Use of context approach in the foreign language teaching in the senior grades

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Use of context approach in the foreign language teaching in the senior grades

Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National university



, 2016



1. Context approach in teaching English language in Senior grades

1.1 Definition, characteristics and components of Context approach

1.2 Strategies and principles of context approach in teaching English language

1.3 Teaching English productive skills through Context approach

2. The practical implementation of Context approach in teaching writing in senior grades

2.1 The implementation of teaching English productive skills using Context approach

2.3 Analysis of Context approach experiment results and findings




Topicality. English nowadays is acknowledged as an international language because many people from different countries use it as a means of communication. That’s why English is taught from elementary school level. English has two basic majors, they are skills and component. The basic skills of English learning are listening, reading, speaking, and writing. Our concern as language teachers is not to inform our students about the language, but to develop their ability to use language. Based on the statement above, we can get a point that students should be taught how to use and apply knowledge they got at school., most students do not able to master all four skills and usually they have a lot of problems with writing and speaking [1,65]. Students usually are not able to analyze, do synthesis and summarize the information in writing or oral form. Moreover, they are not interested in doing exercises and find writing tasks too sophisticated and useless.of the approaches that emphasizes the process and content of writing and speaking, which was discovered by Dewey [2, 42], is a context approach. The context approach is a learning philosophy that emphasizes students’ interests and experiences. The contextual teaching and learning was developed by the Washington State Consortium, which involved 11 universities, 20 schools and some education organizations in the United States [3, 8].papers mentioned above state that a learning process today still uses a teacher-oriented approach. Teachers transfer their knowledge to their students actively, meanwhile, their students, like an empty bottle continually get filled with various kinds of knowledge, which sometimes they do not understand. Teachers should discover creative strategies to enhance students’ interests to practice writing. Therefore, context approach can be implemented in this present study.context approach is considered to be used in teaching English, especially in teaching productive skills. Regarding this, Aysayeva [4, 109] stated that writing with context can make students able to develop analysis when they write a reasonable paragraph and make the readers give their expectation easier. In other words, if the students know what to write, what the reader expects from the text, and which parts of the language system that are relevant to the particular task in a given context, then they will be able to develop their analysis in writing a reasonable paragraph and have a good chance to succeed in it.

The aim of the research work is to establish advantages of context approach implementation in teaching foreign languages.given aim determines the following objectives:

         to analyze the theoretical basis of context approach implementation in teaching foreign language;

-        to define the main strategies and characteristics of context approach;

         to identify benefits of using of context approach in teaching productive skills in the senior grades.

The object of the research work is context approach in teaching foreign languages in the senior grades.

The subject of the research work isour work we have used the following methodological basis: a method of the description, comparison, analysis, method of observation and experiment.

The Scientific novelty. Implementation of Context approach in teaching English productive skills is considered in this research. Advantages of using Context approach was identified and analyzed.

The theoretical significance of the research work lies in the fact that it provides better understanding about theoretical framework for other researchers who are interested in conducting research on advantages of using context approach in teaching English.

The practical significance of the research is determined by the possibility to give contribution in finding more effective methods of teaching writing and speaking in the senior grades.

Theoretical and methodological basis

context approach teaching english

There are a number of works of different authors (Elaine B. Johnson, John Dewey, Verbitsky A.A., Dubovitskaya T.D., Zhusupova R.B., Susan Sears, Robert G. Berns, Patricia M. Erickson, Michael L. Crawford) that are devoted to the research of context approach.

The structure of the work. Diploma work consists of introduction, two parts, conclusion, the bibliography and appendix.Introduction there are defined the topicality, the aim, objectives and methods, also the subject, the object and the results of the practical significance of our research work. the first part there are defined a base concepts of research work and identified the main strategies of using Context approach. the second part there are investigated advantages of Context approach implementation in teaching English productive skills in senior grades.conclusion there are given the results of theoretical and practical researches of the Context approach in teaching English productive skills in senior grades.bibliography includes names of works of different methodologists, material of which is used during research work.

1. Context approach in teaching English language in Senior grades

1.1 Definition, characteristics and components of Context approach

Context approach rests at the convergence of an established and growing body of research from such diverse fields as developmental psychology, cultural anthropology, linguistics, cognitive psychology, and social psychology. Built on a set of theories and strategies for teaching that can be traced back to the work of John Dewey, John Francis Wood hull, and William Heard Kilpatrick in the early 1900s, context approach is not a "new" idea, but a concept that has continued to evolve over time at all levels of the education system.of the context approach elements are common in classrooms throughout the United States and enjoy a rich history of educational research about their effectiveness [1,7]. Context approach unifies these teaching and learning practices into one approach to instruction. The unified approach has given educators a common language for discussing their beliefs in effective practice and ways to broaden the "pockets of excellence” in their schools. The context approach succeed because it asks young people to act in ways are natural to human being. That is, it conforms to the brain function, to basic human psychology, and to the three principles that modern biology and physics have discovered permeating the entire universe. These principles - independence, differentiation, self-organizing - infuse everything that lives, including human beings [1, 26].approach also requires teachers to change how they teach. In particular, it encompasses instructional approach intended to supplement traditional teaching styles that rely heavily on lecture, students’ taking notes, watching teachers conduct experiments, memorizing facts and techniques, and using the written word (through papers and exams) to demonstrate learning. [1,28]application of contextual learning to the American classroom has its origins in the experiential learning traditions of John Dewey who in1916 advocated a curriculum and teaching methodology tied to the child’s experiences and interests. Our consortium’s operational definitions for context approach are rooted in Dewey’s progressivism and in research findings which show that students learn best when what they are learning is connected to what they already know and when they are actively engaged in their own learning [2, 36]. In the course of conducting a literature review it became clear that context approach is an integration of many "good teaching practices" and several education reform approaches intended to enhance the relevance and functional utility of education for all students.approach is a system that stimulates the brain to weave pattern that express meaning. It is a brain-compatible system of instruction that generates meaning by linking academic content with the context of a student’s daily life.advantage of the fact that environment stimulates the brain’s neuron to form pathways, the system focuses on context, on relationship. The brain’s ability to locate meaning by making connection explain why students who are encouraged to connect schoolwork with their present reality, with their individual, social and cultural circumstance today, with the context of their daily live, are able to attach meaning to academic material and therefore to retain what they study [1, 22].approach involves making learning meaningful to students by connecting to the real world. It draws up on students’ diverse skills, interests, experiences, and cultures and integrates these into what and how students learn and how they are assessed. In other words, contextual teaching situates learning and learning activities in real-life and vocational contexts to which students can relate, incorporating not only content, the "what," of learning but the reasons why that learning is important.examples of context approach are interdisciplinary activities across content areas, classrooms, and grade levels; or among students, classrooms, and communities. Problem-based learning strategies, for instance, can situate student learning.the context of students’ communities, many skills learned as parts of contextual learning activities are transferable skills, those that can be used not only for successful completion of a current project, but also in other content areas to prepare a student for success in later vocational endeavours. Contextual learning, then, engages students in meaningful, interactive, and collaborative activities that support them in becoming self-regulated learners [3, 52]. Additionally, these learning experiences foster interdependence among students and their learning groups.complementary outcomes assessments for contextual student learning are authentic assessment strategies.approach is defined as a conception of teaching and learning that helps teachers relate subject matter content to real-world situations; and motivates students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and engage in the hard work that learning require [3,9]., context approach helps students connect the content they are learning to the life contexts in which that content could be used. Students then find meaning in the learning process. As they strive to attain learning goals, they draw upon their previous experiences and build upon existing knowledge. By learning subjects in an integrated, multi-disciplinary manner and in appropriate contexts, they are able to use the acquired knowledge and skills in applicable contexts [4, 110].teaching and learning as a concept that helps the teachers and students relate the meaning through prior and new knowledge to get new understanding. So, it is an expectation that the approach can give benefits for teacher and students in teaching learning Verbycskii there are some differences between context approach and traditional instruction. Traditional instruction is an instruction that emphasized in conventional way, it still applies the importance of memorization not construction the materials from the real context based on experience. It still stresses in teacher’s role than students [3, 62]. While contextual instruction is in the opposite. There are some comparisons of contextual and traditional instructions (Table 1).

Table 1. Comparison of contextual and traditional instructions

Traditional approach

Context approach

Relies on rote memory

Relies on spatial memory

Typically focused on single subject

Typically integrates multiple subjects

Value of information is determined by teacher

Value of information is based on individual need

Fills students with deposits of information until needed

Relates information with prior knowledge

Assessment of learning is only for formal academic occasions such as exams.

Authentic assessment through practical application or solving of realistic problem

Although context approach is a relatively new concept in the field of education, its principles and practices have been around for centuries [1,8]. The concept of teaching students in a context as close to real life as possible can be dated back to the 16thcentury. Michael of Montaigne, a Renaissance writer, believed that students could learn more from travelling and experiencing the world first hand than they could from studying a textbook [1, 9]. In fact, the school fieldtrips that students take today could be a result of the belief that students learn without the textbook; field-trips give students an opportunity to interact with society and gain valuable experiences. Creating a setting in which students learn as realistically as possible is a goal of teachers who use context approach. Teachers who use context approach practices not only place emphasis on field-trips, but they also emphasize practices.implementation of each Context approach components will be explained bellow:. Constructivism is building on knowledge known by the is student-centred; students have to construct knowledge themselves. Explanations can use meta-cognition to explain via metaphor. Semiotics, or meanings of words, is important to keep in mind. Constructivism is a theory, a tool, a lens for examining educational practices [5, 9].is constructed by human knowledge is not asset if facts, concept, or laws, waiting to be discovered. It is not something that exists independent of knower. Human create or construct knowledge as they attempt to bring meaning to their experience. Everything that we know, we have made, knowledge grows trough exposure. Understandings become deeper and stronger if one test against new encounters.characteristic of constructivism learning is active students, they involve in learning process depend on their ability, knowledge and style of learning. They are guided by teachers as facilitator; teacher will help them if they get learning difficulty [6, 2].

1. Constructive learning process

The chart above describes the constructive learning process. It explains that the student who was born doesn’t have knowledge. He lives and interacts with his environment, then he gets the primary knowledge then he processes it through the learning experiences to get the new knowledge. In the constructivism, the achievement strategy is done earlier than how much knowledge that the student gets and remembers. So the teacher is as a facilitator, he has a role play to make the meaningful knowledge and relevant to the students. He gives the chance to the students to find and apply their ideas themselves. He also asks the students to apply their strategies in the learning.. Inquiry means the teachers have to design an activity refer to any material to reach expected competence in all subjects. Learning based on inquiry, students are supported to used scientist strategy. They are supposed observing an object matter, giving question, looking for information that needs to analyse data and taking conclusion [5,15].characteristics of inquiry learning are students demanded to responsible with their own learning; teachers are able to know how far student concept or theory does. Inquiry learning gives, actives and concentrate experience to students, they will learn how to solve, make decision, study to observe and give them an opportunity to study forever [6, 4].facts and information is not the most important skill in today's world. Facts change, and information is readily available - what's needed is an understanding of how to get and make sense of the mass of data.must understand that schools need to go beyond data and information accumulation and move toward the generation of useful and applicable knowledge. a process supported by inquiry learning. In the past, our country's success depended on our supply of natural resources. Today, it depends upon a workforce that "works smarter. "the process of inquiry, individuals construct much of their understanding of the natural and human-designed worlds. Inquiry implies a "need or want to know" premise. Inquiry is not so much seeking the right answer because often there is none but rather seeking appropriate resolutions to questions and issues. For educators, inquiry implies emphasis on the development of inquiry skills and the nurturing of inquiring attitudes or habits of mind that will enable individuals to continue the quest for knowledge throughout life.of disciplines is very important, but as a means to an end, not as an end in itself. The knowledge base for disciplines is constantly expanding and changing. No one can ever learn everything, but everyone can better develop their skills and nurture the inquiring attitudes necessary to continue the generation and examination of knowledge throughout their lives. For modern education, the skills and the ability to continue learning should be the most important outcomes. The rationale for why this is necessary is explained in the following diagrams.. Questioning. There is international concern about the extent to which students are excluded from school. Between and within countries there is significant variation in the numbers of students whose behaviour is regarded as problematic, challenging and the main strategy of context approach, because knowledge starts from questioning. In learning process, it considered by teacher’s activity to support, guide and evaluate student’s ability [5, 17].questioning strategy can be applied almost in every activity, between student and student, teacher and student, student and teacher, students and other people who invited in the class. Questioning activity also can be found when student discussed, study in group, find difficulty, observation. These activities will support the student giving questioning.. Learning community advocates a holistic approach to language learning, since "true” human learning is both cognitive and affective [2, 52]. This is termed whole-person learning. Concept of learning community suggests the students to cooperate with other people, make communication, help each other and competition between student and another should be avoided [4,16]. One of example of learning community in English subject is making team work, they try to understand English text, share and make conclusion. Cooperative skill is one of learning community purpose.principles of learning community consist as follow:

