Washington is the capital of the USA
Washington is the capital of the USA.
This is the well known fact that Washington – is the capital of the USA.
There are government and Capitol there. But Washington is not very big sity, at
least not so bid as New York, without skyscrapers and big business part. At all
it is forbidden to built the buildings higher than Capitol. Yes, Washington is
not the business capital, but as well it can be as a cultural and tourist
capital of the USA.
Let us explore a little bit the history of this enigmatic city in order
the better understand the present and maybe make some hints to future. So… The
founder of Washington was of course George Washington. Black founder of
Centralia. George Washington was the son of a slave and a woman of English
decent. Soon after his birth, his father was sold to a new owner and his mother
took him to the home of the Cochranes, a white couple who later adopted George.
Anti-black laws, restrictions, and prejudice followed George and the Cochranes
through six moves and six different states from Virginia to Washington. Prior
to 1857, a law barring blacks from land ownership prevented George from owning
the property he found in Washington. The Cochranes filed for the land chosen by
George in order to protect it for him. In 1857 the law was repealed and the
Cochranes deeded back to George, the 640 acres he had lived on and developed
for the past five years. At last, receiving that title symbolized the
attainment of basic rights and in 1875 George filed his intention of laying out
a new town, originally named Centerville. In 1889 the town had a population of
1,000 and George had sold his 2,000th lot. In the Panic of 1893, Centralia was
hard hit, and George saved the town by purchasing properties gone to the
auction block and making wagon trips alone to Portland, Oregon for supplies,
and by lending considerable sums of money with no interest or terms for
The one very big part of present Washington is Georgetown. Georgetown
was officially formed in 1751 when the Maryland Assembly authorized the
foundation of a town bordering the Potomac River. It was named George Town in
honor of King George II, and very soon it prospered. In the beginning, tobacco
was the lifeblood of the fledging community, which soon expanded into a
profitable shipping community. Because of its access to the Potomac, Georgetown
soon had a commercial and industrial hub around the waterfront where flour
mills and wharves were constructed. As a result of its prosperity, Georgetown
gained a reputation as the fashionable quarter of the capital and was visited
by important people from all over the world.
And that famous river Potomac! It has seen enormous changes since the
arrival of Native Americans in the first century C.E. The Native American
settlements are now gone. Wars have been fought in along its shores; canals,
railroads and factories built beside it; and the Nation's Capital built on its banks.
Probably as a result of its popularity, Georgetown was annexed to
Washington City in 1871 by Congress. This little plot of land on the Potomac
had evolved from a dirt patch to a part of a nation's capital.
After the Civil War, large numbers of freed slaves migrated to
Georgetown. These African Americans flourished, becoming increasingly
self-reliant. However, all this changed when in 1890 the Colorado and Ohio
Canal was severely damaged by a Potomac River flood, and the Canal Company was
forced into bankruptcy. The area went into an economic depression, and in the
period after the First World War, the area gained a reputation as one of the
worst slums in Washington. However, this trend started to reverse itself, when
in the 1930s, New Deal government officials discovered Georgetown's beauty and
convenience. Georgetown once again became the hip enclave for the affluent and
Today, Georgetown still boasts many attractions. One of these is the
C&O Canal. The C & O Canal is scenic park area covered with camping
sites, and over 180 miles of biking and hiking trails. Another attraction is
the Old Stone House, which is the oldest intact house in the area. It was
originally built in 1765 for Christopher Lehman and now is owned by the National
Park Service, which opens it to the public.
Georgetown also sports a quiet, darker side. That side is evidenced in
its cemeteries. Designed by George de la Roche, Oak Hill Cemetery was a gift to
the town from philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran. Its Gothic chapel and
gates were the work of the artistic genius of James Renwick, the architect
responsible for the Smithsonian Castle and the Renwick Gallery. Among those
buried here are Abraham Lincoln's young son Willie and his secretary of war,
Edwin M. Stanton; Benjamin Harrison's secretary of state, James G. Blaine; and
John Howard Payne, author of “Home, Sweet Home.” The graves of both Confederate
and Union soldiers attest to Georgetown's divided loyalties during the Civil
War. The Van Ness Mausoleum, also part of the cemetery, was built in 1833 by
George Hadfield and eventually was moved to the cemetery in 1872. Another
graveyard in Georgetown is the Mount Zion Cemetery. It was established by the
Female Union Band Society, a benevolent association that provided free burial
for blacks. Even with its darkness, Georgetown is truly a beautiful place.
Washington D.C. was the first carefully planned capital in the world.
