Criminal law

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Criminal law


amount of offensive material we are exposed to in films nowadays is surely excessive. Most people accept that scenes of sex and violence are sometimes necessary to tell a story, but all too often these scenes are gratuitous, they are unnecessary in the film to appeal to the baser human the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient as determined by a government, media outlet, or other controlling body. It is the supervision and control body of the information and ideas that are circulated among the people within a society.can be done by governments and private organizations or by individuals who engage in self-censorship (Self-censorship is often practiced by film producers, film directors, publishers, news anchors, journalists, musicians, and other kinds of authors). It occurs for a variety of reasons including national security, to control obscenity, child pornography, and hate speech, to protect children, to promote or restrict political or religious views, to prevent slander and libel, and to protect intellectual property. It may or may not be legal. Many countries provide strong protections against censorship by law, but none of these protections are absolute and it is frequently necessary to balance conflicting rights in order to determine what can and cannot be necessary, especially to protect children from the corrupting influence of such scenes, often masquerading as art, in our cinemas.other hand, there are those who say that something which is banned becomes desirable, so censorship is counter-productive and that censorship infringes on our freedom of choice. However, freedom is not merely freedom to do what we want but freedom from attempts to destroy societys moral. Censorship provides the safeguards by which society protects itself.democratic and non-democratic countries use censorship. With the explosion of communication technology, it has become all-pervasive. There is a dispute as to whether censorship is good or bad.Pros of Censorship

·Censorship of pornographic material prevents the corrupting of the children.

·Scenes of people consuming alcohol or smoking influence people to copy them. Hence censoring such scenes serves a useful purpose.

·People may copy dangerous stunts shown on TV or movies. Censorship proves necessary here.

·It can be used to prevent politically motivated propaganda.

·It protects the privacy of people.

·Plagiarism is prevented.

·Abusive scenes in movies may offend some people. Censorship prevents that.

·It protects indigenous cultures from the bad influence of foreign cultures.

·It prevents the public display of disrespect to any particular individual or community.

·It promotes political correctness.

·Children are prevented from learning things that could harm them and others.

·It shields the morals of society.

·It restrains vulgarity and obscenity.

·The surfeit of violence in movies and TV is restricted by it.of Censorship

·If sex-related topics are completely censored it becomes difficult to teach children and teenagers about the dangers of HIV/AIDS.

·Freedom of speech is compromised.

·It prevents the free flow of ideas.

·It may intrude on the privacy of a person.

·Withholding of information only leads to ignorance in the society.

·Censoring of information may lead to a wrong image perceived by the public.

·It is generally associated with dictatorship.

·Censorship has been misused in the past.

·It is a force against globalization.

·It works against creativity.

·If you hide something from people they will become extra curious about it.

·It has no place in a truly democratic society.

·It gives rise to and hides human rights abuses.

·It is used to control people.

·There can be different standards of morals among different societies quite different from the imposed ones by the censorship.

·Governments should not control people. It should be the other way round.

·Individuals have different tastes.

·People have a right to know.properly, censorship serves as a valuable tool. However, it can also be easily misused. Governments and other regulatory institutions must learn to use it judiciously. Children and TVhave been more than 2,300 studies and reports on the effects of television on American society. Most of them show that these effects are mainly negative. Researchers have been especially concerned about children. In the past decade, researchers have had children participate in numerous studies. They had children watch television intensively for three weeks. The results showed a drop in the children's creativity. The researchers concluded that television makes the children lose some of their creativity.can't get children to pay attention for any length of time because today's children want everything to be as fast and entertaining as TV. Dr Benjamin Spock, an expert in child raising, once complained that he couldn't get his grandchildren to leave the TV set when he wanted to take them to the zoo. Some of today's children are so addicted to TV that nothing else interests them. Parents have to make them turn off the TV and go out to play or read a book. They can't get them to do these traditional childhood activities without having an argument over the TV.

Although most of these studies have shown the negative effects of television, some sociologists argue that television has become a part of our lives. They do not think that parents should make their children limit the amount of TV that they watch to one or two hours a day. They believe that parents should let their children decide for themselves what and how much they want to watch.most studies show the negative effects of television, there are also some important positive influences. There are many excellent educational programs, especially for children. Some schools have children watch certain programs in the classroom. They often get them to watch worthwhile programs at home by encouraging them to discuss what they have seen the next day in class. "Sesame Street" is a program that is watched by millions of children around the world. It uses bright colors, fast timing, and humour in order to get children to pay attention. It makes children enjoy learning about the alphabet, reading, and numbers.

Television also exposes children to different people and places. A little girl who had never seen a ballet before watched a famous ballerina on TV. This program got her to decide to become a ballerina herself. TV also increases young people's understanding of other people's views of life. Many people feel that "Roots", a program on the history of black people in the United States, is an example of this. Because viewers of this program became emotionally involved with the characters, "Roots" got some people to think more compassionately about the difficulties of black people in the United States.



·Topics of conversation

·TV units the family by keeping it at home

·TV broads peoples horizons by introducing them to new ideas and activities, new people, places, views of life.

·Many educational programs

·TV is a way of entertainment

·TV is one of the chief architects of prosperity

·Participate in different shows (quiz, talk, sport), become famous, win some money

·Find love or relatives

·Buy some products ( furniture, accessories, dishes, sport equipment) with the help of adverts

·It is a great wasteland

·TV makes risk of TV bringing a sense of unreality into all our lives

·It drops childrens creativity (research)

·Addiction to TV

·Children stop doing traditional childhood activities

·Children may repeat dangerous tricks, which they watch on TV

·It is a passive entertainment

·Influence upon our eyes, vision

·TV causes more friction in family life that leads to quarrels, misunderstandings

·TV teaches how to rob, shoot, poison, how to grow up into an outlaw or gangster

The purpose of state punishment

is the purpose of punishment? One purpose is obviously to rehabilitate the offender, to correct the offenders moral attitudes and anti-social behaviour and to reform him or her, which means to assist the offender to return to normal life as a useful member of the community. Punishment can also be seen as a deterrent because it warns other people of what will happen if they are tempted to break the law and so prevents them from doing so., a third purpose of punishment lies, perhaps, in societys desire for retribution, which basically means revenge. In other words, dont feel like that a wrongdoer should suffer from his misdeeds? The form of punishment should also be considered. On the one hand, some believe that we should make the punishment fit the crime. Those who steal from others should be deprived of their own property to ensure that criminals are left in no doubt that crime doesnt pay. For those who attack others, corporal punishment should be used. Murderers should be subject to the principle an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth and automatically receive the death penalty. On the other hand, it is said that such views are unreasonable, cruel and barbaric and that we should show a more humane attitude to punishment and try to understand why a person commits a crime and how society has failed to enable him to live a respectable, law-abiding life.