. Study club, communicate to share ideas and experience each other;

. Cooperate to solve the problem;

. Responsible to each group;

. Construct learning student’s motivation; create situation and condition that enable to make students study each other;

. Teacher is facilitator who guides learning process;

. Accept and respect another opinion willingly [6, 5].community has multidimensional meaning, in cooperative learning should be learning community, sharing ideas, discussion, service learning, study club, context approach sources, problem based learning, learning to be, learning to know, learning to do, learning how to live together, task based learning, school based management and collaborative learning.. Modelling is one of the components of in CTL approach, in learning skill or specific knowledge. Modelling is offering behaviour for imitation. Modelling assists by giving the students information and a remembered image that can serve as a performance standard [6,7]. Model can be imitated by student such as how to pronounce or spell some words, operate and do something. The teacher is not only a model but students, native speaker, doctor, police etc.. Reflection is one of the important parts of contextual approach; it is the way of thinking of everything that has been learned in the past. Reflection evaluates effective program which has been done [6, 8]. The teacher helps the students in connecting the previous and new knowledge. So, the students felt getting new knowledge from what they learned.. Authentic assessments show (among other things) that learning has occurred; are blended into the teaching or learning process; and provide students with opportunities and direction for improvement [5, 19].assessment is used to monitor student progress and inform teaching practices [5, 19]. Assessment is collecting data that describes learning student development. It is important to know the result as long as the teaching and learning process not only the test (middle and final test) but all of the student process.characteristics of authentic assessment are:

. Evaluate all of student’s learning process;

. Involves real-world experience;

. Accessing information;

. Use opened - ended format;

. Encourage the use of calculator, computer and human resource;

. Engages the student by relevance;

. Include self-assessment and reflection;

. Warrant effort and practice;

. Identify strengths to enable student to show what they can do;

. Make assessment criteria clearer to the student.way that authentic assessment is commonly distinguished from traditional assessment is in terms of its defining attributes. Of course, traditional assessment's as well as authentic assessment's vary considerably in the forms they take. But, typically, along the continuums of attributes listed below, traditional assessment's fall more towards the left end of each continuum and authentic assessment's fall more towards the right end.

Table 2. Differences between traditional and authentic assessment

Traditional assessment

Authentic assessment

Selecting a Response

Performing a Task






Indirect Evidence

Direct Evidence

Selecting a Response to Performing a Task: On traditional assessments, students are typically given several choices (e. g., a,b,c or d; true or false; which of these match with those) and asked to select the right answer. In contrast, authentic assessments ask students to demonstrate understanding by performing a more complex task usually representative of more meaningful application.

Contrived to Real-life. It is not very often in life outside of school that we are asked to select from four alternatives to indicate our proficiency at something. Tests offer these contrived means of assessment to increase the number of times you can be asked to demonstrate proficiency in a short period of time. More commonly in life, as in authentic assessments, we are asked to demonstrate proficiency by doing something.

Recall/Recognition of Knowledge to Construction/Application of Knowledge: Well-designed traditional assessments (i. e., tests and quizzes) can effectively determine whether or not students have acquired a body of knowledge. Thus, as mentioned above, tests can serve as a nice complement to authentic assessments in a teacher's assessment portfolio. Furthermore, we are often asked to recall or recognize facts and ideas and propositions in life, so tests are somewhat authentic in that sense. However, the demonstration of recall and recognition on tests is typically much less revealing about what we really know and can do than when we are asked to construct a product or performance out of facts, ideas and propositions. Authentic assessments often ask students to analyze, synthesize and apply what they have learned in a substantial manner, and students create new meaning in the process as well.

Teacher-structured to Student-structured: When completing a traditional assessment, what a student can and will demonstrate has been carefully structured by the person (s) who developed the test. A student's attention will understandably be focused on and limited to what is on the test. In contrast, authentic assessments allow more student choice and construction in determining what is presented as evidence of proficiency. Even when students cannot choose their own topics or formats, there are usually multiple acceptable routes towards constructing a product or performance. Obviously, assessments more carefully controlled by the teachers offer advantages and disadvantages. Similarly, more student-structured tasks have strengths and weaknesses that must be considered when choosing and designing an assessment.

Indirect Evidence to Direct Evidence: Even if a multiple-choice question asks a student to analyze or apply facts to a new situation rather than just recall the facts, and the student selects the correct answer, what do you now know about that student? Did that student get lucky and pick the right answer? What thinking led the student to pick that answer? We really do not know. At best, we can make some inferences about what that student might know and might be able to do with that knowledge. The evidence is very indirect, particularly for claims of meaningful application in complex, real-world situations. Authentic assessments, on the other hand, offer more direct evidence of application and construction of knowledge. As in the golf example above, putting a golf student on the golf course to play provides much more direct evidence of proficiency than giving the student a written test. Can a student effectively critique the arguments someone else has presented (an important skill often required in the real world)? Asking a student to write a critique should provide more direct evidence of that skill than asking the student a series of multiple-choice, analytical questions about a passage, although both assessments may be useful.approach integrates such strategies into learning activities as: problem solving, self-directed learning, learning from peers, learning in real situations and authentic assessments; the five characteristics to its integration are as follows and can be incorporated into teaching activities

. Activating knowledge. It means, the material that will be learned is a unity of previous knowledge that has relation each other. Teaching and learning process actives knowledge.

. Acquiring knowledge. Contextual teaching is a learning to get and add new knowledge deductively; the teaching begins from universal knowledge to detail one.

. Understanding knowledge. The knowledge acquired is not a memorizing but understanding it such as asking the other respond about the knowledge acquired than improved it based on that respond.

. Applying knowledge. The knowledge and experience acquired enable to apply in real-world student and appeared a student behaviour change.

. Reflecting knowledge. This is a completing and evaluating process of acquiring, activating, understanding and applying knowledge [6, 2].to Johnson, there are seven characteristics of context approach:

. Making meaningful connection. Learning is related with real - world life, student actively to develop their interest, study individually or in group. They realize the importance of studying for their future.

. Doing significant work. Students make correlation between school and several of contexts in real-world life in the house, community and work site.

. Self-regulated learning. Students do significant work that has purpose, interaction, decision and real life result.

. Collaborating. Students cooperate with each other, and the teacher helps them how do they understand to communicate with other students.

. Critical creative thinking. Students use high critical and creative thinking to analyse, make hypothesis, solve the problems, make decision and use logical evidence.

. Nurturing the individual. Students take care of their personality, giving attention, having high expectation, motivating and strengthen themselves and respecting the other.

. Reaching high standard. Students know and reach high standard, teachers identify and motivates them to reach the purpose.

. Using authentic assessment. Students use academic knowledge in real-world contexts for meaningful purpose [1, 24].

1.2 Strategies and principles of context approach in teaching English language

Centre of Occupational Research and Development (CORD) delivers five strategies to implement the Context approach are called as REACT such as [7,5]:

. Relating is the most powerful element in contextual teaching strategy. It also suggests that students’ learning in the context of one’s life experiences or pre-existing knowledge [7,5]. In relating, teachers link a new concept to something completely unknown to students. Caine called this reaction "felt meaning. ” That reaction can be momentous, as when a student finds the solution to a problem that he or she has spent significant time and effort in solving.

. Experiencing. In contextual approach, one strategy relates to another. The previous statement appears to indicate that relating connects new information to life experiences or prior knowledge that students bring to the classroom [7,7]. Teachers are able to overcome this obstacle and help students construct new knowledge with hands-on experiences that occur inside the classroom. This strategy is called experiencing. In experiencing, students are learning by doing through exploration, discovery, and invention [7,8]. It can be seen by looking at students were able to create diagram events independently and organize the drafting of the recount text from their diagram events. In this strategy, students were also able to work in pairs to analyze the text in terms of linguistic features and generic structure. In the class hands-on experiences can include the use of manipulative, problem-solving activities, and laboratories.

. Applying. Applying strategy can be defined as learning by putting the concepts to use [7,10]. Clearly, students can implement the concepts when they are engaged in hands on problem solving activities. Teachers can also motivate a need for understanding the concepts by assigning realistic and relevant exercises. Relating and experiencing are strategies for developing insight, felt meaning, and understanding. Applying is a context approach strategy that develops a deeper sense of meaning [5,29].applying strategies, the tasks are designed to be interesting, different, and varied. The aim is to provide students with a wide variety of tasks to engage in and ensure that the tasks have some engaging, novel, interesting, or surprising, features.CTL contexts, applying is a contextual teaching and learning strategy that develops a deeper sense of meaning. Accordingly, students also develop their knowledge through their active participation in the teaching and learning process. Based on the data gained, the teacher’s roles to facilitate learning process are: (1) making the knowledge meaningful and relevant to the students; (2) giving chance to the students to find and apply their own ideas; and (3) making students aware to apply their own strategy into learning process.

. Cooperating. Students are not able to make significant progress in a class when they work individually. On the other hand, students working in small groups can handle that complex problem with little outside help [7,12]. Teachers using student-led groups to complete exercises or hands-on activities are using the strategy of cooperating. This strategy refers to learning in the context of sharing, responding, and communicating with other learners. Most students feel less self-conscious and can ask questions without feeling embarrassed, when they work with peers in a small group discussion [8, 23]. Another fact of cooperative learning is that it can be counterproductive. For example, some students may not participate in the group processes at all, while others may dominate and the group members may refuse to accept or share responsibility for the group’s work., who is the leading researcher in cooperative learning, has established guidelines to help teachers avoid those negative conditions and create environments where students may be expected to learn concepts at a deeper level of understanding. The guidelines are divided into five points: structuring positive interdependence within students learning groups; having students interact while completing assignments and ensuring that the interactions are on-task; holding all students individually accountable for completing assignments and not letting them rely overly on the work of others; having students learn to use interpersonal and small group skills; and ensuring that learning groups discuss how well the group functions [1, 123].

. Transferring. In traditional classroom, students’ roles are to memorize the facts and practice the procedures by working skill drill exercises and word problems. In contrast, in a contextual or constructivist classroom, the teachers’ role is expanded to include creating a variety of learning experiences with a focus on understanding rather than memorization [7, 15]. Transferring is a teaching strategy that we define as using knowledge in a new context or novel situation-one that has not been covered in class. It suggests that students who learn with understanding can also learn to transfer knowledge [8, 29].

 2. Strategies of context approach

Jonson delivers six strategies of Context approach in teaching English language. They are problem based, using multiple contexts, drawing upon student diversity, supporting self-regulated learning, using interdependent learning groups, employing authentic assessment [1,65].based. Context approach is started with a simulated or real problem. Critical thinking skills are used by the students to address the problem or issue. To solve these problems, students may also draw upon multiple content areas. Useful problems that are relevant to students‟ families, school experiences, workplaces, and communities hold greater personal meaning.any other learning theories, problem based learning too has its advantages and limitations when it is implemented in the curriculum. Since this experiment began in medical education, strong opinions have been expressed and questions raised regarding the effectiveness and educational efficiency of problem based learning approach in teaching sciences basic to medicine. Following are the advantages and limitations of problem based learning.