The capital of the U.S. was transferred from Philadelphia to Washington on Dec.
In 1978, a proposed constitutional amendment to give the District of
Columbia voting representation in the U.S. Congress was passed by Congress; the
proposal died in 1985, having failed to get the needed 28 states to approve it.
Now in the Washington is all the government and White house of course.
It exist a very curious rules abut the national symbol – American flag. No
record has been found for the earliest date the flag was flown over the east
and west fronts of the Capitol. Early engravings and lithographs in the office
of the Architect of the Capitol show flags flying on either side of the
original low dome above the corridors connecting the areas now known as
Statuary Hall and the Old Senate Chamber.
After the addition of the new House and Senate wings in the 1850s, even
before the great dome was completed in 1863, photographs of the period show
flags flying over each new wing and the central east and west fronts.
The custom of flying the flags 24 hours a day over the east and west
fronts was begun during World War I. This was done in response to requests
received from all over the country urging that the flag of the United States be
flown continuously over the public buildings in Washington, DC.
The east and west front flags, which are 8 x 12 feet, are replaced by
new ones when they become worn and unfit for further use. Prior to machine-made
flags, individuals were hired by the Congress to handsew these flags.
Presidential proclamations and laws authorize the display of the flag 24
hours a day at the following places:
Fort McHenry National Monument and Historic Shrine, Baltimore, Maryland
(Presidential Proclamation No. 2795, July 2, 1948).
Flag House Square, Albemarle and Pratt Streets, Baltimore Maryland
(Public Law 83-319, approved March 26, 1954).
United States Marine Corp Memorial (Iwo Jima), Arlington, Virginia
(Presidential Proclamation No. 3418, June 12, 1961).
On the Green of the Town of Lexington, Massachusetts (Public Law 89-335,
approved November 8, 1965).
The White House, Washington, DC. (Presidential Proclamation No. 4000,
September 4, 1970).
Washington Monument, Washington, DC. (Presidential Proclamation No.
4064, July 6, 1971, effective July 4, 1971).
Fifty flags of the United States are displayed at the Washington
Monument continuously. United States Customs Ports of Entry which are
continually open (Presidential Proclamation No. 413 1, May 5, 1972).
Grounds of the National Memorial Arch in Valley Forge State Park, Valley
Forge, Pennsylvania (Public Law 94-53, approved July 4,1975).
Many other places fly the flag at night as a patriotic gesture by
custom. All America are really proud of its capital and flag if on every corner
it fly the flag showing to everybody the power of the democracy.
Washington D.C.'s official tree is the Scarlet oak.
The Washington city is also famous by the famous people that were born
here. Among the are: Billie Burke, comedienne and actress best known for
playing Glenda the good witch in The Wizard of Oz, Duke Ellington, jazz
musician, Goldie Hawn, television and movie actress whose credits include Laugh
In and The First Wives Club, J. Edgar Hoover, former director of the F.B.I,
John Philip Sousa, composer known for his compositions for marching bands.
Culture and art are everywhere in this city. It is like it says “OK, you
don’t want to make a metropolitan area with me, I’m very thankful!” And really
who can boast with such a great verity of museums, art galleries and national
parks? Who, except Washington? From Art to Zebras, Washington DC is host to world
famous aquariums, archives, galleries, historical sites, libraries, museums and
parks that offer something that will appeal to even the most diverse interest.
Let we make just little excursion through this marvelous city. Please
look to the left, look to the right. Ladies and gentlemen! You are interested
in Arts? To your pleasure Art and Industries building. The Arts and Industries
building houses a re-creation of the 1881 Exposition for which it is named. The
original U.S. National Museum, this architectural wonder once held many
specimens (such as the Spirit of St. Louis) that are now on display in other
Smithsonian museums. Presently, the museum features exhibition spaces and
galleries that host historical artifacts and displays, along with a Discovery
theater for educational programs. Maybe on your childhood you’ve read a lot of
police stories, you should go to make a tour at FBI building! One of the most popular
attractions in D.C. is the one-hour tour of the J. Edgar Hoover F.B.I.