The US Court System

courts are the overseers of the law. They administer it, they resolve disputes under it, and they ensure that it is and remains equal to and impartial for everyone.the United States each state is served by the separate court systems, state and federal. Both systems are organized into three basic levels of courts - trial courts, intermediate courts of appeal and a high court, or Supreme Court. The state courts are concerned essentially with cases arising under state law, and the federal courts with cases arising under federal law.courts bear the main burden in the administration of justice. Cases begin there and in most instances are finally resolved there. The trial courts in each state include: common pleas courts, which have general civil and criminal jurisdiction and smaller in importance municipal courts, county courts and mayors' courts.common pleas court is the most important of the trial courts. It is the court of general jurisdiction - almost any civil or criminal case, serious or minor, may first be brought there. In criminal matters, the common pleas courts have exclusive jurisdiction over felonies (a felony is a serious crime for which the penalty is a penitentiary term or death). In civil matters it has exclusive jurisdiction in probate, domestic relations and juvenile matters. The probate division deals with wills and the administration of estates, adoptions, guardianships. It grants marriage licenses to perform marriages. The domestic division deals with divorce, alimony, child custody. The juvenile division has jurisdiction over delinquent, unruly or neglected children and over adults, who neglect, abuse or contribute to the delinquency of children. When a juvenile (any person under 18) is accused of an offence, whether serious, or minor, the juvenile division has exclusive jurisdiction over the case.main job of courts of appeal is to review cases appealed from trial courts to determine if the law was correctly interpreted and applied.supreme court of each state is primarily a court of appeal and the court of last resort.federal court structure is similar to the structure of the state court system. The trial courts in the federal system are the United States district courts. The United States courts of appeal are intermediate courts of appeal between the district courts and the United States Supreme Court.

The US Supreme Court is the highest court in the nation and the court of last resort. It consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices, all of whom are appointed for life by the President with the Advice and Consent of the Senate. The duty of the Supreme Court is to decide whether laws passed by Congress agree with the Constitution. The great legal issues facing the Supreme Court at present are Government involvement with religion, abortion and privacy rights, race and sex discrimination.

Procedure of criminal case

criminal case begins when a person goes to court and files a complaint that another person has committed an offence. This is followed by issuing either an arrest want or a summons. A criminal case is started when an indictment (обвинительный акт) is returned by a grand jury before anything else happens in the case. Indictments most often are felony accusations against persons, who have been arrested and referred to the rand jury. After an accused is indicted, he is brought into court and is told the nature of the charge against him can plead guilty, which is the admission that he committed crime and can be sentenced without a trial. He can plead guilty and be tried.

As a general rule the parties to civil suits and defendant criminal cases are entitled to "trial by jury of 12 jurors. But a jury is not provided unless it is demanded in writing in advance of the trial; in this case a civil or a criminal case is judge alone, greater criminal cases are tried to a three-judge panel.

In trial by the jury the attorneys for each party make their opening statements. The prosecution presents its evidence based on the criminal investigation of the for the defence pleads the case of the accused, examines his witnesses and cross-examines the witnesses for the prosecution. Both, the prosecution and the defence, try to convince the jury. When all the evidence is in, the attorneys make their closing arguments to the jury with the prosecutor going first. Both attorneys try to show the evidence in the most favourable light for their sides. But if one of them uses improper material in his final argument the opponent may object, the objection may be ruled out by the judge who will instruct the jury to disregard what was said or may be sustained. After this the judge proceeds to instruct the jury on its duty and the jury retires to the jury room to consider the verdict. In civil cases at least three-fourths of the jurors must agree on the verdict. In a criminal case there must not be any reasonable doubt as to the guilt of the accused, the verdict must be unanimous.

The next stage is for the judge to decide, in case of a verdict of guilty, what sentence to impose on the convict.Pros and Cons of capital punishment

Nowadays not only are the methods different but more importantly not everyone agrees that capital punishment should be used. People are divided into two distinct groups; those for and those against. This is because this issue is black and white; there is no grey area.

Types of capital punishment:the USA, 85% of the population over the age of 21 approve of the death penalty. In the many states which still have the death penalty, some use the electric chair, which can take up to 20 minutes to kill, while others use gas or lethal injections.

Pros: pro-Hanging lobby uses four main arguments to support its call for the reintroduction of capital punishment. First there is the deterrence (сдерживающая) theory, which argues that potential murderers would think twice before committing the act if they knew that they might die if they were caught.idea of retribution demands that criminals should get what they deserve: if a murderer intentionally sets out to commit was the case a crime, he should accept the Consequences. Retribution, which is just another word for revenge, supported by the religious doctrine of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a argument in favour of bringing back capital punishment concerns public security. If the death penalty were reinstated, it would mean that a convicted murderer could not be set free after serving 20 years or less of a life sentence and be able to go on to murder again. . SO reduction should only be available for murder and serious violent crimes.last main pro-hanging argument is the most cold-blooded, it is that it makes economic sense to hang convicted murderers rather than keep them in prison wasting taxpayers' money.

The aim of punishment

are punished judicially, by fines, corporal(телесные)punishment or custodial (опекунский )sentences such as prison; detainees risk further punishments for breaches of internal rules.are four function of penalties for crimes?course it depends on the crime committed and the criminal who committed it. But the ideal is to help and/or rehabilitate, especially if the offender is young. Then punishing the guilty proves an unpleasant consequence for lawbreakers. To act as a deterrent for future criminal behaviour, the offender as well as society. And finally, justice. Society demands justice, where justice fails anarchy is not far behind.

Punishment -authorized in modern law include community service, monetary fines, Forfeiture of property, restitution to victims, confinement in jail or prison, and death.civil sanctions are punitive (карательные) in nature. The primary aim, though, in most civil cases is to compensate the victim. However, a judge or jury may assess Punitive Damages against a party in a civil case if that party's conduct was especially wicked. Punitive damages are intended to punish a party or set an example for similar wrongdoers. Though onerous (тягостные), punitive damages in a civil case do not carry with them the same stigma attached to criminal punishment.transgressions have been punished in various ways throughout history. The standard punishments in ancient Greek and Roman societies were death, Slavery, mutilation(телесное наказание)(Corporal Punishment), imprisonment, or Banishment(изгнание). Some punishments were especially creative. In ancient Rome, for example, a person who murdered a close relative was enclosed in a sack with a cock, a viper, a dog, and a monkey, and then cast into the sea.

