Темы по англ.яз. 9 класс

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Темы по англ.яз. 9 класс

Great Britain

“Great Britain” has several different names. Some people say “Britain”, or “the United Kingdom”, or just “UK”. There are four different countries in the United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.

Altogether more than 56 million people live in Britain, many of them in big industrial cities like London, Liverpool and Manchester, but people are often surprised by how much of Britain is open country, with lonely hills and woods, quiet rivers, lakes and farmlands.

Many people think that the weather is cold and wet in Britain all the year round. But it isn’t! True, it sometimes rains and even snows for days and days, but every year there are weeks of beautiful sunny weather then the British take off their sweaters and go out to sunbathe.

Britain is only a small country, but every part is different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and sunny. Most farmers keep sheep, and they’re many small factories, which make fine sweaters from their wool. In some parts of Scotland, there are very few people. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of salmon. But Glasgow and Edinburgh are both large and busy, with all that is good (and bad) in modern cities.

Northern Ireland has it problems, but it has beauty, too. In the warm, wet climate, the grass grows a brilliant green, and much of the land is farming country. Belfast is a large industrial city with many fine buildings and big port from which ships come and go to Scotland and England. But Belfast has had many difficulty years, and it is not the busy place it once was.

A hundred years ago the north of England was industrial heart of the country. From the factories came cloth, wool, machines, engines and china. The old factories came have gone now and the workers have to look for jobs in the new “high-tech” industries. Outside the towns, much of this part of England is beautiful countryside, with green hills, lakes and sandy beaches. Fishing is still a big industry in the North East, and every night (except Sunday) the fishing boats go out to sea.

The centre of England (the “Midlands”) is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge cities of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of the car industry. But everyone, even in the heart of the modern city, there are buildings from older Britain – cathedrals, castles, and houses built hundred years ago.

Wales is a special place, a country of high mountains and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry, too, with many factories and coal mines.

The west of England is rich farming country. It produces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples, which go to make cider, a popular drink. In the villages, country people often grow their own fruit, vegetables and flowers.

Some areas of Britain are very crowded. Around Manchester, in north west England, and Glasgow, in Scotland, are large city areas of houses and factories. The south east of England, too, has many towns and cities, including London, the giant capital. But quiet near London there are still some quiet villages and peaceful farms.

Britain is an island, of course, and you are never far from the sea. Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and rocky, with small, sandy beaches, and romantic old harbours. Other parts are industrial. The East Coast of Scotland, for example, is busy with oil rings and fishing boats. The most popular beaches are near the many holiday towns on the south coast, where the weather is usually warmer. It is here that Londoners come to relax.


London has been a capital city for nearly a thousand years, and many of its ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of these are the Tower of London (where the Crown Jewels are kept), Westminster Abbey and St. Pals Cathedral, but most visitors also want to see the House of Parliament, Buckingham Palace and the many magnificent museums.

Once, London was a small Roman town on the north bank of the Thames, but slowly it grew into one of the world’s major cities with more than seven million people. Fewer people live in the centre now, but the suburbs are still growing.

Places now in the heart of London once stood in the middle of green fields. Many small villages, like Hampstead, Chelsea and Mayfair, became part of London, but they still keep some of their old atmosphere. Different areas of London seem like different cities. The West End is a rich man’s world of shops, offices and theatres. The old port area is now called “Docklands”. The great ships have gone, and the area is changing very fast. There are huge new office buildings, and thousands of new flats and houses.

Other parts of London are changing, too. Some of the poor areas have become fashionable, and people with money are moving into them.

A hundred years ago, the river was crowded by ships, leaving for Java and Japan, New Zealand and New York, but now people travel by air, and London’s main airport, Heathrow, is one of the busiest in the world.

Like all big cities, London has streets and concrete buildings, but it also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and grass. Sit on the grass (you’re allowed to!) in the middle of Hyde Park or Kensington Gardens, and you will think that you’re in the country, miles away.

Many people live outside the centre of London in the suburbs, and they travel to work, in the shops and offices by train, bus or underground. The trains are full – and expensive – and the roads are crowded with cars, but every day a million people come from far out of London, even from the coast, and spend up to four hours travelling every day.