Building. The tour gives an inside look at how the F.B.I. works with exhibits
on famous cases, a look at the F.B.I.'s "ten most wanted fugitives,"
a visit to the F.B.I.'s scientific laboratory, and a firearms demonstration by
a Special Agent. Tours are free. Maybe you will be so lucky that can meet Edgar
Hoover there! And what about something special like for example National Museum
of Health and Medicine? Where someone can visit fascinating exhibits which
examine the nature and technology of medicine used to treat disease, from as
far back as the Civil War until the treatment of AIDS. Medical kits used by
Civil War doctors and displays of battlefield injuries bring medical history to
life. Learn about staying healthy in today's world and the challenges of modern
medicine through computer interactive tools. See 18th century microscopes
alongside electron microscopes. The museum's Human Developmental Anatomy Center
houses one of the largest embryological collections in the nation. Or The
National Postal Museum? Drawing on its vast postal history and philatelic
collection, the museum includes six major exhibition galleries touching on a
range of topics, from the earliest history of the post office to the art of
letter writing and the history of stamp collecting. An impressive atrium
features three suspended airmail planes and is one of five exhibit galleries.
The museum also has a library and research center, which includes a rare book reading
room, an audiovisual room, and a workroom for viewing items from the
collection. Educational programs include a
Discovery Center for children.
And if still the patriotic feelings play inside of you like champagne
you should visit National Archives & Records Administration. Preserving
"the nation's memory," the National Archives displays proudly every
day the U.S. Declaration of Independence, Constitution, and Bill of Rights. At
night they are lowered into a 50-ton vault to shield them from vandals and
And of course we can never forget about the other symbol, about the
living memorial, about The Kennedy Center!
The theater is represented at the ground-breaking ceremony by (among
others) Mell Ferrer, Audrey Hepburn, and Frederick Brisson.
The Kennedy Center, located on the banks of the Potomac River near the
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC, opened to the public in September 1971. But
its roots date back to 1958, when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed
bipartisan legislation creating a National Cultural Center. In honor of
Eisenhower's vision for such a facility, one of the Kennedy Center's theaters
was named for him.
The National Cultural Center Act included four basic components: it
authorized the Center's construction, spelled out an artistic mandate to
present a wide variety of both classical and contemporary performances,
specified an educational mission for the Center, and stated that the Center was
to be an independent facility, self-sustaining and privately funded. As a result
of this last stipulation, a mammoth fundraising campaign began immediately
following the Act's passage into law.
President John F. Kennedy was a lifelong supporter and advocate of the
arts, and frequently steered the public discourse toward what he called
"our contribution to the human spirit." Kennedy took the lead in
raising funds for the new National Cultural Center, holding special White House
luncheons and receptions, appointing his wife and Mrs. Eisenhower as honorary
co-chairwomen, and in other ways placing the prestige of his office firmly
behind the endeavor. [The John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library and Museum, Boston,
President Kennedy also attracted to the project the man who would become
the Center's guiding light for nearly three decades. By the time Kennedy
appointed him as chairman of the Center in 1961, Roger L. Stevens had already
achieved spectacular success in real estate (negotiating the sale of the Empire
State Building in 1951), politics, fundraising, and the arts; as a theatrical
producer, he had brought West Side Story, A Man for All Seasons, and Bus Stop
to the stage. Over the next 30 years, Stevens would oversee the Center's
construction, then would shepherd it to prominence as a crucible for the best
in music, dance, and theater.
Signing of the John F. Kennedy Center Act by President Johnson on
January 23, 1964
Two months after President Kennedy's assassination in November 1963,
Congress designated the National Cultural Center as a "living
memorial" to Kennedy, and authorized $23 million to help build what was
now known as the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Fundraising
continued at a swift pace--with much help coming from the Friends of the
Kennedy Center volunteers, who fanned out across the nation to attract private
support [View profiles of Friends/Volunteers Founding members]--and nations
around the world began donating funds, building materials, and artworks to
assist in the project's completion. In December 1965, President Lyndon Johnson
turned the first shovelful of earth at the Center's construction site, using
the same gold-plated spade that had been used in the groundbreaking ceremonies
for the Lincoln Memorial in 1914 and the Jefferson Memorial in 1938.
From its very beginnings, the Kennedy Center has represented a unique
public/private partnership. Because the Center is the nation's living memorial
to President Kennedy, it receives federal funding each year to pay for
maintenance and operation of the building, a federal facility. However, the Center's
artistic programs and education and outreach initiatives are paid for almost
entirely through ticket sales and gifts from individuals, corporations, and
The Center made its public debut September 8, 1971, with a gala opening
performance featuring the world premiere of a Requiem mass honoring President
Kennedy, commissioned from legendary composer and conductor Leonard Bernstein.
[View the opening night's program for Mass.] The occasion enabled Washington to
begin earning a reputation as a cultural hub as well as a political one; as The
New York Times wrote in a front-page article the next morning, "The
capital of this nation finally strode into the cultural age tonight with the
spectacular opening of the $70 million [Kennedy Center]...a gigantic marble
temple to music, dance, and drama on the Potomac's edge." [Read the
dedication statements by the original honorary chairmen.]