Theories of Punishment

have several theories to support the use of punishment to maintain order in society.

Theories of punishment can be divided into two general philosophies: utilitarian and retributive(прагматик и карательный). The utilitarian theory of punishment seeks to punish offenders to discourage, or "deter," future wrongdoing. The retributive theory seeks to punish offenders because they deserve to be punished.

Juvenile Delinquents

our streets are full of juvenile delinquents. The bangs with such offenders are too dangerous. They drink alcohol, smoke cigarettes and different narcotic drugs. They use unprintable language. But there are too serious offenders in the streets, who commit crimes. They could be burglars, muggers, robbers. But what are the reasons of such behavior? First of all, the family of such children influence on them. The family should keep an eye on the development of their child. The child must get the education. It is necessary to involve a child to some hobby group. So, the first reason of the development juvenile delinquents is the lack of parental supervision. Such children dont know, what softness, kindness and love is, they could be maltreated children. So they injure and harm other people. Certainly, parents must know friends of their child. Because a great influence upon children exert the environment. A weak-willed child can get into a bang of offender peers, who are interested only in alcohol, cigarettes and robbery. More over a great influence upon juvenile delinquents exert the state, especially economy. Many young people cant keep a family, because of lack of job and money. So, often children of young parents are found in the streets. Mass media should be mentioned too. Every person could notice how much programs with murders, drug and alcohol addiction, robbery are on the TV. Such offences are not more hidden of the children. They see murders in details. And only parents can control the programs their children watch.Juvenile Offenders) Youth gangs have been a part of Los Angeles since the fifties. Back then their activities were largely confined to petty crimes and small-scale marijuana dealing. But lately the numbers of gangs have become staggering totalling from about 5,000 members lo 10,000. Almpst all the gangs are involved in the cocaine trade. "A typical gang might have 200 kids from 13 to 26 years of age," says Steven Strong, the L.A. Police department's detective. "Two weeks ago 30-year-old David Thompson and his wife were stopped by three armed teenagers, who rushed the couple, robbed them and then casually shot Thompson in the head. The gang members pushed the dying man's wife out of the car, got in and drove away.") Every night - and in many areas day and night, thousands of police cars patrol the streets of American towns. The list of crimes starts with petty crimes, goes through house-breaking, shoplifting, mug0ng to be topped by homicide. Entire neighbourhoods are terrorized by mobsters and thugs, many of them are quite young.) Just think about how teenagers run away from homes, their own, from caring as it seems mothers, fathers, grandmothers. Why do they choose to look and act aggressive and tough? Take rockers who startle passers-by by the flashing lights of their roaring night motorbikes. Why do they, with their high-school background, have such a lack of thoughtful-ness? Self-assertion? Then why at other people's expense?An eye for an eyepunishment has been used throughout history, although its methods and the crimes for which it is used have changed over the centuries.the USA, 85% of the population over the age of 21 approve of the death penalty. In the many states which still have the death penalty, some use the electric chair, which can take up to 20 minutes to kill, while others use gas or lethal injections.

Nowadays not only are the methods different but more importantly not everyone agrees that capital punishment should be used. People are divided into two distinct groups; those for and those against. This is because this issue is black and white; there is no grey area.

The first of these was the case of Ruth Ellis, who was hanged for shooting her lover in what was generally regarded as a crime of passion. The second was the posthumous pardon of Timothy Evans, hanged for murders which, it was later proved, had been committed by someone else.contrast, in Britain, public opinion started to turn against the use of capital punishment after the Second World War. A number of well-publicised cases in the fifties, two in particular, helped to bring about this lobby uses four main arguments to support its call for the reintroduction of capital punishment. First there is the deterrence theory which argues that potential murderers would think twice before committing the act if they knew that they might die if they were caught. The armed bank robber might, likewise, go back to being unarmed.

As a consequence, juries were unwilling to convict. This brought about gradual reduction in the use of the death penalty until finally it was decided that it should only be available for murder and serious violent crimes.

The other two arguments are more suspect. The idea of retribution demands that criminals should get what they deserve: if a murderer intentionally sets out to commit a crime, he should accept the consequences. Retribution, which just another word tor revenge, supported by the religious doctrine of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth.

The next argument in favour of bringing back capital punishment concerns public security. If the death penalty were reinstated, it would mean that a convicted murderer could not be set free after serving 20 years or less of a life sentence and be able to go on to murder again. Consequently, the general public would be safer.

The arguments against the death penalty are largely humanitarian. But there are also statistical reasons for opposing it: the deterrence figures do not add up. In Britain, 1903 was the record, year for executions and yet in 1904 the number of homicides actually rose. There was a similar occurrence in 1946 and 1947. If the deterrence theory were correct, the rate should have fallen.fourth and last main pro-hanging argument is the most cold-blooded. It is that it makes economic sense to hang convicted murderers rather than keep them in prison wasting taxpayers' money.other reasons to oppose the death penalty are largely a matter of individual conscience and belief. One is that murder is murder and that the state has no more right to take a life than the individual. The other is that Christianity preaches forgiveness, not revenge.second main argument against reintroducing capital punishment is that innocent people are sometimes wrongly convicted, and while people can be released from prison, they cannot be brought back from the dead if they have been hanged.

