Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism
Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907
and the emergence of trade unionism
Russia Empire in the XX Century entered into a complex
economic and political environment. Economic recovery late XIX century gave way
to a prolonged economic crisis of 1900-1903. The defeat of the autocracy in the
war with Japan had further aggravated the situation in the country. Grodno
province experiencing the same negative processes, but with greater depth.
The working class of Grodno province was the most numerous
among all 5 of Belarusian provinces. At the 417 enterprises were under the
supervision of factory inspection, were employed 15496 workers [9, s.651]. Edge
of the proletariat, as well as the entire working class of Russia, subjected to
ruthless exploitation, was politically no rights. There are many enterprises
were closed and switched to a shorter working day during the economic crisis.
This led to an increase in unemployment, while wages have
declined by more than half. All this contributed to the rise of the labor
Thus, in the period 1901-1904 he was a revolutionary
situation. in the struggle to improve the economic situation of the workers
participated in 9 cities and towns in Grodno Region: Grodno, Volkovysk, Slonim,
Smorgon, Oshmyan, Svisloch, Skidel, Lakes. It was organized 64 strikes, and the
total number of strikers more than 5 thousand people.
Political struggle in the same period reached 11 cities and
towns. Political strikes were held in Grodno (3), Smorgon (3), Slonim (2),
Vaukavysk, Ashmyany, Ruzhany, Indura (one). Total province took place on 12
strikes, 11 demonstrations and 98 gatherings and demonstrations. The number of
strikers has reached 11.5 thousand workers, demonstrators - 4,2 thousand,
participants gatherings and demonstrations - 15,1 thousand
Almost workers Grodno province were in the vanguard of the
liberation movement in Belarus [7, l.65-69, 76, 1, p.32].
The prologue of the revolution were the events of 9 January
1905. Results of "Bloody Sunday" in St. Petersburg stirred up the
whole of Russia. The strikes, street demonstrations and rallies of protest swept
across the country. The Belarusian provinces in January of 20 thousand workers
were on strike (in Grodno - 1200). In Grodno, Bialystok, Brest-Litovsk, pots,
Skidel Big Berestovitsa, Volkovysk, Slonim, and other cities and towns province
stopped the factories, shops, closed shops, shops.
For example, the strike of solidarity with the St. Petersburg
workers in the town of Grodno County Krynki 17-19 January 1905 it was prepared
by the organization of the Social Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and
Lithuania and the Social-Democratic Committee of the Bund. Strikers all 46
tanneries town. Before working disarmed all the local authorities, captured by
administrative agencies, the police broke up and destroyed all the affairs of
the parish councils and portraits of the king in all institutions, cut down
telephone poles through Volkovysk, Sokolki, Bialystok, Grodno. Many of the
strikers were armed with revolvers. Demonstrators (more than 2 thousand people)
marched through the town singing revolutionary songs and slogans: "Down
with the autocracy government!", "Long live the people's
revolution," "Give us 8-hour working day". The rebels drove the
whole day all borough. By order of the Governor in Krynki were introduced
troops, who with great difficulty, suppressed the action of the workers [6,
l.11-12; 3, s.459].
The summer and during the October All-Russia political strike
in the Grodno province recorded 39 of the workers and peasants. In response to
a mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin "were the soldiers of individual parts
of Grodno and Brest-Litovsk garrisons. Under the pressure of revolutionary
events of the autocracy government was forced to make some concessions.
Published October 17, 1905 royal manifesto proclaimed the freedom of speech,
assembly, and association and the inviolability of person, the convening of the
Duma with legislative powers. For the most part recorded in the manifest of the
rights and freedoms were declarative in nature and by the autocracy government
was an attempt to divert the workers from revolutionary action.
For the workers the same period of the beginning of the
revolution became the stage of their political "maturity" and the
tsar's manifesto on Oct. 17, 1905 - prompted the establishment of organizations
that defend their rights and interests - trade unions.
According to reports, in Prinemanskogo region already in 1898
appeared union tanners. It unites workers Bialystok and Krynok and tanners
Smorgon and Oshmyan (located at that time within the province of Vilna).
Predecessors of the trade unions is different factory, shop assembly,
commissions, strike fund. Grodno province that had emerged in the XIX-XX
centuries, various social welfare and professional societies. For example,
Bialystok professional society welfare craft workers emerged in the late XIX
century and numbered in its ranks about 300 people [5, l.225]. These societies
not only have provided material assistance to the sick and temporarily not
working members of society, but also put forward requirements on employers to
improve working conditions, higher wages.