Under Roger Stevens' continued direction, the Kennedy Center presented
season after season of the finest and most exciting in the performing arts: new
plays by Tennessee Williams, Arthur Miller, and Tom Stoppard; new ballets by
Antony Tudor, Agnes DeMille, and Jerome Robbins; new scores by Aaron Copland,
Dmitri Shostakovich, and John Cage. The Center co-produced musicals including
Annie and Pippin in its early years, and later co-produced the American
premiere of Les Miserables and co-commissioned the preeminent American opera of
recent times, John Adams' Nixon in China. Stevens also initiated the American National
Theater (ANT) company, which pushed the boundaries of traditional drama during
a brief and controversial, but influential reign during the mid-1980s.
The Center also enabled Washington to become an international stage,
hosting the American debuts of the Bolshoi Opera and the Ballet Nacional de
Cuba, as well as the first-ever U.S. performances by Italy's legendary La Scala
opera company. [See our Performance Highlights for a more thorough review of
the Center's artistic achievements.]
Ralph P. Davidson replaced Stevens as Kennedy Center Chairman in 1988,
and helped secure the ongoing Japanese endowment that brings that nation's arts
to Washington each year. (Another of Japan's gifts to the Center, the Terrace
Theater, had opened in 1979.) James D. Wolfensohn was elected the Center's
third Chairman in 1990; under the leadership of Wolfensohn and President
Lawrence J. Wilker, the Center solidified its fundraising, strengthened its
relations with Congress, and extended the nationwide reach of its education
programs to serve millions of young people in every state. The Center renewed
its commitment to the creation of new works, and became a national leader in
arts education and community outreach as well as a friendlier and more
accessible home for the arts in Washington. [The Kennedy Center 25th
Anniversary Gala, April 1996]
James A. Johnson, chairman of the board and chief executive officer at
Fannie Mae, began his tenure as the Kennedy Center's fourth Chairman in May
1996. He inherits a thriving national treasure, one that is guided and inspired
by the vision of its namesake. "I am certain that after the dust of
centuries has passed over our cities," President Kennedy once said,
"we, too, will be remembered not for our victories or defeats in battle or
in politics, but for our contribution to the human spirit." [Concert Hall
Renovation, November 1997]
If you are already tired of all that presidents and chairmen let we now
explore some wild places of American capital. What will you say about Harpers
Ferry National Historical Park?
Throughout its history, Harpers Ferry has been the backdrop for
remarkable and unparalleled events. Here, in one setting, several themes in the
American story converge: Native Americans, industry and transportation,
African-Americans, John Brown, the Civil War, and the natural environment.
Harpers Ferry became part of the National Park System in 1944. The park covers
over 2,300 acres.
Or National Park Trust. The private land conservancy dedicated
exclusively to America's Parklands, saving nationally significant wildlife,
scenic wonders, and historic monuments.
So now it is time to speak a little bit about politics. About the man
who maintain all the businesses and links in this capital. We should say some
words about the Mayor.
Mayor Anthony A. Williams took office on January 2, 1999, and identified
his vision and a plan of action for Washington, DC. Mayor Williams asks the
people of DC to come together and work together to improve the quality of life
in the District for both its citizens and the local business community.
His political strategy and vision for life at the Washington can be
assumed as following:
The vision for the District is a simple vision, but one that is shared
by citizens from Anacostia to Adams Morgan: our citizens deserve the best city
in America. That means:
Strong schools, safe streets, clean communities, affordable housing, and
Access for all people to health care where our senior citizens and
children at risk receive quality services;
A wealth of social and cultural growth opportunities;
Vibrant economies downtown and in the neighborhoods;
True inclusion, a seat at the table for all;
Taking advantage of the District's truly unique assets — tourism that is
second to none, unique partnerships with federal agencies, a strong regional
economy that lacks only a vital urban center; and
Empowering men, women, and children of all communities to solve problems
together. Coming together, working together, succeeding together.
Everybody agree that this is a very strong program and you can bet that
Washington life will flourish and blossom.
So we make a little trip now through the capital of the USA and we
really see that this city is absolutely deserves the name of one of the world’s
powerful capitals. Because the power of any capital isn’t tanks and weapons and
not also the quantity of millionaires for one square kilometer. The power is
the pride of the city of the citizens of the principles and culture. Washington
is a big example of this theory.
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