2007. Of these well over half a million were Moroccan while the Ecuadorians figure was
around half a million as well. Romanian
and Colombian populations
amounted to around 300,000 each. There are also a significant number of British
(274,000 as of 2006) and German (133,588) citizens, mainly in Alicante, Málaga
islands and Canary
in Spain are estimated to number between ten and sixty thousand.
Immigrants from several sub-Saharan African countries have also settled in
Spain as contract workers, although they represent only 4.08% of all the
foreign residents in the country.
early 2000s, the mean year-on-year demographic growth set a new record with its
2003 peak variation of 2.1%, doubling the previous record reached back in the
1960s when a mean year on year growth of 1% was experienced. This trend is far
from being reversed at the present moment and, in 2005 alone, the immigrant
population of Spain increased by 700 000 people.
the Spanish government there were 3.7 million foreign residents in Spain in
2005; independent estimates put the figure at 4.8 million or 15.1% of total
population (Red Cross, World Disasters Report 2006). According to residence
permit data for 2005, around 500,000 were Moroccan, another half a million were
Ecuadorian, more than 200,000 were Romanians and 260,000 were Colombian. Other
important foreign communities are British (8.09%), French (8.03%), Argentine (6.10%),
German (5.58%) and Bolivian (2.63%). In 2005, a regularization program
increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people. Since 2000 Spain
has experienced high population growth as a result of immigration flows,
despite a birth rate that is only half of the replacement level. This sudden
and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving clandestinely by
sea, has caused noticeable social tensions.
currently has the second highest immigration rates within the EU, just after University
Village, and the second highest absolute net migration in the World (after the
USA). This can be explained by a number of reasons including its geographical
position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its submerged economy
and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors which demand more
low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce. In fact, booming
Spain has been Europe's largest absorber of migrants for the past six years,
with its immigrant population increasing fourfold as 2.8 million people have
Immigrants from the European Union
from the European Union make up a growing proportion of immigrants in Spain.
They mainly come from countries like Romania, the UK and Germany, but the British
case is of especial relevance due to its magnitude. The British authorities
estimate that the real population of UK citizens living in Spain is much bigger
than Spanish official figures suggest, establishing them at about 1.000.000,
about 800.000 being permanent residents.
according to the Financial Times, Spain is the most favored destination for
West Europeans considering to move from their own country and seek jobs
elsewhere in the EU.
formation of the United
Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1922 there has been
from other parts of the world.
In particular, migrants have arrived from Ireland and the former
colonies of the British Empire - such
as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, the Caribbean, South Africa, Kenya and Hong Kong - under British nationality law. Others have come as asylum seekers,
seeking protection as refugees
under the United
Nations 1951 Refugee Convention, or from European Union (EU) member states, exercising one of the EU's Four Freedoms.
The census in 2001 gave some guidance as to the current ethnic groups of the United Kingdom. About half
the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to foreign-born immigration. 4.9 million people
(8.3 percent of the population at the time) were born abroad, although the
census gives no indication of their immigration status or intended length of
there were 149,035 applications for British citizenship, 32 per cent fewer than
in 2005. The number of people granted citizenship during 2006 was 154,095, 5
per cent fewer than in 2005. The largest groups of people granted British
citizenship were from India, Pakistan, Somalia and the Philippines. In 2006,
134,430 people were granted settlement in the UK, a drop of 25 per cent on
British Empire & the Commonwealth
period, the British
Empire covered most of the globe, at its peak over a third of the
world's people lived under British rule. Both during this time, and following
the granting of independence to most colonies after World War II, the vast
majority of immigrants to the UK were from either current or former colonies,
most notably those in the Caribbean
and the Indian
subcontinent. These people filled a gap in the UK labor market for
unskilled jobs and many people were specifically brought to the UK on ships
such as the Empire
In 1962, the
Commonwealth Immigrants Act was passed by the British government,
restricting the freedom of passage into the UK from other parts of the
Commonwealth. By 1972, only holders of work permits, or
people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could gain entry -
effectively stemming primary
immigration from Commonwealth countries.
The Ireland Act 1949 has
the unusual status of recognizing the Republic
of Ireland, but affirming that its citizens are not
citizens of a foreign country. This was at a time when a republic was not
allowed to be a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
World War II
In the lead
up to the World War II, many Germans,
particularly those belonging to minorities which were persecuted under Nazi rule, such as Jews, sought to emigrate to the United
Kingdom, and it is estimated that as many as 50,000 may have been successful.
There were immigration caps on the number who could enter and, subsequently,
some applicants were turned away. When the UK was forced to declare war on Germany,
however, migration between the countries ceased.