FOR:AGAINST:securitywrong convictiontheoryBible teaches forgiveness, not revengeof taxpayers moneydeterrence theory doesnt work sometimes (they think it wont happened to me)should accept the consequencesthe state has no more right to take a life than the individual

The Difficult Child

difficult child is the child who is unhappy. He is at war with himself, and in consequence, he is at war with the world. A difficult child is nearly always made difficult by wrong treatment at home. He is prone to obey authority, fearful of criticism, and almost fanatical in his desire to be conventional and correct.usual argument against freedom for children is this: life is hard, and we must train the children so that they will fit into life later on. We must therefore discipline them. If we allow them to do what they like, how will they ever be able to serve under a boss? How will they ever be able to exercise self-discipline?impose(навязывать) anything by authority is wrong. Obedience must come from within - not be imposed from without.problem child is the child who is pressured into obedience (повиновение) and persuaded(убеждать) through fear.must be entirely eliminated - fear of adults, fear of punishment, fear of disapproval. Only hate can flourish in the atmosphere of fear.happiest homes are those in which the parents are frankly honest with their children without moralizing. Fear does not enter these homes. Father and son are pals(дружбаны). Love can thrive(процветать). In other homes love is crushed by fear. Compelled(вынужденное) respect always implies fear.happiness and well-being of children depend on a degree of love and approval we give them. We must be on the child's side. Being on the side of the child just behave to the child in such a way the child feels you love him and approve of him.plays many parts in the life of the growing child, it is the natural source of affection, the place where he can live with the sense of security; it educates him in all sorts of ways, provides him with his opportunities of recreation, it affects his status in society.need affection. Child study has enabled us to see how necessary affection is in ensuring proper emotional development. When the home is a loveless one, the children are impersonal and even hostile.children become more independent of their parents. They go on loving their parents deeply underneath, but they don't show it on the surface. They develop a stronger sense of responsibility about matters that they think are important.educators and physicians would give parents more encouragement in their inclination to guide children away from violence of any kind, from violence of gun-play and from violence on famous Dr. Benjamin Spock has this to say in the new edition of his book for parents about child care:

"… Some children can only partly distinguish between dramas and reality. I believe that parents should flatly forbid programs that go in for violence. I also believe that parents should firmly stop children's war-play or any other kind of play that degenerates into deliberate cruelty or meanness. One can't be permissive about such things. To me it seems very clear that we should bring up the next generation with a greater respect for law and for other people's rights."Girls are turning to violent crimegirls commit more than one in four of all juvenile crimes and are becoming increasingly involved in violence, according to a Government study.1957, girls accounted for only one crime in 11. This striking change was highlighted in a report commissioned by the Health Department into anti-social behaviour in adolescents. It shows that the criminal activities of so-called girl gangs - that attract publicity because they are thought to be unusual - are in fact part of a worsening trend.the past 10 years, the number of arrests of girls for violence has more than doubled and juvenile crime is increasing at a faster rate among girls than boys. This is said to be almost entirely the result of cultural changes of the post-war period - particularly family breakdown - that are evident across the western world.the past, girls were effectively supervised and were less likely to be exposed to anti-social influences.are less likely to supervise daughters as they once did. Young girls are spending increasing amounts of time at school. Also, where once a 13-year-old would sit in her bedroom listening to records with a friend, now there is a trend towards girls doing the same as boys have always done, which is going around on the streets in groups of five or more.are more likely to be involved in burglary and drug offences. But the ratio falls for criminal damage, robbery, violence and theft.parental supervision is a major factor in delinquency and the increase both in juvenile crime and the involvement of girls has coincided with high divorce rates and family also a vicious circle at play, with anti-social girls more likely to become teenage mothers and to be less in a position to give their own offspring the care and supervision that can prevent the next generation sliding into criminality.


so long ago, women were losing ground. Through the history we can see women oppressed by men: from the very beginning women duty was housekeeping, they had no rights: they couldnt vote or have education or work. A man can do anything, a woman can do nothing. Later, women won the right to vote, to have a job, to air opinion. But women still have a very long way to go before they attain more or less equal position with men. Nowadays, we are formally equal with men, but in practice we face such a phenomena of women being the last to be hired and the first to be fired. It happens for many reasons. First of all, employee hire a man instead a woman because of physical superiority, they are great endurance. If a woman has not children, she will, so employee should pay money during her maternity leave, or even if she has already children she can often go on sick-leave. An employee loses money, so its more convenient to hire a man. The earnings gap between men and women is wide. Having either the same or different positions with men women still have less salary. Incredibly, women college graduates earn less than men who have not finished high school. It is sad that women are equal with men and can posses any position they want. What is interesting is that the number of women-politicians or women holding high positions in the companies are lower. At the government there are a few women. There has never been a woman president. Being a woman you can face such problem as sexual harassment from a boss, or simply untactful flirtation., as well as men, have compelling economic reasons for working and deserve well-paying and meaningful jobs. Women should receive the same pay as men for the same work, have the same educational opportunities, and be able to rise in any occupation as far as they can. Women should have equal rights in marriage. Today women are free to choose a husband, but some stereotypes are still exist, for example :Womens business - housekeeping and education of the children, taking decisions is mens business or Keep silence woman, your day is 8 of March , A woman without man is imperfect member of society and so on. According to such inequities appeared such movement as feminism-supporters of womens rights. Equality in family relations presupposes that a wife and a husband divide all housekeeping chores, such as cooking, cleaning, food shopping, diaper changing, and child rearing equally. Household expenses are also shared. Women may keep their maiden names after marriage. All these have already exist in our society, but do not approve entirely

I can say in conclusion, that women did great work to won more or less equal position in society. Women are strong and clever as men. Maybe one of the reason why men dont give us chance to be completely equal is that they are afraid that it can turn out that woman are clever, stronger and can achieve more success.

