Tourism provides one of the
possibilities to know more about other countries. Now people travel much more
than they ever used to. Many people travel in their own country and millions of
them travel abroad.
Russia, the largest country in the
world, has always attracted visitors from neighbouring and distant countries.
Russia is proud of its architecture, painting, and music. A lot of tourists
come to our country to see its beauty and to admire its cultural achievements.
As a rule they want to visit Moscow, St. Petersburg and the towns of the
Russia is located in the eastern
part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia. It boarders on thirteen
countries. Russia is washed by twelve seas and three oceans. Russia is
connected with the Atlantic Ocean through the Baltic Sea in the west and the
Black Sea in the south. The Arctic Ocean and its seas including the White,
Barents, Kara, Laptev, East-Siberian Seas wash Russia in the north. The Pacific
Ocean and its seas the Bering, Okhotsk, and Japanese Seas are in the east of
The Russian Plain, the Ural
Mountains, the West Siberian Plain, the Central Siberian Plateau, and the Far
East are the main areas of Russia The Russian Plain occupies the European part
of Russia. The Ural Mountains separate Europe from Asia. The West Siberian
Plain links with the Central Siberian Plateau. The Far East of Russia comprises
the Kamchatka and Chukchi peninsulas and the Kuril and Sakhalin islands.
Russia's greatest rivers are the Don
and Volga in its European part, and the Ob and Yenisey in West Siberia. The Ob
is the longest river in Russia, but the Volga is the most important one. Many
Russian towns are located along the Volga river.
Russia is densely populated, but its
population is unequally distributed. People prefer to live in the European part
of the country. Siberia is thinly inhabited. There are more than sixty
nationalities and ethnic groups in Russia. Russia is an urban country - the
majority of the Russian citizens live in cities. As Russia occupies vast
territories there are various climatic zones in the country. Continental
climate, with cold winters and warm summers prevails on the territory of
Russia is rich in mineral deposits
such as coal, oil, and natural gas, as well as of iron ore, copper, zinc, lead,
nickel, aluminium, and tin. Natural resources determine the development of the
Russian economy. Russia's heavy industries produce much of the nation's steel
and most of its heavy machinery.
The Russian Federation was founded
in 1991. The Constitution was adopted in 1993. Russia is a Presidential
Republic. It is headed by the President. The President is commander-in-chief of
the armed forces, he makes treaties, enforces laws, appoints the Prime Minister,
cabinet members, and key judges.
The Russian government consists of
three branches: the legislative, the executive and the judicial. The power is
distributed in such a way that each branch checks and balances the others. The
legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly. It consists of the
Federation Council (upper house) and the State Duma (lower house). The members
of the State Duma are elected by popular vote for a four-year period. The
Federation Council is not elected. It is formed of the heads of the regions.
Each Chamber is headed by the Chairman. Legislature is initiated in the State
Duma. But to become a law a bill must be approved by the Lower and Upper Houses
and signed by the President. The executive power belongs to the Government. The
judicial branch is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court,
and regional courts.
The national flag of the Russian
Federation is three coloured: white, blue and red. The symbol of the country is
a two-headed eagle. Russia's hymn was created by Alexandrov and Mikhalkov.
According to the Chronicle the
history of Early Russia began in the year 862. That year Rurik became the first
Russian prince having merged Novgorod and Kiev. Rurik's successor Prince Oleg
did his best to strengthen and expand the nascent state. In 988 Prince
Vladimir, the Red Sun, baptised Russia. After the adoption of Christianity
churches and monasteries sprang up in the country. The beautiful cathedrals and
churches of Early Russia still stand in their glory. From the 10-th to the
12-th centuries Russia was a progressive Christian state. With the development
of feudalism the Russian state disintegrated into separate principalities. The
princes quarrelled among themselves and waged feudal wars. The hordes of armed nomads
conquered the Russian land. The yoke lasted till 1380. Russia's strength was
diminishing. Lands on the Black sea coast and along the Volga river were lost.
The campaign to liberate Russia was headed by Moscow. For the first time Moscow
was mentioned by the chroniclers in 1147. At that time Russian lands began to
unite round Moscow, which led to the establishment of a strong centralised
During its long history Moscow was
exposed to several invasions. In 1237 it fell under the power of the Golden Horde.
Moscow began to rise in the 14-th century. Under Ivan III the Great, in the
mid-fifteenth century, Moscow became the principal city of the state of
Muscovy. During the Time of Troubles Moscow was occupied by the Polish invaders
but they were defeated by the popular levy headed by Minin and Pozharsky. The
army of Napoleon entered Moscow on September 15, 1812. The emperor was
disappointed that no Russian bowed forward, offering him the city keys.