In problem based learning the students are actively involved and they like this method  [1,43]  <>. It fosters active learning, and also retention and development of lifelong learning skills. It encourages self-directed learning by confronting students with problems and stimulates the development of deep learning  [1, 44]  <>.based learning gives emphasis to lifelong learning by developing in students the potential to determine their own goals, locate appropriate resources for learning and assume responsibility for what they need to know  [4, 5]  <>. It also greatly helps them better long term knowledge retention  [4, 16]  <>.based learning focuses on engaging students in finding solutions to real life situations and pertinent contextualized problems. In this method discussion forums collaborative research take the place of lecturing.fosters deep learning by involving students with the interaction of learning materials. They relate the concept they study with everyday activities and enhance their knowledge and understanding. Students also activate their prior knowledge and build on existing conceptual knowledge frameworks  [3,57]  <>.themselves resolve the problems that are given to them; they take more interest and responsibility for their learning. They themselves will look for resources like research articles, journals, web materials etc. for their purpose  [3, 48]  <>. Thus it equips them with more proficiency in seeking resources in comparison to the students of traditional learning more significance to the meaning, applicability and relevance to the learning materials it leads to better understanding of the subjects learnt. When students are given more challenging and significant problems are given it makes them more proficient  [3, 49]  <>. The real life contexts and problems make their learning more profound, lasting and also enhance the transferability of skills and knowledge from the classroom to work. Since there is more scope for application of knowledge and skills the transferability is increased. It will be also very helpful to them not only to visualise what it will be like applying that knowledge and expertise on their field of work or profession.based learning is more of teamwork and collaborative learning. The teams or groups resolve relevant problems in collaboration and hence it fosters student interaction, teamwork and reinforces interpersonal skills  [52]  <> like peer evaluation, working with group dynamic etc.  [53]  <> It also fosters in them the leadership qualities, learn to make decision by consensus and give constructive feed back to the team members etc.  [54]  <>say that students like problem based learning classes rather than the traditional classes. The increase in the percentage of attendance of students and their attitude towards this approach itself makes it very clear that they are self-motivated. In fact it is more fascinating, stimulating and one of the good learning methods because it is more flexible and interesting to students. They enjoy this environment of learning for it is less threatening and they can learn independently. All these aspects make students more self-motivated and they pursue learning even after they leave the school or college.the students are self-motivated, good teamwork, self-directed learning etc. the teachers who have worked in both traditional and project based learning formats prefer project based learning. They also feel that Problem based learning is more nurturing, significant curriculum and beneficial to the cognitive growth of the student.students in context approach classes have higher scores than the students in traditional courses because of their learning competencies, problem solving, self-assessment techniques, data gathering, behavioural science etc. It is because they are better at activating prior knowledge, and they learn in a context resembling their future context and elaborate more on the information presented which helps in better understanding and retention of knowledge.

Using multiple contexts. Theories of situated cognition suggest that knowledge cannot be separated from the physical and social context in which it develops. How and where a person acquires and creates knowledge is therefore very important. Context approach experiences are enriched when students learn skills in multiple contexts (i. e. school, community, workplace, family).

Drawing upon student diversity. On the whole, our student population is becoming more and more diverse, and with increased diversity comes differences in values, social mores, and perspectives. These differences can be the impetus for learning and can add complexity to the Context approach experience. Team collaboration and group learning activities respect students’ diverse histories, broaden perspectives, and build inter-personal skills.

Supporting self-regulated learning. Ultimately, students must become lifelong learners. Lifelong learners are able to seek out, analyze, and use information with little to no supervision. To do so, students must become more aware of how they process information, employ problem - solving strategies, and use background knowledge. Context approach experiences should allow for trial and error; provide time and structure for reflection; and provide adequate support to assist students to move from dependent to independent learning.

Using interdependent learning groups. Students will be influenced by and will contribute to the knowledge and beliefs of others. Learning groups, or learning communities, are established in workplaces and schools in an effort to share knowledge, focus on goals, and allow all to teach and learn from each other. When learning communities are established in schools, educators act as coaches, facilitators, and mentors.Johnson, Roger Johnson, and Karl Smith performed a meta-analysis of 168 studies comparing cooperative learning to competitive learning and individualistic learning in college students [1,75]. They found that cooperative learning produced greater academic achievement than both competitive learning and individualistic learning across the studies, exhibiting a mean weighted effect size of 0.54 when comparing cooperation and competition and 0.51 when comparing cooperation and individualistic learning. In essence, these results indicate that cooperative learning increases student academic performance by approximately one-half of a standard deviation when compared to non-cooperative learning models, an effect that is considered moderate. Importantly, the academic achievement measures were defined in each study, and ranged from lower-level cognitive tasks (e. g., knowledge acquisition and retention) to higher level cognitive activity (e. g., creative problem solving), and from verbal tasks to mathematical tasks to procedural tasks. The meta-analysis also showed substantial effects on other metrics, including self-esteem and positive attitudes about learning. George Kuh and colleagues also conclude that cooperative group learning promotes student engagement and academic performance.

Employing authentic assessment. Context approach is intended to build knowledge and skills in meaningful ways by engaging students in real life, or "authentic" contexts. Assessment of learning should align with the methods and purposes of instruction. Authentic assessments show (among other things) that learning has occurred; are blended into the teaching/learning process; and provide students with opportunities and direction for improvement. Authentic assessment is used to monitor student progress and inform teaching practices., the teachers use many of these strategies in classrooms. In order to conduct the strategies effectively, all strategies must be present in the teaching/ learning experience. Implementation of Context approach may not require drastic changes in practice for all educators. It may require enhancement of practice in one characteristic and not another. Continual use and reflection on Context approach processes broadens and deepens educators‟ knowledge and ability to facilitate learning.approach as one of approaches for teaching and learning has scientific principles. According to Johnson [1, 26] there are 3 principles of it. They are principles of interdependence, the principles of differentiation, and the principles of self-regulation.

Principles of Interdependence. Human being could not establish intimacy with one another [1, 28]. It means that although the approach consists of authentic learning activity that is conducted group, there is no one can intimidate the other’s to follow the certain students. It is a sharing and discussing section when it is conducting in group, so the principle stresses that all of the learners have the interdependence.Context approach the principle of interdependence invites educators to recognize their linkages with other educators, with students, with communities and with the environment. The principle of interdependence invite students to work together, mutual expression, listening to each other to find the problem, designing the plan, and seek solutions to problems. The principle is to unite the experiences of each individual to achieve high academic standards.occurs when no one can be successful without the contributions of others; help is necessary. It is not hard to structure for interdependence. In the example of the team graphic organizer the teacher might assign each student a different part of the task (generating the items, generating the frame, drawing the organizer, reporting on the learning). For the team to do well, each student must do his/her part well.situations differ in the type of interdependence they create. How much and what type of interdependence there is depends on how we structure the learning task. Let's examine Timed Pair Share as an example. In Timed Pair Share, students are in pairs and each student in turn shares with her partner for a specified amount of time while the other just listens. The structure is designed primarily to allow each student to verbalize her/his thoughts (to exercise and develop Brocca's area of the brain, encoding thoughts into words). In Timed Pair Share there is a positive correlation among outcomes: A good idea from one helps the other learn or think. Students find themselves on the same side, hoping their partner has interesting or useful ideas. There is also interdependence for task completion (the students need each other to get through the steps of the structure). There is not, however, interdependence for developing one's thinking. Students can actually complete a Timed Pair Share without listening to each other at all! We might hope that students are listening to each other and developing their ideas based on their partner's ideas, but we have not structured their interaction to ensure that will happen.

Table 3. Examples of correlation




Grade on a Curve

Negative Correlation

Hoping others do poorly

Call on one student

Negative Correlation

Hoping the called on student misses

Take turns writing answers

Positive Correlation

Hoping partner knows answers

Teams make graphic organizers

Positive Correlation

Hoping teammates are creative

are a variety of ways to create interdependence. Match Mine creates very strong interdependence by limiting what each student can see, and by creating interdependent roles. Partners have identical game pieces and are seated on opposite sides of a barrier. One partner (The Sender) arranges her game pieces in a specific arrangement on a game board and must communicate the layout to her partner (The Receiver) in order to make a match. The students are completely interdependent; neither can have success without the contributions of the other. To succeed students must cooperate and communicate well.ways to create interdependence include:

·        Turn taking;

·        Assigning different necessary roles to each student;

·        Assigning different access to materials to each student (Pair Projects in which one has the scissors and another the glue);

·        Providing different essential information to each student (Jigsaw Problem Solving);

·        Limiting the time so that no one person can complete the task alone (Brainstorming);

·        Increasing the task difficulty so no one person can complete the task alone (Team Project requiring coordination of efforts);

·        Designing tasks with cumulative contributions;

·        Having students teach each other (Telephone, Partners, Jigsaw);

·        Assigning "mini-topics" for a group investigation/presentation.

Principle of Differentiation. When the students are different in their creativity, they could be free to explore their individual talents, cultivate their own learning styles, and progress at their own pace [1, 31]. It means that contextual teaching and learning approach can be conducted to the students with different characters, talents, and ability. The importance of the principle is how the contextual teaching learning helps the students to explore their own talent and can have a big motivation to study based on their life context.instruction is a principle-guided method to approach teaching and learning, and it is implemented in the context of a classroom system that contains four interdependent elements: learning environment, curriculum, assessment, and instruction. In all classrooms, there is a learning environment that is shaped by a teacher's beliefs, experiences, and actions. There is a curriculum, shaped by a teacher's content knowledge, text materials, and local or federal mandates. There is some form of assessment, again shaped by both the teacher and forces external to the teacher. Finally, all classrooms benefit from instruction that individual teachers design (or follow established designs for) and implement. The way in which the teacher envisions and enacts each of these elements shapes each of the other elements. For example, an assessment that feels judgmental to students will negatively impact the learning environment. Likewise, a classroom in which curriculum is highly prescribed, with few or no options for a teacher to make professional decisions on behalf of students, limits that teacher's options for instruction.

Principle of Self-Regulation. Self-regulation means everything is set up, maintained, and recognized by yourself. The principle motivates the students to show all of their potentials. Moreover, it also explores them to get the new talents. The teacher should give them belief by giving responsibility for taking the decision, behavior, choice, plan, solution etc.the notion of self-regulation is important for teachers because teaching requires problem-solving and invention. Teachers face problems and challenges that are complex and rarely straightforward. As Jonson points out, teaching teachers facts and rigid decision-making models is less effective than nurturing within teachers the capacity and skills to deal with the difficult problems of the real world. It is ironic that teachers are often taught with pedagogical methods that are contrary to the principles that they are being taught, such as direct instruction on problem-based learning or cooperative learning. It can be advocated that teachers should be given the same contexts, challenges, and choices that are beneficial for students and we agree wholeheartedly. They describe a model of professional development called "collaborative innovation” in which teachers work together to adapt, invent, evaluate, discuss, and revise instruction that fits their own classrooms and contexts, including such factors as students, time, buildings, resources, accountability pressures, and parents. In our view, collaborative innovation provides opportunities for teachers to become self-regulated, strategic, and motivated themselves as they invent their methods of instructing and assessing students which mimic the processes of collaborative innovation that they want their students to discover and create. It is a professional development model of the co-construction of meaningful experiences.

1.3 Teaching English productive skills through Context approach

Writing is one of the four language skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. Writing and speaking are considered to be productive skills that means, they involve producing language rather than receiving it.are various ways how to define writing. Oxford Dictionary defines writing as: "the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system)." [9,722]the other hand, in The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Writings Systems, Florian Coulmas defines a writing system as: "a set of visible or tactile signs used to represent units of language in a systematic way, with the purpose of recording messages which can be retrieved by everyone who knows the language in question and the rules by virtue of which its units are encoded in the writing system." [10, 545]has served different functions in society. It is typically used for the transmission for cultural knowledge, keeping records of historical facts or scientific developments, codifying laws etc. In everyday life, writing is used for sharing information (newspapers), for entertainment (comics, computer games), for social contact (e-mails, SMSs) and for action (telephone directories).writing, we have to distinguish between accuracy and fluency. Writing accurately involves spelling correctly, forming letters correctly, writing legibly, using correct pronunciation, using correct layouts and choosing the right vocabulary [11,]. We also have to use grammar correctly, joining sentences correctly and using paragraphs was mentioned earlier, when we write we communicate. To communicate means: e. g. express somebody’s experience, respond to greeting or invitation. Therefore we can state, that both accuracy and fluency are very important in writing and while teaching it we have to strongly focus on both of them.goal of a language teacher is to enable students to produce fluent, understandable, accurate and appropriate written English. But this is a hard work for English teachers in mixed ability classes where the students are on the different G. Broughton, English teachers can use three stages of writing. They are controlled writing, guided writing and free writing [12,118].

Controlled writing. It is sensible to distinguish between writing exercises in which the final product is linguistically determined by the teacher and exercises in which the final content is determined. Thus, by controlled writing G. Broughton understands e. g. exercises in which a paragraph with blank is to be filled in which picture prompts or memory of a model presented by the teacher, leads to reproducing more or less exactly the same final product as each other.

Guided writing. A composition support in which the teacher provides the situation and helps the class to prepare the written work is guided writing. Each piece of work is different in the language used.