Post-war immigration (1945-1983)
Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962, all Commonwealth citizens could enter and stay in the United Kingdom
without any restriction. The Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1962 made Citizens of the United Kingdom and Colonies
(CUKCs) whose passports were not
directly issued by the United Kingdom Government (i.e. passports issued by the
Governor of a colony or by the Commander of a British protectorate) subject
to immigration control.
Indians began arriving in the UK in large numbers shortly
after their country gained independence in 1947. More than 60,000 arrived
before 1955, many of whom drove buses, or worked in foundries or textile factories.
Later arrivals opened corner
shops or ran post
offices. The flow of Indian immigrants peaked between 1965 and 1972,
boosted in particular by Idi Amin's
sudden decision to expel all 90,000 Gujarati Indians from Uganda.
By 1972, only
holders of work
permits, or people with parents or grandparents born in the UK could
gain entry - effectively stemming primary
immigration from Commonwealth countries.
end of World War II,
substantial groups of people from Soviet-controlled
territories settled in Britain, particularly Poles and Ukrainians. The UK
recruited displaced people as so-called European Volunteer Workers in order to
provide labor to industries that were required in order to aim economic
recovery after the war. In the 1951 census, the Polish-born population of the
UK numbered some 162,339, up from 44,642 in 1931.
also an influx of refugees from Hungary,
following the crushing of the 1956 Hungarian revolution, numbering 20,990.
Contemporary immigration (1983
Nationality Act 1981, which was enacted in 1983, distinguishes between British
citizen or British Overseas Territories citizen. The former hold nationality by
descent and the latter hold nationality other than by descent. Citizens by
descent cannot automatically pass on British nationality to a child born
outside the United Kingdom or its Overseas Territories (though in some
situations the child can be registered as a citizen).
officers have to be satisfied about a person's nationality and identity and
entry could be refused if they were not satisfied.
One of the Four Freedoms of the European Union, of
which the United Kingdom is a member, is the right to the free movement of
expansion of the EU
on 1 May 2004, the UK has accepted immigrants from Central and Eastern Europe, Malta and Cyprus, although the substantial
Maltese and Greek- and Turkish-Cypriot communities were established earlier
through their Commonwealth connection. There are restrictions on the benefits
that members of eight of these accession countries can claim, which are covered
by the Worker Registration Scheme. Most of the other European Union
member states have exercised their right for temporary immigration control
(which must end by 2011) over entrants from these accession states, although
some are now removing these restrictions.
Office publishes quarterly statistics on the number of applications to the
Worker Registration Scheme. Figures published in August 2007 indicate that
682,940 people applied to the scheme between 1 May 2004 and 31 June 2007, of whom 656,395 were accepted.
Self-employed workers and people who are not working (including students) are
not required to register under the scheme so this figure represents a lower
limit on immigration inflow. These figures do not indicate the number of
immigrants who have since returned home, but 56 per cent of applicants in the
12 months ending 30 June 2007 reported planning to stay for a maximum of three
months. Figures for total immigration show that there was a net inflow of
64,000 people from the eight Central and Eastern European accession states in
2005. An investigation by more4
found that Poles (who make up the
majority of those registered with the WRS) currently represent a substantial
proportion of the population of some UK cities.
Government announced that the same rules would not apply to nationals of Romania and Bulgaria when those
countries acceded to the EU in 2007. Instead, restrictions were put in place to
limit migration to students, the self-employed, highly skilled migrants and
food and agricultural workers. Statistics released by the Home Office indicate
that in the first three months of Romania and Bulgaria's EU membership, 7,120
people (including family members) from the two countries successfully
registered on the various schemes. Between April and June 2007, a further 9,335
Bulgarian and Romanian nationals had their applications granted. This includes
those registering as self-employed and self-sufficient. An additional 3,980
were issued cards for the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme (SAWS).
migration" is the term used for all legal work permits and visas and this
accounts for a substantial percentage of overall immigration figures for the
UK. Many of the immigrants who arrive under these schemes bring skills which
are in short supply in the UK. This area of immigration is managed by Work
Permits (UK), a department within the Home Office.
Applications are made at UK Embassies or Consulates or directly to Work Permits
(UK), depending upon the type of visa or permit required.