Napoleon settled in the Kremlin. The city was set ablaze. Fires spread to the
edge of the Kremlin. Napoleon tried to open peace talks. But Alexander I, who
was in St. Petersburg, did not wish to discuss peace. Napoleon left Moscow. His
warriors were routed by the Russian troops. In 1941 the German armies were defeated
not far from Moscow.
Nowadays Moscow is the capital of
Russia. It is the largest city of the country. Moscow lies in the valley of the
Moskva river. Moscow is a political, administrative, economic, industrial,
educational and cultural centre of the Russian Federation. A lot of educational
institutions are located here.
There are many places of interest in
Moscow. There are a lot of historical monuments, museums, art galleries and
theatres in the city. The Historical Museum, the State Pushkin Museum of Fine
Arts, the State Tretyakov Gallery are known all over the world. The Bolshoy,
Mali and Art theatres are famous too.
The Kremlin - the oldest historical
and architectural centre - is the heart of Moscow. At first the Kremlin was a
wooden fort. Under Dmitry Donskoy the Kremlin was built of white stone.
Redbrick walls and towers replaced the walls of white stone at the end of the
15th century. The most ancient tower is the Secret one. It was built in 1485.
The Saviour Tower with its Kremlin chimes is the symbol of Russia. The chiming
clock was established in 1625. Ivan III invited Italian architects to construct
the Kremlin cathedrals. In 1547 Ivan the Terrible was the first Russian tsar to
be crowned in the five-domed Assumption Cathedral. From 1721 the coronations of
all Russian Emperors were held there. The Archangel Cathedral was the burial
place of the Russian Princes and Tsars. Grand Prince Ivan Kalita was the first
to be buried here. Altogether there are 53 royal tombs there. The Annunciation
Cathedral is the main Russian Cathedral. It is famous for the icons created by
Andrew Rublev and his apprentices. Not far from the Assumption Cathedral we can
see the Faceted Palace. It is the oldest secular building in Moscow. All
coronation feasts were held here. Ivan the Great Bell Tower, the construction
of the 16th century, rises in the centre of the Kremlin. On the stone pedestal
at the foot of the Bell Tower stands the Tsar-Bell, the largest bell in the
world. The bell was cast for the Assumption Belfry. It was damaged during the
great fire of Moscow in 1737. In 1836 it was put on the pedestal. Not far from
it is the Tsar-Cannon. Senate Square is located between the Senate and the
Arsenal. The Grand Kremlin Palace is situated not far from Senate Square. The
Russian Emperors usually stayed in the palace when they came to Moscow. It was
designed by the architect K. A. Ton in 1840. The Armoury Chamber is the famous
museum where military trophies, Tsar's regalia and church ceremonial items are
displayed. The Kremlin workshop was made a museum of military glory after the
battle of Poltava in 1709 by Peter Гs order.
All the ceremonies are held in Red
Square. At its one end we can see St. Basil's Cathedral the Blessed. It was
built in the mid-16 century for Tsar Ivan IV to commemorate the victory over
the Golden Horde. Lobnoye Mesto, a lifted railed platform of white stone, is
situated to the left of St. Basil's Cathedral. Built in the 16-th century it
was the place from which all Tsar's edicts were announced. Lenin's Mausoleum,
designed by A. Shchusev in 1924, is located in Red Square. Until recently it
was a monument of great significance. The Historical Museum locks the other end
of Red Square. Next to it one can see the reconstructed Iverskay Chapel and the
Resurrection gates. Alexander Gardens, laid out at the beginning of the 19-th
century, are located beneath the Kremlin walls. The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
is near the entrance to the Gardens. It is the major memorial to the warriors
of the Great Patriotic War.
St. Petersburg is the second
Russia's largest city. St. Petersburg, one of the most beautiful cities of
Europe, has played an important role in Russian history. It was founded by
Peter I in 1703. St. Petersburg is situated on the Neva river. The city once
spread across nearly 100 islands. Canals and natural channels make St.
Petersburg a city of waterways and bridges. For two centuries St. Petersburg
was the capital of the Russian Empire. After the revolutions of 1917, which
took place in St. Petersburg it was renamed into Leningrad. During World War II
the city was besieged and fiercely defended. Today the city is an important
industrial centre and the nation's largest seaport. In 1991 St. Petersburg got
its original name back.