Free writing. By free writing we understand a writing in which the title is provided and everything is done by the students. Further, G. Broughton claims that to be successful in teaching writing skills it is necessary to make sure that the students start with controlled writing and when they become more confident in working with controlled exercises more and more guided writing exercises should be available.aspect that English teachers should be aware of is functional style or register. Therefore, the teachers must select the conventions and style which are most likely to be useful to the students, if they want to be successful. But the great deal of sensitivity which students need in using language develops unconsciously from spinoff from reading.teaching writing skill teacher is an essential factor. Before giving a task to students, the teacher should check whether the task is appropriate for the needs of the students, the task is within the level of the students, the task is just above their level, so they will be really challenged or whether the task is enjoyable.dealing with written work G. Broughton suggest the teacher to grade the task in following ways (these strategies help the teacher to organize lesson and can be used in any combination):)  limit the length of the written material to be produced;

b)      increase the amount of class preparation for the task;)         provide guidance on the final form of the written work, for example with picture prompts or memory prompt;)    encourage students to collaborate in the actual process of writing;)      allow cross-checking between the draft stage and the writing of the final product;)          limit the complexity of the writing task itself;)         demand that the task be completed either slowly or quickly [12,121].

.        Demonstrating. When students are involved in writing activities they need to be aware of writing conventions and genre constraints. The task of the teacher is to draw these features to their attention.

2.      Motivating and provoking. Sometimes students are stuck while writing and do not know how to start or continue. Then, the teacher’s task is to help, stimulate or encourage students and persuade them that writing can be an enjoyable activity. When students do not know what to do, it is good to prepare suggestions for them, rather than having students to think for a long time.

There are several ways how to get students going. One of them is to give students several words they need for starting writing the activity. From time to time, the teacher can give the students several words they need for starting writing the activity as a good way of getting them going.

.        Supporting. Supporting is one of the most important teacher’s tasks. Students need a lot of help and reassurance and therefore teachers need to be very supportive when students are writing in the class and be prepared to help students to overcome problems.

4.      Responding. By responding J. Harmer understands reacting to the construction and content of the students´ written work. Teachers make suggestions for improvement but do not judge or grade the work. The aim is to tell students how well they are doing. The teacher may also make suggestions and comments about the students’ use of language.

The teacher might respond by saying how much he/she appreciates reading their work and enter a dialogue with the students. The teacher can also encourage students to look at each other’s work and ask for advice or suggestions about how to improve their writing.

.        Evaluation and correction. Many teachers say that to evaluate their students is the hardest work. There are many situations when the students are evaluated. All students want to know how they are doing so far, what is necessary to improve and what standard they have achieved [13, 53].

6.      When evaluating tests the teacher indicates what was written well and where the mistakes were made. When the teacher hands back marked work, he/she should get a student to have a look at the errors that are highlighted and try to put them right. By correcting J. Harmer means correcting syntax (word order), concord (grammar agreement), and collocation and word choice.

Feedback is also very important here. When the teacher corrects, he/she actually plays several roles [13, 109]: students see the teacher as the examiner, in fact the teacher takes a role of audience (responds to the ideas), he/she can act as an assistant (helps students with writing), a resource (is available when students need information), an evaluator (says how well the students have done so far) and an editor (helps to select and rearrange the students´ writing).way the teacher corrects is also significant. Jeremy Harmer suggests seven ways of correction [13, 134]:

.        Selective correction. It means that the teacher does not have to correct everything. The teacher can correct only punctuation, verb tenses, grammar or to concentrate on using appropriate level of formality, using correct paragraphs and so on. It is important to tell students before the writing that the teacher will use this approach.

2.      Using marking scales. The idea of this approach is to give marks out of 10 for each category the teacher chooses for students (e. g. grammar, vocabulary or verb tenses). With indications of mistakes this scale helps students to focus on the particular area they need to improve.

.        Using correction symbols. Many teachers use correction symbols. The advantage of this method is that it encourages students to think about the mistakes they have made, in fact, the students correct the mistakes themselves.

.        Reformulation. It is a way how the teacher can show the students to write something more correctly. The teacher shows how he/she would write the incorrect sentences or parts. The student then can compare his/her version with the teacher’s one.

.        Referring students to a dictionary or a grammar book. When the mistake is made the teacher can ask a student to go and look the problem up in a dictionary of a grammar book. The advantage of referring students to use dictionaries or grammar books is that it is encouraging students to look at the information with a purpose in mind. The students learn as they correct.

.        Ask me. From time to time it is difficult to explain a mistake on paper. In this case the teacher can ask the students to talk about the problem in face-to-face interaction.

.        Remedial teaching. The aim of remedial teaching is to deal with the most common mistakes that students make. In this case, the correction is effective when the teacher points to the most common mistakes the students made and asks the students to correct the mistakes. The advantage of this way of correcting is that it is anonymous so nobody in the class feels ridiculous.

As it was mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, to be able to spell correctly is significant. English spelling is considered to be quite difficult for learners. The best way how to teach students to spell correctly is to have them read as much as possible.reading (e. g. reading short articles) helps students to remember English spelling rules. But this is not the only way and teachers should be more proactive. Give students word formation exercises, let them find out spelling rules or to use many other activities help students not only to learn spelling but also improve it, so they become more familiar with English spelling.. Harmer suggests very interesting ideas how to prepare enjoyable tasks for students:

·        to work out a rule by looking at the spelling of pair or groups of words;

·        dictionary activities - are also suitable for lower level students e. g.: ask students to put a written list of words in an alphabetical order, focus on the spelling of the initial letters of words;

·        dictations - there are many alternatives how to write dictation with students. The traditional way is to read a paragraph to the learners. Another version is to write words that students hear on a cassette or they can dictate to each other.running dictation is ideal for spelling practice. Harmer suggests giving points for the correct spelling for each and every word;

·        cards - students at lower levels can be given cards with letters (individual letters, digraphs etc.); students have to make words as many as possible from these cards. [14, 48]

To be able to write with correct punctuation is an important skill. Very often we are judged by the quality of what is written. If capital letters, commas, paragraphs bounders, full stops are not used correctly in our writing, we can make a negative impression and our writing can be easily misunderstood. "If we want our students to be good writers in English we need to teach them how to use punctuation conventions correctly." [13, 49]means to teach the system of writing at all types of schools. Harmer suggests these procedures for teaching punctuation:

.        Disguised word copying. Students are given a list of words randomly organized and they have to rewrite these words in an alphabetical order.activities are: to give students a list of words they have recently learnt and ask them to write five most favourite and five least favourite words, or to give students several sentences which they have to write in an appropriate column (e. g. like dislike, advantage-disadvantage).

.        Copying from the board. It is probably the most common activity used in classes. But this activity can be turned into a game, too. For example the teacher writes words or phrases with difficult spelling on the board. Students look at the board for thirty seconds and try to remember them. Then the teacher rubs the words off and the students have to try to write them correctly.

3.      Making notes. During studies students write notes for many reasons. Because note taking involves copying it is a good activity for improving writing. Harmer suggests getting students to read encyclopaedia about a country and write accurately as many places names as possible, or to read an extract about history and write down the names of people mentioned there. It is essential to check these activities by the teacher and indicate where the problem is.

.        Whisper writing. In this activity students are given a written sentence. A student can read the sentence for a short time. He/she is told that the spelling matters. The sentence is taken away and the student has to write the sentence from memory and pass it to another student [13, 54].

Finally we can state, that writing is a difficult skill to learn. We expect the learner to be able to spell correctly and to use punctuation correctly too. To make the learning as easy as possible and to make learners successful, confident and willing to write the teacher should provide the students with information (it means that students have to be given clear and logical instruction what the teacher wants them to do and to be clear about the topic details), language (if students need any specific language they should be given it before the activity so they will not be stuck) and ideas (teachers need to be able to suggest ideas to help students when they do not know how to start or continue).belongs to productive skills; it is more frequently used than writing. The main function of spoken language is to socialize individuals. On the contrary to writing, spoken language is produced and processed in real time, the speaker and hearer have limited time to plan and produce what they want to say and understand what they hear. Speech is generally used in face-to-face conversations; it is temporary, spontaneous and variable. Spoken language is supported by body language such as gestures or facial expressions (often called non-verbal communication).other features of spoken language belong the opportunity for feedback: the hearer may ask for clarification, explanation or repetition of what sounds problematic. For speaking is typical different speed, false starts, pauses, unfinished sentences or hesitation.main aim of teaching speaking skills is to communicate efficiently. Learners of a foreign language should be able to make themselves understood while speaking the language. The goal is to avoid misunderstanding in the message due to faulty vocabulary, grammar and learners develop communicative efficiency, the teachers can use activities based on language input, language output and communicative output.the document released by The National Capital Language Resource Centre (NCLRC) is said that: ” language input comes in the form of the teacher talk, listening activities, reading passage and the language heard and read outside of class. It gives learners the material they need to begin producing language themselves." ("Teaching Speaking”) NCLRC further divides language input into content-oriented input and form oriented input [15, 23].oriented input deals with information, it also includes description of learning strategies and example of their use. Form-oriented input deals with ways of using the language: guidance from the teacher or source of grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation, and then discourse competence (language used in specific context), sociolinguistic competence (turn taking, pause, length) and strategic competence (phrases to use to ask for clarification and repair miscommunication).amount of input, NCLRC says, depends on students listening proficiency and on the situation. Learners at lower levels, where the level of communication is not high, should be given an explanation in mother language rather than in the target language to avoid misunderstanding. However, listening proficiency and situation are not the only factors that influence the input. J. Harmer adds: "we must also look at the conditions under which language learning takes place and who the students are. ”also says that some methodologies (e. g. Suggestopedia) demands on time, conditions and resources. [14, 38] Structured output deals with correct form. The aim is to make learners comfortable when producing language recently introduced sometimes with previously learned items. Structured output tasks are frequently used as the connection between the presentation stage and the practice stage.output is focused on the learner’s purpose to complete a task. To complete it the learners use the language they have recently learned as well as items of language they have already known. "In communicative output activities, the criterion of success is whether the learner gets the message across." [15, 29], NCLRC says: "In a balanced activities approach, the teacher uses a variety of activities from these different categories of input and output. Learners at all proficiency levels, including beginners, benefit from this variety, it is more motivating, and it is also more likely to result in effective language learning." [15,143], not only a balanced activities approach is important for teaching speaking successfully and therefore NCLRC came with strategies for using speaking to learn.

.        Using minimal respond. In every group that we teach there are some students who do not feel confident to speak and they rather stay silent and just listen. To encourage these students to speak is to help them to build up a certain amount of minimal responses they can use in different types of exchanges. Such responses are often idiomatic phrases to indicate understanding, doubt, agreement or other responses. NCLRC affirms that: "Having a stock of such responses enables a learner to focus on what the other participant is saying, without having to simultaneously plan a response. ” [15,47]

2.      Recognizing scripts. Invitations, greetings, compliments and other functions follow patterns of scripts as they are influenced by social and cultural norm. Teachers should make learners aware of the scripts in different situations, so the learners can predict what they will hear and what they will need to say in response [15,49].

.        Using language to talk about language. Sometimes the learners come across the situation when they are misunderstood by their conversation partner. They often feel embarrassed or shy and they refuse to continue in speaking. Therefore the teacher should help the learners to overcome this situation by assuring them that misunderstanding can occur in any type of interaction and the teachers should give students strategies and phrases to use for comprehensible check [15,53].

Finally we can state, that by using these strategies the teacher can create authentic practice environment and students will get more confidence to manage various communication situations.focused Speaking goes deeply into details of pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary. This stage is suitable for beginners. An effective way how to start teaching foreign languages is to base speaking on some simple, useful phrases and sentences e. g. greetings, simple questions and answers or personal descriptions which are easy to remember. These can be practiced by repetition drills. By repetition drills the teachers can change speed, the learner who is to repeat, the content of the sentence and the way of choosing the substitution [16,14].focused Speaking deals with the message of the communication. The activity develops learner’s ability to speak. R. S Brown and P. Nation suggest several ways [16,25]:

. The teacher presents new vocabulary or grammar (it is based on form-focused instruction) and then the students are given some practice.

. Frequently, before the students start to speak they work in groups or pairs to prepare the activity. The activity gives learners the opportunity to learn form each other.

. The students are given topics to talk about. They may prepare it for homework, use dictionaries or a reference text and then they present what they have prepared.

. Often, the activities are supported by pictures or written texts. They appear in a Raking activity or a Problem solving activity where the text contains important data about the situation and so on.

. Many speaking activities force students to ask each other. The pattern of these activities is that each learner receives different information for completing the activity. In these kinds of activities students discover different names, two-way tasks or information gap.the other hand, G. Broughton and his colleagues divide speaking activities into controlled oral work, guided oral work and free oral work [12,34].