Last hired, first fired

have come a country mile, no doubt about it, since the days - not so long ago - when the job world was an all-male preserve. Nowadays women are walking police beats, running giant computers, and even booting home racehorses. But the sad truth is that women are still by no means equals in the job market - they may well, in fact, be losing ground!still have a very long way to go before they attain either equal employment opportunities or equal pay. And the recent recession has even caused women to lose some of the gains they had won in a balmier economy. It is the old sad story of women being the last to be hired and the first to be fired.the country, unemployment and underemployment are dramatically higher for women that for men, In 1976 unemployment for white men was 5,7%, but it was 7,3% for white women and more that 13% for minority women.earnings gap between men and women has actually widened over the past twenty years. Women holding full-time jobs average a salary of 6,800$ a year, 43% less than 11.800$ earned by men; whereas 20 years ago, women earned 36% less than men. Incredibly, women college graduates earn less than men who have not finished high school.despite the publicity given to the occasional woman oceanographer or auto mechanic, women are still fairly concentrated in the traditional fields of clerical and service work. although the number of women professionals has grown significantly, the growth has been mainly in the low status areas of noncollege teaching and nursing, where women have always predominated.sometimes hears the argument that higher unemployment and lower wages for women are not really serious problems because women work only because they want to. Nothing could be further from the truth. Women work because they need the money, because they have to support themselves, because they are heads of households, or because their husbands do not make enough money to cover expenses and meet high prices. Women, as well as men, have compelling economic reasons for working. They need and deserve well-paying and meaningful jobs., a great deal has to be accomplished before we reach this goal. First of all, we must realize that a reordering of the economy to provide full and equal employment for women - and for men - will benefit our entire society. Every time we reduce unemployment by 1%, we pick up $16 billion in tax revenues and saved unemployment benefits. And by employing all the women who want to work at jobs that utilize their full potential, we will be making use of valuable talent presently going to waste. BOOKSefforts are now being made to render the traditional book as obsolete as the stage play or the symphony orchestra. Small fortunes have been spent putting books on the Internet. The plug-in book is now being produced by Research and Development bureaucrats in media conglomerates. Books could be stored in the electronic spines of hand-held light-boxes. They could be loaded into photosensitive pages for carrying on trains and planes. But all those developments have encountered consumer resistance, people appear to find flickering screens tiring. They make eyes ache since the scanning pulses are in constant movement. The flicker is said to limit lateral vision and make speed-reading (and mistake spotting) difficult. The eye is also strained since the screen is brighter than ambient light. And all screens need electronic power. What these souls are struggling to go is merely to reinvent what Caxton discovered half a millennium ago. It is called a book. Technologists dislike books because they are low tech yet the market loves them. The book needs no power supply and creates no radio interference. It is cheap, small and portable, usable on the beach, while walking or curled up in bed. It is virtually indestructible. A book can be read fast or slow at the flick of a finder it can fie dog-eared, ripped up, passed, around and shelved for instant and easy retrieval. A row of books is a joy to behold. This object is, in short, a technical and aesthetic masterpiece. Had the Internet been around for years and had I invented printing on paper, I would be hailed as a genius.Attitudes to work and leisureadults aspire to more leisure, but, in fact, not many people have the necessary initiative to use the free time they already have very constructively. The sad fact is that we need work because it imposes the discipline we need. Life seems aimless and we secretly look forward to our work again. We dream about personal fulfillment but probably find it more in our work than in our leisure time. This depends on age. The young are free from work and responsibility, and freedom comes naturally to them. However, after they begin jobs they become conditioned to work. They find they need it, however much they complain about its routine and regimentation. Obviously this again depends on the kind of work. Those with rewarding jobs, or jobs that require creativity, receive genuine satisfaction from their work, but most of us are in conventional 9 to 5 jobs which offer little scope for imagination. We leave our work only to face a leisure that we find difficult to cope with. Our mistake is in regarding leisure as a chance to do nothing, whereas in fact it should be looked on as a challenge.

The Health Professions

people whose names are on the medical or dental registers may practice as doctors or dentists in the NHS. The minimum qualification for ' registration requires, for a doctor: 5 or 7 years' training in medical school and hospital, and for a dentist, 4 years at a dental school.also requires that before becoming fully registered and entitled to practice independently a medical student must spend at least a year after the completion of his examinations in satisfactory service, in a resident medical capacity in one or more approved hospitals or institutions.regulating body for the medical profession is the General Medical Council and that of the dentists is the General Dental Council.are 16 universities that grant degrees in medicine and surgery.addition, the Royal College of Physicians and the Royal College of surgeons grant diplomas which are recognized by the General Medical Council.


criminal case hospital state

The book seems as obvious a candidate for redundancy now as it has since the middle of the 20th century. But we should be aware of pessimism's poor record. People previously assumed that the cinema and television would finish off reading, yet the book, to an extraordinary degree, has learned to coexist with its rivals.Hollywood projects derive from novels: often trashy ones, it is true, but also the classics. And not only do movies and television series descend from books but, almost routinely, they return to them us nearly every screen product has its tie-in hook It all suggests that the desire of the viewer to follow the visual-experience with a print experience is even more tenacious than ever.

The threat to the conventional book in the 21st century is, though, subtly different. Where the first challengers were alternatives to reading, the current ones are alternative ways of reading: CD Rom, computer disk, the Internet, recorded books. The smart money would bet that the standard home or library reference book is going the way of the dodo simply because the new technology can make information more visually appealing. But, with regard to fiction, it seems a reasonable assumption that the portability of the standard book, and the aesthetic affection that established readers still have for it as a product, will confound pessimism in the future.

Ebooks Vs. Traditional Books

has taken over books. There are pros to both ebooks and traditional books. Ebooks are better for the environment because they save on paper, however with paper books, you will not have to worry about your reader getting dropped, malfunctioning or breaking down as you would with an ebook. While you may prefer the convenience of an ebook, there is still something to be said for curling up in bed with a traditional, printed book.

Ebook Convenience

are simply more convenient than traditional books. Handheld readers are small, and you can store them away easily when you're traveling or on the go. The lighting on most readers makes it akin to an actual book page, and if you're unsatisfied with the text size, you can change the size of it to better suit your eyes. Also, unlike ordering traditional books online, there will be no shipping costs to ebook readers. Whether reading the book online or on a handheld reader, you will receive it almost instantly.

Ebook Privacy

those who are trying to take out a book on a particular subject that may be embarrassing or private, the privacy afforded by buying an ebook beats awkwardly standing in the checkout line. Ebooks also allow you to protect your books by password.

Ebook Storage

can store many ebooks on one device, as opposed to paper books which can require a mass amount of space. This is also convenient for students who carry backpacks that could otherwise be loaded down with textbooks.

Ebook Price and Author Pool

those not looking to purchase ebooks for their handheld readers, there are plenty of free ebooks available online. One benefit is that you can read them on any piece of technology that has the Internet and a web browser. There is also a larger pool of authors to choose from, allowing you to read from unknown talents.

Traditional: No Technology Required

convenient, technology does not have everyone rushing to read on a digital screen. Traditional books do not require the purchasing of ebook readers, giving your credit card number or using the Internet. Especially for those not familiar with technology, purchasing a traditional book is much easier.

Traditional Collector's Editions

copies, numbered editions and beautiful bindings are all related to traditional books. With the age of ebooks, collector's editions and autographed copies of books might be a thing of the past.

Traditional Decor

from reading, traditional books make for fantastic accent pieces. Those decorating an office with bookshelves or making a habit of collecting bright, antique books for a shabby chic style obviously prefer traditional books when making their decoration decisions.

Book Borrowing

you've told your friend about the latest book your reading, and he wants to borrow it. Lending books becomes a much harder task when they take the form of data. Traditional books allow for book borrowing and lending without having to lend out your entire reader.