Sponsored Work Permits allow employers to sponsor an employee's entrance into
the UK by demonstrating that they possess skills that cannot be found
elsewhere. Immigrants who have education or experience in occupations which are
listed on the Skills Shortage List may apply for a work permit. This includes engineers, doctors, nurses, actuaries and
teachers. Employers can also obtain work permits for occupations not on the
Skills Shortage List by advertising the position and demonstrating that no
suitable UK resident or EU worker can be found. Approvals for a work permit are
usually based upon the suitability of the applicant to the role, by education
work in the UK under a Working holiday visa which allows 12 months of work within a
24 month period for those aged 17 to 30. UK Ancestry Entry Clearance allows a person to work in the UK
for five years if they have a grandparent who was born in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man at any
time; or a grandparent born in what is now the Republic of Ireland on or before
March 31, 1922. After that they may apply for Indefinite leave to remain.
In April 2006
changes to the current Managed Migration system were proposed that would
primarily create one Points Based Migration system for the UK. The suggested
replacement for HSMP (Tier 1 in the new system) gives points for age and none
for work experience. This points based system is yet to be finalized and it is
thought likely that the new system will be introduced no earlier than mid-2007.
Refugees and asylum seekers
The UK is a
signatory to the United
Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees
the intake of refugees, which means
that it has a responsibility under international law are obliged not to return
(or refoule) refugees to the place where they would face persecution.
the issue of immigration has been a controversial political issue since the
late 1990s. Both the ruling Labour
Party and the opposition Conservatives have suggested policies perceived as being
"tough on asylum" (although the Conservatives have dropped a previous
pledge to limit the number of people who could claim asylum in the UK, which
would likely have breached the UN Refugee Convention) and the tabloid media
frequently print headlines about an "immigration crisis".
denounced by those seeking to ensure that the UK upholds it international
obligations as disproportionate. Critics suggest that much of the opposition to
high levels of immigration by refugees is based on racism. Concern is also raised
about the treatment of those held in detention and the practice of dawn raiding families,
and holding young children in immigration detention centers for long periods of time.
critics of the UK's asylum policy often point out the "safe third country
rule" - the international agreement that asylum seekers must apply in the
first free nation they reach, not go "asylum shopping" for the nation
they prefer. EU courts have upheld this policy. Since the UK is geographically
much further removed from any third world nation than most other European
countries, many assume that asylum seekers in the UK choose it out of
preference rather than absolute necessity.
2003, Prime Minister Tony
Blair promised on television to reduce the number of asylum seekers
by half within 7 months, apparently catching unawares the members of his own
government with responsibility for immigration policy. David Blunkett, the
Secretary, called the promise an objective rather than a target. It
was met according to official figures, despite increase world instability
caused by the Iraq War. There is
also a Public Performance Target to remove more asylum seekers who have been
judged not to be refugees under the international definition than new
anticipated unfounded applications. This target was met early in 2006.
for numbers of people claiming asylum in the UK were at a 13 year low by March
2006. Opponents of the government's policies on asylum seekers and refugees,
such as Migration
Watch UK and some newspapers are critical of the way official
figures are calculated.
Human rights organizations
such as Amnesty International have argued that the government's new
policies, particularly those concerning detention centers, have detrimental effects on asylum
applicants and those facilities have seen a number of hunger strikes and suicides. Others have
argued that recent government policies aimed at reducing 'bogus' asylum claims
have had detrimental impacts on those genuinely in need of protection.
(sometimes termed irregular) immigrants in the UK include those who have:
the UK without authority
with false documents
is difficult to know how many people reside in the UK illegally, a Home Office
study released in March 2005 estimated a population of between 310,000 and
Watch UK has criticised the Home Office figures for not including
the UK-born dependent children of unauthorised migrants. They suggest the Home
Office has underestimated the numbers of unauthorised migrants by between
15,000 and 85,000. In the past the UK government has stated that the figures
Migration Watch produces should be treated with considerable caution.
study into irregular immigration states that "most irregular migrants have
committed administrative offences rather than a serious crime".
Jack Dromey, Deputy
General of the Transport and General Workers Union and Labour
Party treasurer, suggested in May 2006 that there could be around
500,000 illegal workers. He called for a public debate on whether an amnesty
should be considered. David
Blunkett has suggested that this might be done once the identity card scheme is rolled out. London Citizens, a
coalition of community organisations, is running a regularisation campaign
called Strangers into Citizens, backed by figures including the leader of the
Catholic church in England and Wales, the Cardinal Cormac Murphy-O'Connor.
guidance notes and numerous online resources are available to help out people
applying for immigration to United Kingdom, one can also seek legal advice for
this matter. The guidelines to the immigration programs states that immigration
advisers should fulfill the requirements of good practice. An independent
public body set up under the Immigration and Asylum Act 1999 named The Office of the Immigration Services
Commissioner (OISC) maintains and publishes the register of advisers.