Most people work from 9 am to 5 p.m. From 8 till 10 every morning, and 4.30 to 6.30 every evening, the trains are crowded with people, and after the morning “rush hour” the shoppers come.

By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, the offices are quiet and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where Londoners come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here, several concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas, and in nearby Soho the pubs, restaurants and nightclubs are busy half the night.

Many people think that London is all grey but in fact red id the London’s favourite colour. The buses are red, the letterboxes are red and the mail vans are all bright, bright red. London is at its best when people are celebrating. Then the flags, the soldiers’ uniforms the cheering crowds and the carriages and horses all sparkle in the sunshine – if it’s not raining, of course!

Travelling by train.

Modern life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest way of travelling is by plane. But many people make their choice on travelling by train as with a train you have speed, comfort and pleasure combined. Travelling by train is of course slower than by air but it also has its advantages.

If you are going to travel by train you’d better book seats beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by train. There are some reasons why people choose railroad. Train is the cheap means of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to think of your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is, you only have to go to a railway station. There you will see hundreds of people hurrying to catch a train. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the booking-office trying to buy a ticket.

Modern trains have very comfortable seats in all passenger cars, and there are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make even the longest journey enjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-class and third-class sleepers in a separate compartment. If you are early before the train starts you can leave your suit-cases in the compartment and walk up and down the platform. Some people forget when and from which platform and track their train will be off. They can always ask for the track, platform and train numbers at the railroad station information bureau and also get information about next trains and their schedules. There are express, slow and long-distance trains. If you want to go somewhere and get there as quickly as possible you’d better know that express trains only stop at the largest stations while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to far countries only by a long-distance train.

Once you are in your compartment you have to ask the guide to bring in the bedding. There are usually two lower and two upper berths in a third-class sleeper compartment. Some people like to occupy upper berths because it is more convenient and exciting to travel. During your way on the train you can read newspapers, books, look out of the window, drink the tea, communicate with your neighbours or sleep. I prefer to look out of the window, because you can see the country you are passing through, and not only the clouds as when you are flying. You can have something to eat at the stations when the train makes stops.

Though we all seem to agree that the future belongs to air transport, the railroads today still carry a lot of passengers and goods.

Travelling by Air.


Modern life is impossible without travelling. Of course the fastest way of travelling is by plane. Many people prefer travelling by air as it is the most convenient, comfortable and quickest means of travelling. Travelling by plane has also its advantages and disadvantages.

If you are going to travel by air you’d better buy tickets beforehand because many people are fond of travelling by plane. There are some reasons why people choose that means of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to think of your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is, you only have to go to an airport. There you will see hundreds of people hurrying to catch a plane. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the booking office trying to buy a ticket.

Modern planes have very comfortable seats in all cabins, and there are first class, business and economy class cabins. Inside the cabin the air is always fresh and warm. Before the plane takes off the stewardess helps everyone get comfortable in the seats and wishes them a pleasant trip. She also gives all the information about the flight, the speed and the altitude. During the flight you can have something to drink and to eat. You can read newspapers and magazines or simply look out of the pothole. But you will sea nothing outside but the clouds. You can buy first-class, second-class and third class. You must be in time for your flight because you must have time to pass custom and passport controls and check in. Before boarding the plane the passenger must register at the airport. While registering he is required to have his luggage weighed. If the luggage weighs more than 20 kilograms you have to pay extra.  Sometimes people forget the time and the number of the flight. They can always ask for that at the airport’s information bureau and also get information about next flights and their timetables.

Sometimes passengers don’t feel as if they are walking on good solid ground when on board the plane. They can get airsick and then travelling by air becomes a real torture for them.

Nowadays travelling by air is one of the dangerous means of travelling. There are a lot of air crashes and many people die in them. And I think people prefer safety to comfort on board a ship.

Though we all seem to agree that the future belongs to air transport, other means of travelling are still popular today.


Holiday is a day set apart for religious observance or for the commemoration of some extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for some other public occasion.

National holidays are days set aside by official government proclamation to celebrate different occasions.

The U.S. has no national holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks, schools, or other public institutions and most places of business are closed.