Controlled oral work. Among controlled oral work the authors include the dialogue. The advantage of dialogue is that it can be used for controlled, guided or free work. It is also possible to use the dialogue for each level, starting with elementary level. The students prepare mini-dialogue in pairs even in the first lesson.oral work can be supported by drills, especially substitution drills which are widely used. The advantage of drills is that the error is almost eliminated so the students feel more comfortable to speak, which is a very important point mainly at lower levels.. Broughton says that substitution drills: "demonstrate much more clearly to the class that this is not simply mechanical drill but language practice with a visually demonstrated communicative function in a real life situation in which the student can find himself. ” [12,35]

Guided oral work. The aim of the guided oral work is to give students a limited freedom and to practice what they have learnt. In this phase, making mistakes in learning is taken as a natural part. Among guided oral work the authors include role-plays. Here the students can learn some practical phrases used in everyday life (e. g. shopping in the supermarket). However, not only a role-play but also setting up a role-play situation is another way how to practise speaking skills in a guided way.

Free oral work is the last phase in which the students should be able to produce such an amount of language that they will be able to express themselves. This phase is typical for advanced students.aim of the teacher in this phase is to create such situation and stimuli that all students will be actively involved in a communicative way. By the stimuli the authors mean: visual stimuli - pictures, maps, cartoon, films or photographs that are motivating for discussion starters. Another stimulus is written word - magazines, newspapers (excellent for developing skill of reporting), leaflets, book according to the level etc. and aural stimuli - sound on CDs or cassettes. Also games or puzzles play an important role in teaching speaking skills., the authors suggest group work as a good tool of free oral production activities. Most of the techniques are prepared in groups at the beginning and then they are brought back to the class, of course, there is automatically less teacher control and more pupil-centeredness. [12,83]we can see there are various activities that can be used for teaching speaking skill. More or less the authors follow the same pattern: to start with drills in lower levels, so the students become familiar with useful phrases or expressions, to such activities that challenge the learners to express themselves and to produce as much language as possible.are three basic reasons why teachers should provide students with activities:

. Rehearsal: to organize e. g. a role-play for students in a shop or an airport offers them an opportunity to rehearse a real-life event and the students get the feeling of what is the communication in a foreign language like.

. Feedback: having students to present what they know, that means, to use all the language they have learnt provides feedback for the teacher as well as for the students. The teachers can see what the students are doing well and what is needed to be improved.

. Engagement: all speaking activities should be highly motivating so the students find them interesting to work on and to participate fully. Many tasks such as role-plays, discussion or problem solving are enjoyable even more if they copy the real life situations.are teachers that constantly correct mistakes made during speaking activities, either during pronunciation exercises or during discussion. But it is important for the teachers to realize when the right time to correct is.. Harmer claims that: "when students are repeating sentences trying to get their pronunciation exactly right, then the teacher will often correct (appropriately) every time there is a problem." [16, 94]the other hand, when students hold a discussion about a chosen topic the teacher should not interrupt the discussion by correcting. Jeremy Harmer says: "Constant interruption from the teacher will destroy the purpose of the speaking activity." [16, 94]teachers, when talking about role-plays or discussion, prefer to watch or observe, listen and take notes. After the role-play the teacher asks students about their opinions and then the teacher presents his or her feedback.speaking, the principle of watching, listening and taking notes is considered to be the most appropriate.conclusion, Contextual teaching and learning is a concept that helps the teachers and students relate the meaning through prior and new knowledge to get new understanding. It has five components comprising constructivism, inquiry, questioning, learning community, modelling, reflection and authentic assessment and based on three basic principles as principles of interdependence, the principles of differentiation, and the principles of self-regulation.scientists defined different strategies used in context approach. Jonson delivers six strategies of Context approach in teaching English language. They are problem based, using multiple contexts, drawing upon student diversity, supporting self-regulated learning, using interdependent learning groups, employing authentic assessment.

2. The practical implementation of Context approach in teaching writing in senior grades

2.1 The implementation of teaching English productive skills using Context approach

The implementation of teaching English productive skills using Context approach consisted of two cycles. Each cycle consisted of two meetings for presenting the material. Each meeting took 60 minutes. For the first cycle, the researcher used context approach to teach writing and speaking with a topic "Personality”. For the second cycle, the topic was "Sport”. Every cycle consisted of a series of steps: identifying the problem, planning the action, implementing the action, observing and monitoring the action, reflecting and evaluating the result of the observation, and revising the plan.

2. an Illustration of Action Research

Table 3. The Schedule of the Research




Monday, September 7th



Monday, September 14th

Cycle 1


Wednesday, September 16th

Cycle 1


Monday, September 21st



Monday, September 28th

Cycle 2


Wednesday, September 30th

Cycle 2


Monday, October 1st


Before implementing the action in cycle one, the researcher had conducted a pre-test to know students’ prior knowledge. This was aimed to measure students’ knowledge of the topic before the treatment and to make a comparison with the post-test to know whether or not the student’ skills improved. After finishing the action, the researcher conducted a post-test to measure students’ improvement after having the treatment. The topics of pre-test and post-test were Personalities and Sport. Each test comprised short interview about their hobbies and writing a short essay about strange hobbies they had learnt about.the implementation of the research, there was conducted a pre-research through observation. Students and the teacher were interviewed. Based on the result of pre-observation, it was found that the class was very active, students’ level varied from pre-intermediate to upper-intermediate. However, most of them had difficulties with fluency in speaking and vocabulary, spelling and grammar accuracy problems with writing.on the interview done with the teacher, the students had problems in argumentation and coherence. Although they had got the materials in the previous lesson, they had forgotten what they had learnt. It was also proven by the researcher observation. When the teacher asked some questions, only few students gave the answer. The students also had problems in pronouncing the words. It was connected with their inability in spelling the words. The students had difficulty in pronouncing and spelling the words because the written English word is different from the pronunciation.pre-research, the researcher identified that the students’ writing and speaking skills should be improved by implementing a method that could overcome the problems. Therefore, the researcher designed teaching writing and speaking using context approach.student’s level, the researcher would implement an action that is suitable and interesting for the students. The researcher would implement contextual teaching and learning, a method which relate subject matter content to real world situations and motivate students to make connections between knowledge and its applications in their lives as family members, citizens, and workers and to get engaged in the hard work that learning requires. The researcher believed that contextual teaching and learning is appropriate method to improve the students’ productive skills.researcher has to prepare the lesson plan before implementing the action. The researcher also has to prepare the materials and students’ worksheet consists of some tasks and other thing related to the action. There are three section in lesson plan: opening, main activities, and closing. Cycle one consisted of two meetings. Each meeting took 60 minutes.researcher planned different activities for each meeting. There were two topics discussed, "Personality" and "Sport”. The objectives of the 1st lessons of each cycle were to teach students to use appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and syntax to talk about an increased range of general topics, and some curricular topics. The objectives of the 2nd lessons of each cycle were to teach students to plan, write, edit and proof-read work at text level with minimal teacher support on the given topics.) The First Meeting (Monday, 14th September 2015)

. Main Activity. After formatting small groups, students were given the list of new vocabulary and list of their definitions. The task was to match definitions to the given words. After discussing the new vocabulary, students were given tables with two columns. First is How I see myself, and the second - How others see me. First, students had to write about themselves using new words. When they finished the teacher told them to interview their classmates about their characters as if they were real journalists. Students could use questions given on the power point presentation. When they had finished, students presented the information about their classmates.groups, students were given pictures of different rooms. The task was to make a description of the person who lived in that room. Students felt enthusiastic about acting detectives and gave various predictions.the end of the lesson students were asked to prepare a short presentation about a person they admire. After each presentation other students gave their feedbacks according to the success criteria.

. Closing. The teacher reviewed the lesson of that day by asking some questions to the students. The teacher gave a chance for the students to recall what had learned by their learning experience and then they took a conclusion together. The teacher asked to the students whether they had questions or not. But no students asked question. When the time given was over, the teacher asked the students whether they were happy or not in the lesson. The students answered "Yes”. Then the teacher said goodbye and closed the lesson.) The Second Meeting (Wednesday, 16th September 2015)

1. Opening. The second meeting was conducted on Monday, 21st September, 2015. Topic of the lesson was ‘Personality’. The teacher started the lesson by greeting and checking students’ attendance. Then she reviewed the lesson of the last meeting. After that, the students were introduced the topic and the plan of the lesson. Students were asked to find out the objectives of the lesson by asking what they would be able to do after that lesson. After that students were introduced success criteria which included writing a plan and a summary of at least 120 words with grammar accuracy (80 %)

2. Main Activity. Students were given a text about Jane Goodall’s biography. The task was to read and discuss it in groups. Students begun by discussing what they thought Jane was interested in when she was growing up using key language. Students told about their own interests and how these could be translated into future careers or whether these should just remain hobbies and why.teacher introduced the main steps of writing a summary. She asked if students had had write or present summaries in their lives. Students answered that they gave a summary when they answer at lessons, talk about movies or books and make reports at school.were given a model of summary. Teacher gave the students worksheets where were three columns. In the first column there was a text about Nelson Mandela. The second column contained key words for the first and second paragraphs of the text. In the third column there was a summary of the first paragraph only. First, students discussed the first paragraph and key word. Then, in groups, they wrote a summary for the second paragraph. After that, they searched for key words for the third and fourth paragraphs and wrote summaries together.they had finished teacher asked to write a summary for the first text about Jane Goodall. When students had finished their work they read it aloud and their classmates gave them feedback.

3. Closing. Before closing the lesson, the teacher reviewed the lesson of that day by asking some questions to the students. The teacher summed up the lesson together with the students. She also asked the students whether they were happy or not in today’s lesson. The students answer "Yes”. The teacher said goodbye and closed the lesson.) The Third Meeting (Monday, September 21st, 2015)the third meeting, the teacher conducted the first post-test. The first post-test was conducted to know the students’ learning achievement after the treatment.or monitoring is an important aspect in a classroom action research. The data resulted from observing or monitoring would be the basis in deciding further action. Observation is done to know whether context approach could be implemented in teaching English to improve students’ productive skills. Observing or monitoring was done during the implementation of the action. When the students were doing the activity, the researcher observed the students’ behaviours to know the advantages and weaknesses of the method being applied.the teacher implemented teaching vocabulary using contextual teaching and learning, the process was observed and the result can be explained as follows:

a) The first meeting. In the first meeting students were introduced the topic of the lesson and list of activities they were going to have. Moreover, they were asked to make a list of objectives of the lesson. At first students were unconfident, however, they made a list of thing they were going to learn from this lesson. Moreover, teacher introduced the success criteria and students were told what they were expected to do to get high marks. Students were very enthusiastic working in groups. They felt more confident communicating with each other. However, some students still looked ashamed and reluctant when the teacher asked them, they answered in low voice to the teachers’ question. Furthermore, in group work activity, the situation was not exactly like what the teacher hoped. Some students dominated in the group and there was a group of students who did not know what to do. The teacher guided them answering their questions and translating some moments. She also reminded them to work in team. But in general, the students paid more attention to the lesson.the situational activities, where students had to speak as journalists or detectives, students were very active. There were some grammar mistakes, but the teacher gave feedback to each speaker in the end of the lesson. Moreover, students tried to give positive feedback to each other and gave argumentations why they thought so.on the observation of the learning process in the first cycle, the researcher found out that the implementation of context approach could motivate the students to be more active., there were some drawbacks. When the students found difficulties in finding the meaning of new words, they were not reluctant to ask the teacher. The students could also learn to work in team. In general, the class was well managed although there were some dominated students in the groups.

b) The second meeting. In the second meeting, the teaching learning process ran more smoothly than the previous meeting. The students were more familiar with some activities comprising making a list of objectives, working in groups and giving feedbacks.teacher explained the topic and asked if students had had to make summaries in their lives. After some time students could make a connection between writing summaries and their real life experience. So, students were able to tell the steps of writing a summary without teacher’s help. When the teacher gave the students the model with steps of writing summary, students attended discussion actively.that, students worked individually to write their own summaries about Jane Goodall’s life. Students helped each other and finished the work in time. However, there were some students who found it difficult to finish the work in 20 minutes. When each student read their summaries, their classmates listened to them and gave feedback according to the success criteria discussed in the beginning of the lesson.the steps of writing a summary was not arduous to most of students, some of them made mistakes such as giving too much information, rewriting a paragraph and etc. All mistakes were discussed and students took feedback from the teacher.) The third meeting. In the third meeting, the first post-test was conducted to know the students’ achievement in learning writing and speaking. The result of the first post-test showed improvement of students’ means score. The mean score increased from 57.76 in pre-test to 65.56 in post-test.on the result of the observation, the researcher did the reflection of the action. The researcher wanted to know whether the action was successful or not by doing the reflection. Several positive results and weaknesses were found.were things which the researcher noted down as the positive results. The teaching learning activities during the implementation of the contextual teaching and learning were generally well organized.researcher noticed that the students were very excited in doing some activities, for example: detectives and searching for key words. From the implementation of the method, there were some positive results that the researcher noted down. They are:

) learning by experiencing gave the students motivation;

) students learned how to write a summary and succeeded in it;

) group work gave them a chance to help each other

) making up objectives of the lesson made students feel responsible about the lesson

) giving feedback made students to support their speech by argumentation.points showed a positive change of students’ behaviour in joining the lesson. It was reflected from their active role in identifying the things around them. The students had enough courage to ask questions., there were also several things which were considered to be weaknesses. Some students dominated the group and there was a group where students were very passive. For example: when the teacher supervised group two, only one or two students did their task. Another group, group five were not able to complete the task successfully. The reason is the fact that groups were not well balanced. It means that the researcher had to arrange a new plan to solve these problems.result of the test shows that the mean score of pre-test is 57.76 and the mean score of post-test is 65.56. It means that the students’ writing and speaking skills increased though it was not significant. In the result of post-test I, the students made a lot of mistakes bounded with coherence and intonation. Based on the research reflection above, it can be concluded that the result of cycle one was not satisfactory yet.on the results of the reflection above, it could be seen that the action showed both the positive results and weaknesses. So, the researcher had to make the next plan and to conduct the next cycle in order to solve the problems and the weaknesses that appeared in the first cycle. In the next cycle, the researcher revised the plans and prepared two meetings. In this cycle, the researcher made a teaching and learning plan.cycle 2, the researcher planned to make more group activities, it was hoped that the students would be more familiar with group work activity and there was not any student who would dominated in doing task in a group. The researcher divided the groups based on their test scores. There were groups that consisted of all smart students while the other consisted of students with lower level of English. Moreover, the researcher decided to make differentiation by outcome and individual support.

The Second Cycle. Based on the result of cycle one, there were some problems which were found by the researcher. One of the problems was that some students dominated the group in doing task because they were not familiar with group work activity was not balanced because the students were not divided based on their ability. There were groups that consisted of all smart students while the other groups consisted of students with lower English level.conducting the second cycle, the researcher prepared lesson plans and materials which were related to the topic. The implementation of teaching writing and speaking using contextual teaching and learning would be held in two meetings. The topic of this cycle was ‘Sport’. The objectives of the 1st lessons of each cycle were to teach students to use appropriate subject-specific vocabulary and syntax to talk about an increased range of general topics, and some curricular topics. The objectives of the 2nd lessons of each cycle were to teach students to plan, write, edit and proof-read work at text level with minimal teacher support on the given topics.researcher made some changes to overcome the weaknesses of previous lesson. The changes are: (1) the researcher planned to make more group activities, (2) the researcher divided the groups based on their test scores, (3) the researcher and the teacher planned to make differentiation.this cycle, the researcher implemented the action plan and observed the teaching and learning process in the classroom. She prepared the teaching materials and added more group activities and differentiated them. The second cycle was conducted in two meetings. Each meeting took 60 minutes.) The first meeting (Monday, September 28th 2015)

. Opening. The lesson started at 8.00 a. m. the teacher entered the class. The teacher greeted the students and checked the students’ attendance. Students were introduced the topic and the plan of the lesson. Students were asked to find out the objectives of the lesson by asking what they would be able to do after that lesson. After that students were introduced success criteria which included explaining their ideas clearly using opinion expressions, supporting ideas with at least two strong evidences and evaluating others’ points of view by commenting and making conclusion.

. Main Activity. The teacher began awareness raising activities by reading an example sentence aloud to the students. The teacher read the sentence the first time pronouncing each word carefully, then read the sentence a second time in natural speech. After that she asked students which reading seemed more natural and why it seemed more natural. Using the ideas students came up with, the teacher explained the idea of English being a "stress - timed" language.teacher told about the differences between stressed words and non-stressed words (i. e. principal verbs are stressed, auxiliary verbs are not). In order to do so, she wrote the following two sentences on the board: The beautiful Mountain appeared transfixed in the distance. He can come on Sundays as long as he doesn't have to do any homework in the evening; and underlined the stressed words in both sentences. Students were asked to try reading aloud.were divided ito two groups according to their post-test results. The teacher asked students to look through the example sentences and underline the words that should be stressed in the worksheet. Each right answer would give one point to the team. The teacher circulated about the room asking students to read the sentences aloud once they had decided which words should receive stresses

. Closing. Before closing the lesson, the teacher reviewed the lesson of that day by asking some questions to the students. The teacher summed up the lesson together with the students. She also asked the students whether they were happy or not in today’s lesson. The students answered "Yes”. The teacher said goodbye and closed the lesson.) The second meeting (Wednesday, 30th September 2015)

. Opening. The second meeting was conducted on Monday, 21st September, 2015. Topic of the lesson was ‘Sport’. The teacher started the lesson by greeting and checking students’ attendance. Then she reviewed the lesson of the last meeting. After that, the students were introduced the topic and the plan of the lesson. Students were asked to find out the objectives of the lesson by asking what they would be able to do after that lesson. After that students were introduced success criteria which included writing a plan and a summary of at least 120 words with grammar accuracy (80 %)

. Main Activity. Draw a picture of hamburger and explain that the structure of paragraph can be considered as hamburger’s ingredients (top bun - topic sentence, meat - concrete details, cheese and tomatoes - commentary, bottom bun - concluding sentence). Ask students to predict what we should write in each part of paragraph. Show presentation (Students should make notes on their copybooks)students into two groups. Hand out a "paragraph puzzle” envelope to each group, and then instruct them to organize the sentences to restore the paragraph’s structure. Team which gives the right answer first will be winner. Ask each group why they have chosen such structure. At the end of presentation there are 4 different pictures illustrating various stereotypes. Discuss what ideas Ss have looking at them. Students should write well-structured paragraph about ideas they have after discussion. Students check each other’s paragraphs and give feedback.

. Closing. The teacher reviewed the lesson of that day by asking some questions to the students. The teacher praised what the students did. Then she asked the students’ feeling of that day lesson. When the time given was over, she said goodbye and left the classroom.) The third meeting (Monday, October 1st)the sixth meeting, the second post test was conducted to know the students’ achievement in learning vocabulary after the action of cycle 1 was revised.

2.3 Analysis of Context approach experiment results and findings

The data was analyzed in a qualitative way because most of it relates to the attitudes and behaviours toward the study of English, and they are almost impossible to be tabulated in a quantitative way. The background investigation followed the guidelines provided by the questionnaires students, teachers and parents had to answer, and it included topics as the characteristics teachers must have, how a lesson has to be planned, and also how to improve the way evaluation is carried out, etc.this is a research done in class with the students, and that is going to have practical implications for the success of English teaching and learning, the methods used in order to obtain information were:designed to the director of the English department, parents, teachers and students.with students, parents, and teachers.and achievement tests.and notebooks presentation.activities such as role plays.students of ninth grade were asked by a person who was not their current teacher to answer a questionnaire about their curriculum preferences. At the beginning the teacher explained that the questionnaire was really important to improve the way lessons were taught. They were said that there was no need to write a name, but that they had to be sincere.questionnaire was written in Spanish because that is the students’ first language so I considered it will be easier for them to express their the students’ answers the subjects they like the most are: Math, Handicrafts and Science. It has to be taken into account that two of these subjects are taught in English. Physical Education, Music and Social Studies occupied the fourth, fifth and sixth place in the students’ preferences. Finally, English and Language have the seventh and eighth important to note that students placed English in one of the last positions of their preferences, while they ranked Science and Handicrafts, two subjects taught in English, in the first positions.second question asked students why they study English. Most of them answered that they study this subject because it is very useful. Some of them said that they study English because they like it. And a few of them said that they are obligated by the school to take that subject and that is why they study it.third question asked students if they would like to learn other subjects in English, half plus one said that they would not like to receive more subjects in their second language. Among their reasons they said that Russian is easier and they also said that English is a difficult language.said that they would like to receive subjects such as Social Studies, Physical Education, history, Biology, and American culture in English. These answers show that students are interested in the culture of one of the countries that speak English as a first question asked students if they prefer to speak English correctly or to write it correctly, most of them answered that they prefer the first option. It seems clear that students would like more to communicate in their second language in an oral way. In other words, they prefer to speak rather than write.sixth question asked students if they preferred to study English or a subject in English, and most of them preferred to receive a subject in question asked students to choose which subject in English they liked the most. The majority of them chose Science. The reasons they gave are:is an understandable very important and interesting and makes people use difficult words.of the students wants to be a doctor this reason shows that the student has an instrumental motivation.teacher is nice and good and she has patience to treat students.number 8 asked students their opinion about the materials used in the lessons taught in English. Most of them think that the materials are difficult; some think that the materials are attractive and amusing and few of them think that they are boring, and question was about the materials used in the Science class. Most of the students think that the materials used are amusing and just a few of them think that they are boring and difficult.number ten asked students about the subject in English that they feel more motivated to study.8 students, which are the majority, chose Science, their reasons were:like plants and Science.want to be a doctor and this subject will help me reach my to learn new things.know more things about Science than English.the Science class I can speak English more than in the English class itself.were asked to propose ideas to improve the English class. They answered:should be more demanding.should be more entertaining and less boring.must be more group work.want to be not want to spend the whole hour reading and writing.want to do more projects.want to learn by playing.should be more creative.want teachers to explain slowly.should be more question asked students to answer if they would like to receive more hours of English. All of them answered in a negative way. It seems that they misunderstood the question because their reasons relate the question specifically to the subject of English and not to a subject in that language.reasons they gave were the following:would not like to receive more hours of English because the teacher is not patient.have English two hours a not like English.class is a little bit boring.receive more English hours would drive me crazy.thirteen asked students about what they liked the most of the English class. They answered:(1 student)language (two students)travel (2 students)English accent (2 students)book (1 student)(2 students)read (1 student)subject of handicraft (1 student)speak the language (1 student).following question asked students what they do not like of English and they answered:study (1 student)teacher (4 students)(2 students)write in English (2 students)book (1 student)(1 student)is a new language.answers show that students confuse the language with the English question asked students if they would like to have other activities related to English during the afternoon. Only four answered yes, the rest answered no. It seems that they thought that the question asked them if they would like to receive English lessons during the afternoon.answered that the activities related to English they do are to speak English with their relatives and to have lessons.tabulating the questionnaires done by the students I could come up with the following conclusions:placed two subjects taught in English on the first three places of the ranking, this fact shows that it can be really advisable to teach English through a specific subject. It seems that teaching another subject in this language can be very profitable because students have the option of studying interesting things while they learn a new language.of the students agree that it is very important to learn English because it is very useful to know another language. Even if studying English is an instrumental motivation which will allow the students to succeed in future life, this can help them do an effort in order to learn it. Four students answered that they study English because that class is obligatory at their school. This is not a valuable motivation because it is going to last only during the school years. Students have to find another kind of motivation if they really want to speak this language important to remark that five students study English because they like this subject. It is very recommendable to have this kind of motivation because it will help the students to overcome any problem in order to learn the language.of the students do not want to take other lessons in English, it seems that they did not understand the question and they thought that the question asked them if they would like to have more English hours per day, therefore they answered in negative way. The results show that the English class is not popular among students. Most of the students asked, answered that they would prefer to speak English rather than write in this language. They think that it is more important to communicate in an oral rather than in a written way. Science and Handicrafts are subjects that do not ask students to write in a perfect way, these are subjects that help students practice listening comprehension, reading and speaking and obviously to acquire specific the Science class because they feel apathy for the teacher and this factor seems to affect their preferences about the subject. Other important thing is that students like to learn new vocabulary and practice it in oral activities. They seem to incorporate new vocabulary very to learn interesting things and Science is a subject that can attract their attention easily because it is about animals and the students the materials which are books and photocopies are difficult. It can be very recommendable to check if the textbooks are adequate to the students’ level, because if they are too difficult students can get discouraged to study the language.of the students think that the materials used in the science class are amusing. The book used for this class has many puzzles, questionnaires, experiments and other activities that keep students interested and discovering facts by themselves. The workbook does not have an attractive design and it does not have colours, but the book the teacher uses to show to the class has many photos and graphic sources to learn.last resource, the colourful book is not used by the students because it is really expensive, so the school principals decided that to spend that quantity of money on a book was excessive.of the students would like the English classes to be more interesting and they really would like to play in order to learn. According to the questionnaire most of the students feel more motivated in the Science class, because they have the opportunity to do oral activities and learn new vocabulary. Even if learning words and speaking activities are crucial in an English class, students spend more time doing this kind of activities during the science class.gave many suggestions to improve the English and Science lessons. They propose to have more group and oral activities. They would also like to have creative lessons and to learn by playing.if they feel motivated in the Science and Handicraft lessons they do not want to have more English hours a day, because they think that they are going to receive that class instead of another subject in that language.are motivated to study English because they would like to travel in the future and they know that the language is very necessary. A few students do not like the language, sometimes which is a teachers’ fault because it is important to present the language in an attractive way and encourage students to learn it. Sometimes students think that the language is difficult so teachers are the ones that have to convince them that they are capable to learn it.if the students do not seem to do any extracurricular activity related to English, it is important to encourage them to read books, watch films and listen to music in that language, so they will be interested in learning.director of the English Department of is Anar Bolatovna. She coordinates all the programs, methods, and materials used in any English classroom from kinder garden to senior year. She is also charged of hiring English teachers.