Central St. Petersburg is divided by
the Neva River into four parts: the Admiralty Side, Vasilyevsky Island, the
Petrograd Side, and the Vyborg Side. The Admiralty Side is rich in museums,
monuments, historical buildings and squares. From the Admiralty, the heart of
Peter's city, an avenue known as Nevsky Prospect runs eastward. There are a lot
of palaces, churches, stores, cafes, and theatres there.
St. Petersburg is proud of its rich
architecture that includes the cathedral of the Peter-Paul Fortress, the Summer
Palace, the Winter Palace, the Smolny Convent, the Kazan and St. Isaac's
cathedrals, the Smolny Institute, the new Admiralty, and the Senate. There are
many important educational and scientific research centres in St. Petersburg.
Among these are: the University of Saint Petersburg, the Academy of Fine Arts,
the Institute of Mines, and the Military Medical Academy.
St. Petersburg is a city of culture.
There are a lot of theatres and concert halls there. The Mariinsky Theatre has
long enjoyed an international reputation. Famous museums include the State
Russian Museum, which specialises in Russian painting, and the Hermitage with a
rich collection of western European painting. In 1764 the Hermitage was
established by Catherine II. It was opened to the public in 1852. In St. Petersburg
there are many stadiums and other outdoor recreation facilities provided by the
Kirov Park, the Zoo, the botanical gardens, and numerous other parks and
The "Golden Ring" is a
very popular tourist route. It includes towns and villages in the north-eastern
part of the former State of Muscovy. It is rich in historical and architectural
monuments. Among the most notable towns of the "Golden Ring" route
are Pereslavl-Zalessky, the birthplace of the Russian Prince Alexander Nevsky;
Rostov Veliky, the finest and largest town of Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky's
principality; Borisoglebsky, the Fortress-Monastery, founded for the protection
of the travellers; Uglich, the tragic stage of Tsarevich Dmitry death;
Kostroma, known for its elaborate churches and cathedrals; Yaroslavl, Vladimir,
Suzdal, and others. All these towns played a very important role in the making
of the state of Russia.
The history of Vladimir dates back
to the year 1108 when it was founded by Vladimir Monomakh. Prince Andrew
Bogolyubsky moved his capital from Kiev to Vladimir in 1157. In 1160 he invited
craftsmen to build the Assumption Cathedral. By the 15-th century the city
declined. Now Vladimir is famous for its architecture of early Russia.
Suzdal was the capital city of Yury
Dolgoruky's Rostov-Suzdal Principality. After the fall of Kiev Suzdal became a
religious, political and economic centre of medieval Russia. Many of its
monasteries and convents are associated with the banished princes and nobility.
Numerous churches and monasteries were built in Suzdal during the reign of
Andrew Bogolyubsky. In the 13-th and 14-th centuries Suzdal-Vladimir
I am sure that everything that our
foreign guests will see in Russia they will never be able to forget.
- How long are the Urals?
- The Urals stretch for about 2,100
km from north to south.
- What is the highest peak of the
- The highest peak, Mount Narodnaya,
reaches 1,895 m, and other maintain tops range from 900 to 1,500 m.
- Is Moscow your native city?
- Yes, it is. I was born in Moscow.
- Have you recently visited any
museums or theatres?
- Recently I have been to the State
Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts to enjoy the Impressionists' works of art and the
Picasso. As for the theatre, the performance that impressed me greatly was
"Tsar Fyodor Ioanovich" at the Mali Theatre. This classical play was
- What monuments would you recommend
your foreign guests to see?
- ~ First of all they should visit
Red Square. There they will see the monuments connected with the history of
Russia. In Red Square they will see a monument to Minin and Pozharsky. It was
erected in 1818 to commemorate their victory over the Polish invaders in 1612.
In front of the Historical museum they will see a monument to Marshal Zhukov.
Under his leadership the Soviet Union won World War II. The monument was
erected in May 1995 to mark the 50th anniversary of the victory over Fascist
Germany. Then walking up Tverskaya Street their attention can be attracted by
the monument to Yury Dolgoruky, the founder of Moscow. In Pushkin Square they
will see the monument to Alexander Pushkin, the great Russian poet. In
Mayakovskaya Square there is a monument to Vladimir Mayakovsky, the Russian
poet of the 20-th century. If our guests want to see the dismantled monuments
to the political leaders of the previous epoch I shall take them to the square
attached to the Central House of Painters.
подготовки данной работы были использованы материалы с сайта http://nota.triwe.net