Memorial Day is a legal holiday, observed annually on the last Monday in May in most of the United States, It honours the nation's armed services killed in wartime. The holiday, originally called Decoration Day, is traditionally marked by parades, memorial speeches and ceremonies, and the decoration of graves with flowers and flags. Memorial Day was first observed on May 30, 1868, on the order of General John Alexander Logan for the purpose of decorating the graves of the American Civil War dead. It was observed on May 30 until 1971, when most states changed to a newly established federal schedule of holiday observance.

Independence Day is an annual holiday commemorating the formal adoption by the Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia. Although the signing of the Declaration was not completed until August, the Fourth of July holiday has been accepted as the official anniversary of United States independence and is celebrated in all states and territories of the U.S.

The Fourth of July is traditionally celebrated publicly with parades and pageants, patriotic speeches, and organised firing of guns and cannons and displays of fireworks. Family picnics and outings are a feature of private Fourth of July celebrations.

Thanksgiving Day, a legal holiday in the U.S., was first celebrated in early colonial times in New England. The actual origin is probably the harvest festivals that are traditional in many parts of the world. After the first harvest was completed by the Plymouth colonists in 1621, Governor William Bradford proclaimed a day of thanksgiving.

In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln appointed a day of thanksgiving, and since then each president has issued a Thanksgiving Day proclamation, generally designating the fourth Thursday of November as a holiday.

New Year's Day is the first day of the year, January 1 in the Gregorian calendar. In the Middle Ages most European countries used the Julian calendar and observed New Year's Day on March 25, called Annunciation Day and celebrated as the birth to the Son of God. With the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in 1582, Roman Catholic countries began to celebrate New Year's Day on January 1.

The custom of visiting friends, relatives and neighbours on New Year’s Day is one of the Old World traditions that has taken on a new form in the United States. A favourite place to see the old year out is New York City’s Time Square.

Christmas is an annual festival, held on December 25, to celebrate the Nativity, or birth of Christ. The Christmas tree, an evergreen trimmed with lights and other decorations, is derived from the so-called paradise tree, symbolising Eden.

Saint Valentine's Day, a holiday honouring lovers, is celebrated on February 14. There is a custom of sending greeting cards or gifts to express affection. The cards, known as valentines, are often designed with hearts to symbolise love. The holiday probably derives from the ancient Roman feast of Lupercalis (February 15). The festival gradually became associated with the feast day (February 14) of two Roman martyrs, both named St. Valentine, who lived in the 3rd century. St. Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.


Washington is the capital city of the United States. It is located on the north bank of the Potomac River.

George Washington, the first President of the USA, after whom the city was named, selected an area for the capital. A hundred square miles were taken from states of Maryland and Virginia. It was called the District of Columbia. The city is divided into four sections: NW, NE, SW, and SE. Numbered streets run north and south: First Street, Second Street… Lettered streets such as A-street, B-street run east and west. Bear in mind that every section has an independent street system. If you’re looking for Third Street, you need to know what section of the city it is in.

Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual cities in the United States. It has little industry, and only one million people. One reason Washington looks different from other cities is that no building in the city may be more than 40 metres tall. There are no skyscrapers, because they would hide the city’s many monuments from view. One can easily find a park, a square or an open area there. The most impressive and the best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument.

The heart of Washington is the Capitol, which is connected with the White House by Pennsylvania Avenue. It dominates the city of Washington. All the tourists begin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the Senate Chamber, the Hall of Representatives, the Statuary Hall and some others.

Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day. People from all parts of the United States come to see their capital and the monuments to those who in past centuries struggled for the independence of their country. The Washington Monument, the tallest stone structure in the USA, is in the Potomac River. It was opened to the public in 1888. It is 555 feet tall, is called the “Pencil” because of its shape. It is three blocks south of the White House. There is an elevator, which will carry you to 500-foot level observation windows. The Lincoln Memorial is in the west of the Washington Monument. It is designed like a Greek temple. The dominant figure is the realistic figure of Abraham Lincoln seated in the centre of the open temple. The Jefferson Memorial is worth seen, too. It is situated south of the Washington monument near the Potomac River. The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. People are also interested in churches and cathedrals. The Washington Cathedral is on Massachusetts Avenue, and the Arlington National Cemetery is outside the city limits just across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia. The famous Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is visited by millions of people every year.

Washington is the place where mass demonstrations take place against unemployment and racism, for democracy and civil rights.