. What is the objective of the school by teaching lessons in English?objective of the school is to prepare students for a globalized world where English is an important tool for communication.

. Which are the subjects taught in English at the School?subjects are Economics, Sociology, Literature, Current Events, Biology, Handicraft, Science, History and Social Studies.

. What is the percentage of the subjects taught in English to the students of ninth grade?is almost the 50% of the entire curriculum.

. Will this percentage increase as the students pass to the next course?, the students will receive more subjects in English as they grow and pass to the next grade.

. Do you think that the elementary school students are motivated to study a second language?, they are very motivated to learn English.

. What are the activities done by the school in order to motivate the students to learn a second language?receive many interesting subjects in English. They also have the opportunity to participate in contests done at the school or outside it.

. Is it easy to find materials to teach English?, it is easy to find didactic materials and courses to train teachers.

. What would you suggest the teachers in order to make their lessons interesting and amusing?would suggest them to update their lessons, to continue studying, and to look for interesting and modern materials.

. What are the factors that affect the students’ success when they learn another language?factors that affect the success of the second language learning are: the teachers, the materials used and the English environment that the school has for the children.

. What would you recommend to the students’ parents that notice their kids are not motivated to study a second language?of the students that are not motivated to learn a second language are the ones that have just entered the school so they have a basic level. I recommend the parents to register their children in the English academy so their level is going to improve and they are going to feel more comfortable during the English lessons.ninth grade teachers were interviewed to see what their vision about the teaching of a second language was and to know how they motivate and manage their students.interviewing the teachers of ninth grade I could get many good ideas about how to know if the students are motivated and what kind of activities students want to do in order to learn.of the teachers said that their students are motivated to learn, but not all of them think that Science and English are ranked on the first places of the students preferences.think that students like to do creative and practical activities that let them learn by doing things.are more motivated when they want to do more activities, when they are concentrated, when they look happy and cooperate with the teacher and with their friends. If they are concentrated and do a good work teachers think that students are motivated to learn the subjects they teach.of the teachers take into account the ideas their students gave while planning the lessons.encourage their students to participate in class by giving them stickers, or by talking to them. Teachers also plan interesting lessons, make contests with students and play with their teachers, students like to act role plays, to have an active participation in activities like games, to do reading activities, to participate in contests, and to paint. Teachers dedicate an average of 65% of the hour to do speaking activities and most of them are based on a certain topic.the physical environment is an important factor that determines the motivation to study, I designed a questionnaire about the different classrooms students have to assist in order to receive their lessons. The questionnaire is located in the appendixes.observing the classrooms I obtained the following results:of the classrooms are well illuminated. The classrooms do not have a CD player, a T. V. or a tape recorder. All of the classrooms have learning posters and bookshelves where the books and notebooks are perfectly organized. They have two boards, comfortable tables and chairs, and enough materials to write.students count with the necessary books and notebooks to learn, sometimes they leave them in the classroom and other times they take them home to study or do homework.classrooms are cleaned up every day after the lessons. Only the English classroom has a semi circle organization of tables and chairs, the rest of the classrooms have the chairs and tables organized in groups.classrooms have windows toward the gardens and courts but they are located on the second floor. Only the Handicraft classroom has windows toward the stairs where students can be distracted by the people that go upstairs and downstairs. Even if the teachers have the windows opened during all the day students are not distracted by the noise coming from outside.walls are light gray which is not a really motivating or happy colour but the posters that teachers stick against the walls make the classrooms look more attractive.and book analysis included the revision of the handwriting, pictures, charts and the information written on them. After reviewing the students’ notebooks and books I discovered that most of them have a good presentation, except for the language notebook which does not have pictures and is written using the same ink colour. I could discover that students do not feel motivated to study that subject and they show their disapproval in the way they use their materials.English and Science notebooks have many explanatory pictures where students exemplified the new words. They seem to enjoy this kind of exercises because only two students drew ugly pictures and wrote with a terrible handwriting. Most of the students use different colours of pens to write, so the notebooks have a lot of colours.tend to have a lot of spelling mistakes, but on the Science and English notebooks this kind of errors tend to increase. It can be because English is not their native language and they do not know how to write the words.Science books have a good and understandable handwriting but they do not have coloured pictures so students had painted some of the drawings by themselves. It is important to note that students were not asked to colour the pictures but they did it probably because they were interested in improving the books’ presentation and that fact certainly shows that they are motivated to learn.also observed the way they have their books, some of them have colourful coverings but some of the boys had destroyed the covers and they had drawn pictures and painted them, that is another way to show that they are motivated because they decorated their books and notebooks so they can look better. Only two students had destroyed the coverings and never replaced them, those books look really old and hard to analyze the tests because they do not really reflect the students’ motivation. One of the elements that reflect the students’ motivation is the grades because they can tell if students are improving or not.grades show that some students improved their performance during the second term in comparison to the grades they obtained after the first three months of school. This can show many important things:got used to the teacher, her method to teach and her way to evaluate.learned more things which helped them to improve their grades.made an effort to improve their grades.have known their students for three months and know how to evaluate them.are more motivated to study now than at the beginning of the important to say that in the school tests represent 20% of the total grade, the other 80% represents the grades students get at the end of each month. The grade students get each month is the average of class participation, homework, oral and written lessons and special assignments therefore I think that it is better to observe the way students behave in the classroom, their homework and the way they do their tests in order to know if they are motivated to study.types of tests implemented were Progress and Achievement ones.tests are the ones used to check the students’ understanding of a certain topic or lesson and to decide if the methods used to teach were correct or if there is a need to change them.progress tests were designed based on two different topics. The first one was about rocks and minerals, a topic that not all the students liked. The other progress test was about the planets and the space, which was one of the topics that kids like the most.progress tests evaluate performance, because they are designed to test the use of the language. They can also be classified as integrative assessments because students are not asked to illustrate the use of a certain grammar rule but they have to use the language to answer open questions and they have to demonstrate if they understand a reading and do a practical exercise with the information obtained from it.tests also evaluate one receptive skill, in this case reading, and one productive skill which is writing. Students had to read the questions and answer them using their own words and applying information they received during the science lessons.tests are valuable because they can be used to obtain information about the method of teaching and the materials used.the first progressive test was based on rocks it is important to describe the lessons that students received about this topic. As all the students know something about rocks and minerals, they were asked to talk about all the previous information they have about them. Then the teacher used picture cards and drawings to explain the differences among Igneous, Metamorphic and Sedimentary rocks. Then, students were asked to describe each kind of rock, and finally they had to use their workbook as well as reference sources to do some oral and written activities.materials used during the lessons were rocks, pictures, the workbook and dictionaries. Students were also asked to bring different rocks to be classified.if the topic was not really interesting for students, they seemed to understand the differences and properties of rocks therefore I decided to evaluate the students’ progress using a important to note that Science and Handicraft teachers are not asked to grade the use of language but the content of the tests. For this time I decided to pay more attention to the students’ language performance in order to compare it with the results obtained from the English tests.second progress test used was based on the planetary system and all about the space. The space is a topic that all of the students liked, even the ones that had a lot of trouble with the language loved this chapter, this test is also included in the appendixes. Only two of the thirteen students got a grade under 17, both of them admitted no to have studied and they failed the questions related with scientific names and facts. At the beginning of September, the end of the academic year, students were asked to answer an achievement test that contained all the information studied during the third term.achievement test included in the appendices is a wide scale test that evaluates three skills and specific knowledge about science. It evaluates language performance because students are asked to use the language to show what they have learned during the last three months. It is also an indirect testing and an integrative assessment because it does not ask the students to clarify or exemplify any grammar rule.test evaluates both receptive skill - reading - and a productive skill - writing. When they do not understand a question they have to ask the teacher and most of the times they find out the correct answer when they hear the question from the teacher, so they are also practicing listening. This achievement test is going to be used to plan future curses as well as to know what teachers have to explain next year. Students required 40 minutes to answer all the questions correctly, and the teacher needed less than an hour to correct all the students’ tests. It was really easy to correct all the tests and the teacher did not require the help of other person. The achievement test includes a text where students have to use some of the vocabulary they learned in order to complete the phrases. This kind of exercise is very good to evaluate reading comprehension and the use of new words. Students have to express what they know using their own words to answer most of the questions, and this free way to answer is good to test performance. There is also a match exercise where students have to relate concepts and definitions, so they have to show that they understood some of the concepts related to science, this is also a good way to evaluate reading comprehension. The students do not have to stick to a grammar rule they can answer open questions using any kind of expression that helps them do it.week before the test, the Science teacher did many reviews to have students ready. Students had to study almost ten pages, so they were not overcharged with material to go through. When students realize that they dominate the topic they feel more motivated and get better results. Only three students got grades under 17 in the achievement test, two of them did a great effort and one of them did not study for the test, so he was so disappointed that he did not even try to answer all the questions, leaving some of them in important to say that most of the students were very happy and said that the test was really easy; some of them said that they did not have to study a lot because they remembered the concepts from the previous lessons, so all the practice and exercises really worth it.students did an achievement test in the English class that is also included in the appendixes, the teacher said that they did a good job, at least most of them have gotten great grades.students did the progress test about rocks during the third week of November. The test was graded over 11 and only 3 students received a bad grade. It is important to note that these four students do not have the same language level as the rest of the class.of the students failed on the questions about things that they were supposed to memorize, but the questions where they had to summarize a text or to write the main idea of a paragraph, or even to draw what they had understood were successfully of the students answered the questions using expressions or textual ideas taken from the Science book, which shows that they are acquiring the knowledge and using the target language to express important to note that this test was based on rocks, which are considered one of the most boring topics by all the students, and the one that they found hard to understand.second progress test was based on the solar system, this topic seems to be very interesting and most of the students had a lot of previous knowledge about it.written tests, there were used some other mechanisms of evaluation. Teachers are supposed to evaluate the oral performance of their students. Grading the oral performance can become a subjective activity and teachers are not always aware of what they have to evaluate, therefore I used some ideas from the holistic scales of Caroll, B. J. and I included the scales used in the appendices. The following holistic scales were used to classify students during the English, Science and Handicraft lessons because these are the classes where students use the target language.observing students and evaluating them, students were located as follows:students were classified in the first category, because they can understand questions and directions and they answer all the questions clearly. They read fluently and understand the information read.students were included in the second category, where students understand what they hear but make some mistakes both grammatical and phonetic when talking. In this category they read fluently and understand most of what they read. Only one student was placed in the third category because he asks for repetition and clarification when being talked. He also makes many mistakes while talking but can be understood. He has to read several times the same text before getting the main idea or understanding what the text is about. Two students entered in the fourth group because they do not understand the language at normal speed. They do not participate in the conversation. They do not speak fluently and make a lot of mistakes. They use L1 vocabulary and need to read a text slowly and to check the dictionary to understand.students were placed in the fifth category because they have a lot of difficult to understand conversation. The students mix up the first with the target language. They cannot read a text without a dictionary and have to read many times the same text before getting the main idea. Those students are the ones that required extra lessons to understand their English classes and were the least motivated in the lessons that used that language.order to do the classroom observation I had to apply the observation guide designed using the Flanders’ Interaction Analysis categories (FIAC) and the Foreign Language Interaction (FLINT) as a reference. It is important to note that students and teachers are not natural when they are observed so some of the observations were done through the window of the classroom or behind the door in order to obtain precise information.are some aspects in analyzing the observation and interview above, here:

1. Constructivism aspect. Before the teacher explains what does Happy, Unhappy, Satisfied and Unsatisfied mean and how to express, he asked the students first to explore what they knew about that, he let them answer.1: I am very happy

Student 2: Thank you very much

Student 3: He cooked rice4: He used cooking utensil to cookmeans that the teacher built the student knowledge in making the teaching and learning is student-cantered, the teacher is a facilitator and just helps the students get learning difficulties (activating knowledge).