Primary Health Care in Great Britain

Primary health care is in the hands of doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists working within the Service as independent practitioners, and health visitors, 15district nurses and 14midwives employed by the health authority There is a wide range of other services including school health service & some social services.

The GP is the Centre of NHS

family practitioner services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians & pharmacists of their own choice. The patients is free to choose a family doctor & to change to another with a minimum of formalitydoctors who are under contract to the NHS have on average about 2,250 patients. They provide the first diagnosis in the case of illness and either prescribe a suitable course of treatment or refer a patient to the more specialized services and hospital consultants in case of serious illness.since the population is increasing at a greater rate than the number of doctors, they have even more work to do & the average number of patients on their lists has increased over the past few years. As a result of it the number of areas is considerably "under-doctored". For example, 68 per cent of patients in St.Helen's (Zancs) are on lists of over 3000 compared to the average 2,250. It is in the industrial areas of the North & of Wales that lists are longest and doctors fewest, where patients need to make more visits than average to the G.P. The not result is bad for doctor & patient alike: the doctor is grossly overworked & does not have time to give a proper medical service to the patients. Moreover, with the overall shortage of doctors, newly qualified men & woman are on the whole, tending not to go into general practice. This is not only because of financial problems, but also because, in relation to doctors in hospitals, family doctors lack the facilities necessary for practicing medicine.present the family doctor service is almost always organised from the doctor's own surgeries to which patients go for advice and treatment unless the doctor visits them at homefew doctors work from health centres. Many general practitioners are working with one assistant.number of family doctors within the service has increased and to a large extent a more even distribution of the GPS has been achieved. However, there still remains a number of severely underdoctored areas in the industrial Midlands & the North.4/5 (four-fifth) of family doctors in Britain work in partnerships, or group practices, often as members of health care teams which also include health visitors and district nurses and sometimes midwives and social doctors cooperate and provide a round-the clock service for patients and off-duty and holiday-relief for themselves.visitors are responsible for the preventive care and health education of all families, particularly those with young children.nurses give skilled nursing care to people at home or elsewhere outside hospital.almost all babies are born in hospital, there is a domiciliary service for mothers having their babies at home, with midwives and general practitioners giving both 12ante-natal and post-natal care.the ante-natal and post-natal care and medical supervision of young children, the NHS provides school health and dental service for schoolchildren. Minor aliments are normally dealt with by the school nurses 11under the general supervision of a school doctor. Periodic medical inspections are held and children who are found to need detailed investigation are invited to attend local authority clinics out-patient units, where their cases can be more thoroughly investigated.

Political Correctness

people dont like to talk directly about a number of subjects which are felt to be rather difficult in some way; they hesitate before mentioning directly such things as death, for example. They prefer to use expressions which make the difficult topic sound slightly less so. Thus, you will often hear Im afraid her granny passed on last night rather than Im afraid her granny died last night.use of a particular kind of euphemism is currently referred to as political correctness or being PC. These are expressions which relate to people and society, and political correctness is a concern not to use language that might be perceived as offensive by particular members of society. Thus, the term people with learning difficulties was felt to be better than mentally handicapped and the phrase senior citizens was preferred to old age pensioners., political correctness (also politically correct or PC) is a term used to describe language, or behavior, which is claimed to be calculated to provide a minimum of offense, particularly to the racial, cultural, or other identity groups being described. The concept is not exclusive to the English language. A text that conforms to the ideals of political correctness is said to be politically correct.term PC is sometimes used in a pejorative or ironic sense to satirise either the idea that carefully chosen language can encourage, promote, or establish certain social outcomes and relationships, or the belief that the resulting changes benefit society. This satire often comments on certain forms of identity politics, including gay rights, feminism, multiculturalism and the disability rights movement. For example, the use of "gender-neutral" job titles ("lineworker" instead of "lineman," "chairperson" or "chair" instead of "chairman," etc.), the use of the expression "differently abled" rather than "disabled are all sometimes referred to as "politically correct". 'PC terms are also applied to objects, such as "maintenance cover" instead of "manhole cover".originated in American universities as a definition of a sensible movement aimed at eliminating racism, sexism and other prejudices in language. In the eighties there was an increasing awareness in the U.S. that language should be used with care to avoid the notions of inequality. A lot of new terms appeared, e.g. Native Americans (instead of "Indians"), Afro Americans (instead of Black people) etc. but in its extreme form PC had led to the boycotting of certain teaches, the removal from a Us college of a Goya nude thought to represent sexual harassment and the renaming of flowers such as pansies because of possible offence to gay men. Thus, PC has come to seen by many as over-sensitive and the worst puritanical and repressive and it has been widely used in the nineties almost always ironically and pejoratively and is often ridiculed.are some topics which English people often use euphemisms for:the happy eventfall the back of a lorrygo to wash ones handsday of actionto be economical with the truthexpressions, introduced for PC reasons, have become part of standard English now. For example, a single parent is used instead of unmarried woman, сchildren with special needs rather than educationally subnormal children, a homemaker - housewife, a refuse collector - dustman (мусорщик), hearing-impaired- deaf (глухой).

Balancing Work and Leisure

many of you feel that you really should be working harder? At the same time, how many of you wish you had more time to have fun and enjoy yourself? How do you solve this paradox?this problem can be difficult. Sometimes really motivating goals and a tight schedule can leave us feeling burnt out and drained. On the other hand, spending most of your time on leisure and fun activities often means you dont end up getting anything done. It would be nice to live in a world where we only need to do what we want to do, but that isnt realistic.key is to have balance. If you start to burn out or feel drained, you know that you need to find a way to increase the amount of leisure time you have. If you arent getting anywhere with your goals or projects, you know you need to take steps to become more productive when you are working.are really three parts to balancing work and leisure.first is simply to increase the quality of your activities. By working more productively, and spending your leisure time on truly relaxing or enjoyable activities, it is easier to find the time to do both satisfactorily.second part is to monitor and take control of your energy levels. When you begin to feel drained by a difficult problem at work, take breaks that will really help you take control of your energy levels. Taking proper physical care of your body through diet and exercise is the next step. With more energy, it is easier to increase the quality of our activities.third part is to ensure that one area of our life doesnt cannibalize the others. Because there is often a great deal of need and urgency attached to work, it is easy for it to eat away at the leisure time we need to function. In these cases it is often best to guarantee ourselves a certain amount of leisure time in advance.the balance between work and leisure can be difficult. Understanding that it is not only nice to achieve balance, but absolutely necessary for both our productivity and enjoyment is the first step. Hopefully you can now find your own balance between work and leisure.