The autumn for the next wave of revolutionary upsurge, in
Belarus and Grodno province did the first mass labor organizations, who have
organized the workers. One of the first in the Grodno region, in October 1905
during the October general strike, political organization formed the All-Russia
Union Railway Station Vaŭkavysk-central [4, l.37, 129 ob., 8, p.16].
The growing revolutionary movement in the country raised the
question of armed insurrection. It began in Moscow on December 9, 1905. But in
spite of the heroism and tenacity of the workers by 18 December was brutally
suppressed. In Belarus, the Bolsheviks failed to organize an armed uprising.
But political strikes and demonstrations were held in many Belarusian towns and
Central Bureau of the All-Russia railway union and trade
union committees of 29 railways have announced a December 7, 1905 All-Russia
strike. One of the first responded to this call the railway station Vaŭkavysk-Central.
It was set up a strike committee, headed by the engineer of Communications,
Chief of the 3rd section of service road Polesskii railways, a member of the
All-Russia Union of Railwaymen Yu Yu Vishnevsky At many key points of the
railway has established local committees and offices. During the events of
December, they seized the administrative power in some places the line and made
orders in addition to the local railway authorities. Were suspended commercial
office, which has not promulgated or shipment. All material values at the
station guarded clothes watchmen appointed by the Committee. At some stations
Polessian railroad trains were delayed, obstructed the administration of postal
Committees and offices spread among the workers and
employees, the public anti-government leaflets, flyers, organizing rallies and
strikes to demand from the Public Roads Administration an 8-hour workday,
higher wages, have called for the struggle to overthrow the existing social
The strike lasted until December 14, 1905. She was crushed by
military force. December 20 leadership of the strike committee, as well as
active participants in the strike: Mogul'skii, Krushevsky, Tikhonov,
Romanovsky, shovels, Sidorsky, Tarchevsky and Shatinsky were arrested and
brought to trial [9, s.390-391, 4, l.33, 288].
In Grodno, under the leadership of the Vilnius Group RSDLP,
the Military Revolutionary Committee, the organization of the General Jewish
Labor Union Bund from 12 to 16 December 1905 there was a city-wide political
strike. At the same time in the city of 800 miners were on strike, all educational
institutions. Strikes, demonstrations were held in Brest-Litovsk, Bialystok,
villages Opole, Lyadovichi, youngest Kobrin district and other locations [1,
p.34, 9, s.414-416 ,467-469].
In the span of the strike movement Grodno region was in the vanguard
of Belarusian provinces. Of the 417 plants that were under the supervision of
factory inspection, 270 were covered by the strikes, which involved 79.9 per
cent of the workers. It was the highest among Belarusian provinces. In 1905, in
Grodno province occurred on 30 strikes, 52 demonstrations, 126 rallies and
demonstrations [9, s.651; 1, p.30-34].
After the defeat of the December armed uprising in Moscow
under the pressure of imperial repression revolution receded. But in the last
year of a revolutionary strike movement in Grodno region was covered by 28
companies. Grodno April 8 marked strikes workshops Kaufaksa J., E. Stein, G.
Velina, bakeries Karlen. April 9 was a strike of workers tailor shop I. Lapidus
(7 workers). But the performances are mostly had an economic focus.
Recent political strikes were held in the Grodno region to
celebrate the May 1, 1907 They were organized in Zelve, Iŭie, Lida,
Smorgon, Grodno. November 24 took strike of workers provincial printing.
December 4 supported them working seven private printers. December 9 tobacco
factory workers went on strike Shereshevsky (125 people), ironworks Fajngold
(30), syrup plant (8 people), a candy factory (30 people), four printers (111
people), "Neman" bookbinding factory (111) 17, sartorius (65), and
other strikes were organized to express sympathy to the members of the Social
Democratic faction in the State Duma of the 2-nd convocation, on trial [2, p.74].
Despite the large scale strikes of workers, the revolution
was defeated. However, active participation in the revolution of workers
acquire the Grodno region contributed their expertise to fight for their rights
and freedom, solidarity with workers in other regions of the empire Russia,
working with all sectors of society, organizations and parties.