2. Inquiry aspect. Teacher asked the students to look for a daily activity that makes us be Happy, Unhappy, Satisfied and Unsatisfied and Cooking, the teacher gave students an opportunity in looking for information that needs to analyze data and taking conclusion based on their experience, so the students felt an easiness to express their ideas in real world or student’s condition. Student: I am glad meet my friend

3. Questioning aspect. In teaching and learning process, teacher gave a question first before explaining a material. The student more active to participate in teaching and learning, because they motivated to answer, teacher never said Wrong although the students answered by opposite answered. This strategy helped student to share each other because each of student getting new knowledge from the other. So that, teacher just guide student in improving their ability especially in speaking skill.

4. Modelling aspect. In making a teaching and learning process actively, teacher asked the student to express: Happy, Unhappy, Satisfied and Unsatisfied by standing up and coming forward. The student does not understand what the teacher explained or they were nervous and no self confidence in expressing it, they could imitate other student especially in pronounce it.were not shy to ask to the student or teacher because teacher hoped them to ask if they did not understand.

5. Leaning community aspect. In implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning method, learning community is important to improve the student’s cognitive and affective competence. After observing at senior grades at NIS, the writer found a weakness of implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning method that Learning community did not implement yet optimally.

6. Reflection aspect. Reflection is one of the important parts of contextual Teaching and Learning method, it is the way of thinking of everything that has been learned in the past and affective evaluation in teaching and learning process. Such as what the teacher tough, he reviewed what learner before. He asked about the Active and Passive voice and Simple Past, although the student have learned the material before, they would not forget because the teacher always review what student learned.

7. Authentic assessment aspect. Assessment is collecting data that describes learning student development. It is important to know the result as long as the teaching and learning process not only the test (middle and final test) but all of the student process. The teacher at senior grades at NIS the teacher stressed on the student’s participation in the class to evaluate the student’s development especially in speaking skill such as the teacher marks the student’s that was taken from the observation sheets and notes at the first and the second meeting, the writer summarized that all elements of CTL namely Constructivism, Inquiry, Questioning, Learning Community, Modelling, Reflection, and Authentic Assessment had been good implemented by the teacher in her teaching learning process.researcher observed students’ interaction and involvement by using observation sheet. In the first meeting with topic like and dislike, students more easy to understand the material because they had learned Simple Present Tense in the first grade. It helped them to make a sentence that related with their like and dislike.

Table 1. Observation sheet of students’ involvement during teaching learning process in the first meeting


Students’ Activity



Total of students involved

% of students involved

Total of students involved

% of students involved


Pre Activities  Interested in the opening of the class. (Constructivism)  Responding to topic enthusiastically. (Constructivism)

32 29

84% 76%

34 28

89% 74%


While Activity  Following the teacher’s instruction (work in group). (Inquiry), (Learning Community)





 Paying attention to the teacher’s explanation. (Inquiry)





 Responding to the teacher’s questions (Questioning)









 Actively presenting the results of group discussion in front of the class. (Learning community)






Post Activity  Actively involved in doing what have been learned. (Reflection)  Doing the speaking task. (Authentic Assessment)

29 38

76% 100%

33 38

87% 100%






table shows that the percentage of students’ response between the researcher and the rate was almost same. Generally, they had same assumptions about the situation of the class. In pre activity, when the teacher opened the class, there were 32 students who were interested in the opening. The other (6 students) did not pay attention to the teacher and they were busy with themselves. In responding to the topic, there were about 29 students who responded the topic enthusiastically. Unfortunately, there were still 9 students who did not respond to the topic enthusiastically. These students only became the viewer of their friends. In inquiry, all of the students responded to the teacher’s instruction as shown at the table that 38 students responded to the teacher’s instruction to work in group. But in paying attention when the teacher explained the material only 28 students involve. In questioning, 25 students responded to the teacher enthusiastically. The rest, there were 13 students only keep silent. There were 30 students followed the teacher enthusiastically when the teacher read the dialogue to give modelling in pronunciation. In having discussion in group the observer found that 10 students could present their discussion in front of the class. In reflection, the teacher asked 8 the students about what they had been learned, 29 students could answer and seemed understand about the material had given. In authentic assessment, teacher gave students speaking task and all students followed it.

Table 2. Observation sheet of students’ involvement during teaching learning process in the second meeting


Students’ Activity



Total of students involved

% of students involved

Total of students involved

% of students involved


Pre Activities  Interested in the opening of the class. (Constructivism)





 Responding to topic enthusiastically. (Constructivism)






While Activity  Following the teacher’ s instruction (work in group). (Inquiry), (Learning Community)





 Paying attention to the teacher’s explanation. (Inquiry)





 Responding to the teacher’s questions (Questioning)





 Following teacher’s modelling enthusiastically. (modelling)





 Actively presenting the results of group discussion in front of the class. (Learning community)






Post Activity  Actively involved in doing what have been learned. (Reflection)

25 38

22 38

58% 100%

 Doing the speaking task. (Authentic Assessment)






table shows most students involved in teaching and learning but some students had difficulty to get the material because there were many tenses had been learned in this meeting. It was easier for students to make a sentence by using conditional type 1 and 2 but they had difficulties to make a sentence by using conditional type 3. It could be seen from students’ response to the teacher’s questions, only 15 students involved. The rest were still confused what to do.

Table 3. Observation sheet of implementation of CTL components during the teaching learning process







Constructivism  Ask previous experiences related to the material.  Review the previous topic.




Inquiry  Ask to find and choose the topic of conversation.  Ask to create simple dialogue.  Ask to present the dialogue in front of the class.

 √ √ √



Questioning  Invite questions during the learning process.  Give chance to ask anything about conversation.

 √ √



Learning Community  Give a chance to sharing ideas.  Give time for discussion.  Ask to find problem based learning.

 √ √



Modelling  Teacher as a model or source.  Ask the student to be a model.  Ask the students to imitate or learn from the source or model.

 √ √ √



Reflection  Review the lesson.  Motivate the students.

 √ √



Authentic Assessment  Monitor the students’ activity.  Follow up by giving direction or task

 √ √


doing the teaching learning process which is related with the components of CTL, the teacher did it well. The teacher applied the teaching learning process which was suitable with the students’ need. When the teacher applied the Contextual Teaching and Learning, the students looked interested in following activity. Unfortunately, the teacher could not coordinate teaching and learning process well during the teaching learning activity. Though she was strict enough to her students but sometimes she could not control the class. Controlling the class here means the teacher should make the atmosphere of the classroom to be comfortable for the students to study in order to make the teaching learning process conducive.order to support the observation findings, distributing questionnaire was conducted after teaching and learning activities. First, questions about implementation of constructivism were answered ‘yes’ by 76.4% of students. Most of them concurred that the teacher did the activities such as began the lesson by greeting, asked the students’ previous experiences related to material, etc. Second, 76.8% of students experienced the inquiry process. This step contained giving the students opportunities to find, choose, and conclude the topic of conversations. Third, related to the questioning, 66.6% of the students were interested in discussing with friends when they found some problems. Fourth, 75.8% of students agreed that learning in community was effective, and they had done it in learning activities, especially in speaking class. Fifth, 71.8% of students said ‘yes’ that the modelling component was applied in learning activities. Sixth, 71.6% of students concurred that their teacher did reflection at the end of session. The last is authentic assessment, 77.4% of students agreed that their teacher asked them to do any simple conversation after studying session.analyzing the whole activities of the teaching and learning process, the researcher found that the teacher implemented each element of CTL well. Each element had been presented good enough. Learning community was the strongest element which stimulated the students’ interest in studying. When the learners involved actively in learning community, they studied cooperatively. The results of this research support Harmer (1984) mentions that grouping is one of the ways to make students freer to express their idea with their own friend before it is presented in the class. It is in line with Larsen’s statement (1986) that in group students can learn from each other as well as the teacher. In terms of questioning the teacher had less satisfactory performance. The less satisfactory result of teacher’s questioning technique was caused by the unclear questions given by the teacher which mostly happened in the pre activity and in some part during the while activity. As a result, the students seemed confused in responding to the teacher’s questions.conclusion, after working with the students, observing their classrooms and lessons, talking to parents, and teachers I found out many interesting conclusions that will lead to improve my teaching as well as the other English teachers of the school. Motivation to learn is the most important factor that leads to the success in learning a second language. Even if students do not have a great ability to speak a second language or a place to practice it every day, they will always make an effort if they are motivated to do it.another language through a specific subject can be very good and profitable because students have the option to study interesting things while they learn a new language and the subject they are studying in English will motivate them to learn that language. Content based learning helps students to learn a language developing all its skills and not only the study of its grammar. Besides that, students learn to communicate in that language without being asked to use specific expressions and constructions. Finally, they can apply all the skills they use in other of specific subjects in a second language can help teachers and students to do interesting group work and oral activities, as well as it helps students to use previous knowledge and it generates curiosity that will motivate students to learn.has to have a purpose. With young students the purpose of learning is not really clear so teachers have to help them discover the objective of everything they have to study. Students always remember and learn better when they are doing the things and not only listening to the teacher’s explanations. Students enjoy the lesson if they play an active part in it. Students like to play in order to learn, they like to do amusing activities too, and content based learning provides teachers with interesting and motivating activities.have to be creative and plan interesting lessons instead of having fixed textbook activities that have no relation with real life and that are not going to be useful to students. Teacher attitudes toward the students, as well as the physical environment where students learn have an important relation to the motivation students demonstrate toward the subject. It is important to take into account the suggestions students give because they are the most important part of the learning process so they are the ones that know what they need and want to learn.


Context approach as a concept that helps the teachers and students relate the meaning through prior and new knowledge to get new understanding. So, it is an expectation that the approach can give benefits for teacher and students in teaching learning process. According to Elaine B. Johnson, Context approach motivates the learner to take a charge of their own learning and to relate between knowledge and its application to the various contexts of their lives [1,34]. The other benefits are it can produce the process of learning more meaningful because the students can enjoy their own learning by doing the practical activity. The last benefit is it can strengthen students’ memory and understanding of the concept because the students are learning through the material that has taken from their experience and new knowledge. In other words, they relate their prior and new knowledge to get new understanding. So, they will easily remember, recall, and comprehending the material.upon this understanding, contextual learning theory focuses on the multiple aspects of any learning environment, whether a classroom, a worksite, or a wheat field. It encourages educators to choose and/or design learning environments that incorporate as many different forms of experience as possible-social, cultural, physical, and psychological-in working toward the desired learning outcomes.has five components comprising constructivism, inquiry, questioning, learning community, modelling, reflection and authentic assessment and based on three basic principles as principles of interdependence, the principles of differentiation, and the principles of self-regulation.scientists defined different strategies used in Context approach. Jonson delivers six strategies of Context approach in teaching English language. They are problem based, using multiple contexts, drawing upon student diversity, supporting self-regulated learning, using interdependent learning groups, employing authentic assessment.present study was administered to investigate the advantages of using Context approach in teaching writing, especially recount text and the way the approach improves the ninth grade students’ writing ability. The data in this study were obtained through observations, students’ interviews and written documents. It was found that this approach was beneficial for the students in learning writing. It was proven from the teaching strategies used in the classroom that are based on contextual teaching theory. These teaching strategies are relating, experiencing, applying, cooperating and transferring. In addition, authentic material was also used to assess the students’ writing.were some benefits of using Context approach in writing class: (1) engaging students in writing activity; (2) increasing students’ motivation to participate actively in the writing class; (3) helping students to construct their writing; (4) helping students to solve their problems; (5) providing ways for students to discuss or interact with their friends; (6) helping the students to summarize and reflect the lesson.addition, the use of Context approach in a writing class was responded to positively by the students. This contention is proved by the students’ writing improvement through two tests’ results. Three of eleven students scored in the proficient range on the pre-test, eight students had a proficient score on the first post-test and nine - on the second post test. The overall mean score on the pre-test was 4.72; on the first post-test the mean score was 6, the second post-test’s mean score was 6,4. There was a significant difference between the mean scores on the pre-test and two post-tests; therefore, the hypothesis that Context approach would improve the writing skills of students was supported.


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