The National Health Service in Great Britain. Structure and Organization

The National Health (NHS) was established throughout the United Kingdom on 5 July, operate in England and Wales, in Scotland and Northern Ireland, but with- administrative difference.NHS provides 1free treatment for people ordinarily resident in Britain and gives emergency treatment for general practitioners, dentists and ophthalmic practitioners are without charge to the patient and maintenance and treatment in hospitals are also free.there are 3charges for certain items, for example, for a course of dental treatment for an adult, for dentures and spectacles and for prescriptions., the NHS has suffered from shortages and financial deprivation ever since its inception in 1948. But the aim of the policy of the Conservative is to simplify administration of the NHS and to increase 16the pay for medical treatment. Besides some resent Government reports showed that average waiting times for hospital admission in the country as a whole meant that more patients had to face a delay of several months. In the Sheffield region, for example, patients with diseases of the digestive system averaged a 19 week wait. In the South Western region patients were waiting 41 weeks for varicose vein treatment. Since 1974 every prescription cost 20 pence, now it costs F 150. Exceptions are made only for several categories of patients, including children, expectant and nursing mothers, the elderly and those in financial need.greater part of the cost of the health service is met from general taxation (85%), and the rest from contributions paid as part of the national insurance contributions and heal charges for some items.Britains population of 56 million it has been estimated that about 93% use the NHS. The NHS is the largest employer in the UК, employing more than 900 000 people. Yet, the capitalist structure of the British society ensures that in health, as in every other field the wealthy cream of the privileges at the expense of the general public The inadequacies of the NHS, is the main reason for the phenomenal growth in members of patients treated under private medical schemes.

The NHS consists of 3 main parts: 10the general practitioner (including dental, pharmaceutical and ophthalmic services), the hospitals and specialist services, and a local health authority services (comprising a range of home and clinical services for 5prevention, 6treatment and 7care).The advantages and disadvantages of traveling; by plane, train, and car. <#"justify">In all, I would have to say I would rather spend a little extra and travel by plane. I like the fact its going to get me to my destination faster than other ways of traveling. It will also be relaxing in the upper two classes of seating. I think my main purpose for choosing a flight is time. Im always in a rush, I dont know why, I just am.

Hospital and Specialist Services

hospital services include district general hospitals with treatment and diagnostic facilities for in-patients, day-patienls and out-patients, hospital maternity departments, 9infections disease units, psychiatric and geriatric facilities, and 13rehabilitation facilities, convalescent homes and all forms of specialized treatment.large proportion of the hospitals in the NHS were built in the XIX century, some trace their origin to much earlier charitable foundations, such as the famous St.Bartholomew's and St.Thomas' hospital in London. Much has been done to improve and extend existing buildings and many new hospitals have been or are being opened. Government has reviewed the policy which involves the construction of excessively large hospitals and the risk of hospital services becoming too remote from the local communities.treatment is free for outpatients and inpatients. A NHS patient may receive good treatment and in all probability, he will share a general ward with many other patients, possibly as many as 30. There are also a number of pay-beds in which part-time specialists, taking part in the service, treat privately patients who had decided not to take advantage of the scheme. Such patients are charged for full hospital maintenance as well as for the specialist's people may still prefer to go to their doctor as private patients and in most large towns there are some private and financially independent hospitals known as nursing homes which are outside the NHS. The ratio of patient to doctor is very small in these hospitals and here the patient may choose which specialist or surgeon he will be treated by. The fees are usually very high indeed and only the rich can afford them.medical practice has increased by leaps and bounds in recent years. This is the verdict of a report commissioned by the Department of Health and Social Security published last month. If in 1955 some half a million persons were covered by private treatment schemes, now roughly 33/4 per cent of the total UK population resorts to private treatment.