Legal advisers for these applications are required to provide their full
details along with the OISC number with each application. A complete list of
OISC immigration advisers can be found on their website.
Greece is largely an ethnically
homogeneous state, and throughout the early period of its modern history it
experienced emigration far more than immigration, particularly throughout the
mid 20th century owing to
Civil War and The Second World War
(around 12% of the Greek population emigrated from 1881-1951). The only
previous (prior to 1990) examples of
large scale immigration throughout Modern Greek History
were the population exchanges between Greece and Turkey. Though the 1970s
experienced the arrival of a small number of Polish, African, Egyptian and
South Asian migrants (around 50,000 in total).
the 1990s, however, there has been a rise in large scale immigration, a large
portion of it illegal, from neighboring Balkan countries, particularly Albania into Greece.
This has become a major political issue in Greece and all major parties have
addressed policies aiming to deal with it. However, in recent years statistics
show that the relative peace in the Balkans today has led to a decline among
Balkan based immigration to Greece. Other recent immigrant communities are
Pakistanis, Iraqis and immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa.
Reasons for large scale immigration
in the 1990s
for this widespread immigration throughout the 1990s are widespread, the fall
of the Soviet Union,
compounded with other Balkan problems such as the Yugoslav Wars led to
widespread political unrest and political uncertainty not only in the Balkans,
but throughout other former Eastern Bloc countries as well. The demography of the
region is also of particular interest, both Greece and Italy, which have aging
populations, attracted immigration from countries with a younger workforce, the
push factor being the latter's inability to find jobs in their home country
combined with Greece's need for cheap labour (especially in small scale family
businesses, which are still prevalent). Another primary factor in this large
scale rise in immigration is also the narrowing of the gap in terms of living standards
Europe and Southern
Europe, Greece has become, according to some, an attractive
destination to economic migrants because of steady growth rates and EU member status - the presence of an informal
economy that pays well has also added to this 'pull' factor in immigration
trends, for example - An Albanian worker in Albania is paid on average $3 per
hour, whereas he or she can earn anywhere from $6-$10 on average for working an
informal sector job within Greece. Greece's large coastline and multiple
islands mean that policing the entry of migrants has also become increasingly
difficult, as Greece's reliance on Tourism has meant that
borders have never been harshly policed (though this has begun to change as
with the rest of the continent).
Chapter 3. Conclusion
of movement is often recognized as a civil right, the
freedom only applies to movement within national borders: it may be guaranteed
by the constitution or by
human rights legislation. Additionally, this freedom is often limited to citizens and excludes
others. No state currently allows
full freedom of movement across its borders, and international human rights treaties
do not confer a general right to enter another state. According to Article 13
of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,
citizens may not be forbidden to leave their country. There is no similar
provision regarding entry of non-citizens. Those who reject this distinction on
ethical grounds, argue that the freedom of movement both within and between
countries is a basic human right, and that the restrictive immigration
policies, typical of nation-states, violate this human right of freedom of
movement. Such arguments are common among anti-state ideologies like anarchism and libertarianism. Note
that a right to freedom of entry would not, in itself, guarantee immigrants a
job, housing, health care, or citizenship.
immigration is permitted, it is typically selective. Ethnic selection, such as
the White Australia policy, has generally disappeared, but
priority is usually given to the educated, skilled, and wealthy. Less
privileged individuals, including the mass of poor people in low-income
countries, cannot avail of these immigration opportunities. This inequality has
also been criticized as conflicting with the principle of equal
opportunities, which apply (at least in theory) within democratic
nation-states. The fact that the door is closed for the unskilled, while at the
same time many developed countries have a huge demand for unskilled labor, is a
major factor in illegal
immigration. The contradictory nature of this policy - which
specifically disadvantages the unskilled immigrants while exploiting their
labor - has also been criticized on ethical grounds.
polices which selectively grant freedom of movement to targeted individuals are
intended to produce a net economic gain for the host country. They can also
mean net loss for a poor donor country through the loss of the educated
minority - the brain
drain. This can exacerbate the global inequality in standards
of living that provided the motivation for the individual to migrate
in the first place. An example of the 'competition for skilled labor' is active
recruitment of health workers by First World countries,
from the Third World.
to Greece during the 1990s: An Overview, Maria Siadama;
Sauga. Skilled Immigrants? No Thanks August/ Spiegel Online International, 29,
2007 Official report on Spanish recent
Macroeconomics, including data and comments on immigration;
Roger Cohen. Globalist: On French
immigrants, the words left unsaid/ Herald Tribune International, NOVEMBER