Leisure Time

works hard only to have some leisure because man does not live by bread alone. So leisure may be called the spare time, free from labour and drudgery of life.and leisure are interrelated. They are like the two sides of the same coin. The observation that we must beat the iron when it is hot, but we may polish it at leisure, best explains the proper relation between work and leisure. Leisure is like a margin on a printed or written page. In the absence of work no leisure can be actually conceived. Leisure never means idleness. Leisure cannot be thought of as a non-activity. It should be seen in a broader perspective, as a fulfilling part of life and work. As J.B. Priestley has said, Any fool can be fussy and rid himself of energy all over the place, but a man has to have something in him before he can settle down to do nothing. He must have reserves to draw upon, must be able to plunge into the strange, slow river of dreams and reverie, and must be at heart a poet. Only a very few have these reserves to draw upon. Moreover, dreaming, thinking and- even meditation are .activities, though of different hard only to have some leisure because man does not live by bread alone. So leisure may be called the spare time, free from labour and drudgery of life. It is a kind of diversion. The dictionary definition of leisure is, the state of having time at ones disposal; time which one can spend as one pleases; free or unoccupied time. A famous French scholar and sociologist has defined leisure as an activity apart from the obligations of work, family and society, to which the individual turns at will, for either relaxation, diversion or broadening of knowledge and his spontaneous social participation, the free expression of his creative capacity. Leisure is a kind of breathing space or a welcome and desirable pause in the long hours of work and labour. A labour is sweet and honorable when it is earned with the sweat of the brow.rapid and radical scientific and technological advancements have made life easy and convenient. Our life is now far more free and leisurely than it was for our forefathers. Affluence and ease have brought more leisure hours. We are relieved of much of drudgery now and have more spare hours to relieve us of fatigue. The housewife too, now has more free time as there are many labour-saving devices at her disposal. Consequently, all of us can now enjoy long hours of rest, relaxation, joy, diversion and entertainment. All work and no play would certainly make Jack a dull boy. Leisure is a kind of insurance against dullness, fatigue, boredom, tension and cares of life. After hours of work and struggle, we need some rest, relaxation, joy, respite, freshness and a kind of brief holiday.helps us in keeping our body and mind toned up, healthy and refreshed. Some time devoted to regular diversions, or hobbies, is bound to strengthen and refresh us in more than one way for better achievements in our respective fields of life. The five-day a week work culture gives us a lot of spare time to spend in recreation, rest, hobbies, simple and innocent joys of life and intellectual and artistic activities.for many, leisure may be a problem as they may not know how to use and enjoy their spare time. For them leisure may be more boring and monotonous than the daily routine occupation. Leisure is like a double-edged sword which can be either used well or misused. A person can be best judged by the way he or she uses the leisure hours. It never means frittering away the precious time in drinking, gambling or idle gossiping. It should be viewed as a golden opportunity and used I for healthy enjoyment, intellectual, spiritual, cultural and artistic pursuits. One may spend this time in playing with children, J listening to their stories or in observing nature and birds.idle mind is the devils workshop. The right use of leisure hours can help us in shaping and developing our personality in the desired way. It is really condemnable to spend leisure without a definite plan to have purposeful gains. Leisure provides us a rare opportunity to satisfy our inner demands, j By means of our regular occupations and professions; we satisfy our physical and material demands. Now, during leisure we can very well satisfy our artistic, cultural, aesthetic, intellectual and spiritual urges. We can devote our spare hours to reading, writing, playing a musical instrument or in the pursuit of some meaningful creative and socially relevant activity. There are many hobbies to choose from. We may select from these according to our aptitude and resources, etc.we have made a judicious selection, we can make our leisure really interesting, meaningful and worthwhile. All cultural and aesthetical achievements and improvements arise from leisure. It helps people in becoming whole, integrated and cultured. During these precious moments of respite, relaxation, rest and diversion, one can stand and stare at things beautiful, j ponder on the meaning of life and turn ones life into a real asset.people spend leisure differently. Some may occupy themselves in gardening, photography, reading or playing outdoor or indoor games. Others may busy themselves in playing with children or in enjoying music.modern times, viewing television is becoming more and more popular. In western countries people spend roughly 45% of their leisure hours in front of their T.V. sets. In India also more and more people spend their time before their T.V. sets, viewing films, popular serials or other programmes. Women and children too are enthusiastic viewers of television programmes in India. But watching T.V. for long hours has its inherent risks as it is a passive entertainment and there is no participation by the viewers in weeks and automation of activities have resulted in more leisure and spare time. And with this, the danger of mental dissipation, flirtation and killing of time in idle entertainment have increased. Success and purposefulness of leisure is as important as that of our employment or vocational pursuits. Leisure can be a means of both our elevation, enrichment, improvement of sensibilities and degradation, fall, moral dissipation and flirtation. Leisure in itself is neither good nor bad. It is its use that makes it good or bad. No doubt all intellectual improvement arises from leisure but too much and too frequent leisure makes a poet cry:is pain; takes off our chariot wheels, how heavily we drag the load of life Blest leisure is our curse; like that of Cain, It makes us wander, wander earth around To fly that tyrant thought.

Therefore, leisure with purpose and meaningfulness should be our aim for has not Cicero, the famous Roman statesman said, The thing which is the most outstanding and chiefly to be desired by all healthy and good and well-off persons is leisure with honour. If we stick to the principle of leisure with honour then it would be no problem at all. We must be alert and watchful against the abuse of leisure.


on the problem of environment protection nowadays. What forms of pollution do you know? Characterize them in brief.pollution is a term that refers to all the ways by which people pollute their surroundings. People dirty the air with gases and smoke, poison the water with chemicals and other substances, and damage the soil with too many fertilizers and pesticides. We pollute also in such ways as ruin natural beauty by scattering junk and litter on the land and in the water. We operate machines and motor vehicles that fill the air with disturbing noise. Nearly everyone causes environmental pollution in some way.pollution is caused by exhausting from automobiles; factories discharge much of the toxic gases. So, high concentration of carbon dioxide in the air destroys the ozone layer. By the all badly polluted air can cause illness, and even death.pollution is caused by dumping waste materials and the by-products of industrialization, by oil spillage from the tankers and ships. Polluted water kills fish and other marine life.of soil reduces the amount of land that is available for growing food. Land pollution is provoked by using too much fertilizer and pesticides, which ruin the soil, dumping wastes on the land which cant decompose.should be mentioned that much pollution is caused by things that benefit people. For example automobiles provide transportation for millions for people, but exhaust the air. Factories pollute air , water and land by by-products and toxic gases but factories provide job and produce goods that people want. Its a kind of paradox. Scientists and engineers work to find ways to lessen the amount pollution.unite all forms of pollution. Still exist such types of wastes: industry, commerce, quarrying, construction, household bins and litter. Most domestic rubbish ends up in landfill sites which are ecologically unsound. Around two-third of landfill waste is organic, biodegradable matter. As it decomposes it produces methane - a powerful greenhouse gas.throw paper, garden rubbish, food, packaging, plastic bottles and trays, bags, glass and electronic goods. Much food end s up in the bin though it could be eaten by people animals, or turned into compost. Farmers and costumers end up vegetables and fruits discarding perfectly edible but blemished produce. Housewives having in their disposal huge supermarkets and more disposable income become profligate and buy more than they can carry and use. Packaging, bags, plastic bottle and trays cant be recycled by soil, they just pollute it. For nowadays people it is very hard to carry such waste into the bin. Plastic wastes can be recycled or being compressed into pellets and burnt instead of gas or coil using it as a renewable alternative to the fossil fuels. But many environmentalists say that, while a waste paper can be a useful alternative to fossil fuel, it is not safe to burn plastic, glass or metal as it can produces greenhouse gases and toxic reduces which can impact on humans health. So calling e-wastes cant be recycled. Whereas in the past we expected to keep electronic goods for years, calling up the repair man when they went wrong, they are now so cheap that we are happy to throw them out. In fact we have a little choice, because many goods are no longer designed to be repaired. E-wastes hard to recycle as they contain lead, lithium, nickel and cadmium which are extremely hard to extract and treat.

People have always polluted their surroundings. But throughout much of history, pollution was not a major problem. Most people lived in uncrowded rural areas and the pollutants (waste products) they produced were widely scattered. People had no pollution-causing machines or motor vehicles. The development of crowded industrial cities in the 1700's and 1800's made pollution a major problem. People and factories in these cities put huge amounts of pollutants into small areas. During the 1900s, urban areas continued to develop, and automobiles and other new inventions made pollution steadily worse. By the mid-1900s, pollution had affected the water in every major lake and river and the air over every major city in the United States and other industrial countries. Since the late 1960s, millions of people have become alarmed by the dangers of pollution, and scientific studies have improved our understanding of the problem. Large numbers of people are now working to reduce environmental pollution.

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