Human Rights


“Man and his rights and freedoms shall be supreme value”, - says the Constitution of the Russian Federation. However actually rights and freedoms can be treated variously. In any state, even totalitarian, nobody will write in the Constitution that the rights and freedoms of the person should be offended. But that is the legible legislation that should guarantee keeping of the human rights. In Russia the basic human rights are named in the Constitution, and their fullest disclosure is in the laws.

According to the Russian Constitution rights and freedoms are declared not only for the citizens of Russian Federation, but also for the foreign subjects, and for the stateless persons. The exception constitutes only rights connected with participating in government.

These rights were not thought up in 1993, when the Constitution was accepted. The idea of the natural law, which belongs to the person from birth, appeared in 17 century. The development of the humanitarian law was found in such documents as English and American Bill of Rights, the French Manifest of the Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen, French Constitutions of 1791 and 1795 and many other documents. However the greatest influence on development of the human rights was rendered by the Overall Declaration of Human Rights accepted on the session of the United Nations in 1948.

Besides in the Soviet Union and the Russia signed some more international treaties on the human rights, including Covenant on the Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Convention on Protection of the Rights of the Child, European Convention on Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Agreements of OSCE, accepted in different time in Helsinki, Madrid, Paris, Copenhagen, Vienna, Moscow. The Soviet Union tried not to participate in signing the international legal acts on the Human Rights, but even if they had been ratified, all the same they weren’t respect. Russia has joined many facts, agreements and conventions before 1993, therefore in the Russian Constitution the international standards of the human rights are expressed. In the second chapter of the Russian Constitution called ‘Human and civil rights and freedoms’ the following statements established:

Article 17

The Russian Federation human and civil rights and freedoms shall be recognized and guaranteed according to the universally recognized principles and norms of international law and this Constitution.

Basic human rights and freedoms shall be inalienable and shall be enjoyed from birth.

The exercise of human and civil rights must not violate the rights and the freedoms of other people.

Article 18

Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have direct force. They shall determine the meaning, content and the implementation of laws. The functioning of legislative and executive authority and of local government, and shall be guaranteed by law.

The basic human rights

The private rights are:

The right to life.

The right to human dignity, It means that ‘ nobody should be subjected to torture, violence or other severe or humiliating treatment or punishment’.

The right to freedom and personal inviolability. A person may not be detained for more than 48 hours without a court order.

The right to the inviolability of private life, personal and family privacy and protection of honor and good name, the right to privacy of correspondence, of telephone conversations and of postal, telegraph and other communications.

The right to the inviolability of the home.

The right to determine and declare nationality.

The right to use native language and to a free choice of the language.

The right to travel freely and to freely choice of the place of temporary of the permanent residence.

The right to freely live in Russian Federation and the right to freely return.

The right to freedom of conscience and religion.

The freedom or thought and speech.

The political rights and freedoms are:

The freedom of mass media.

The right to associate, including the right to establish trade unions.

The right to assemble peacefully without weapon.

The right to participate in managing state affairs both directly and through their representatives.

The right to elect and be elected to state and local government bodies and to participate in the referendum.

The right to equal access to state service.

The right to participate in justice.

The right to appeal to state and local bodies.

The main economic, social and culture rights are:

The right to use freely abilities and property for entrepreneurial and other economic activities.

The right to of private property.

And others.

The Russian Constitution guarantees the rights and freedoms by means of direct operation of the Constitution, adoption of the federal laws, judicial and administrative protection.

Despite all democratic provisions in the Russian Constitution many of them haven’t acted yet. Therefore the following problems are urgent for Russia:

·   the alternative military service;

·   the capital punishment;

·   the Judicial problem;

·   the right on worthy life

·   the problem of land possessing. There’s still no property on the land.

In conclusion Russia goes on a way of becoming lawful state. In comparison with the former Soviet Union, in the Russia Federation exists many new civil rights and freedoms. However, the actions of the government are obviously not enough of the society of general welfare.

My school.

My school is very big and not very old with its traditions. It is named after V.V. Mayakovski. On the ground floor there are several classrooms of English for the Primary school and workshops, a cloakroom and a canteen, a library and a headmaster office. There are a lot of interesting books in the library. In the library there are many portraits of famous Russian writers on the walls. Our school has two PT classrooms. One of them is situated on the underground floor. This PT classroom is smaller than another one, which situated between the ground and undergroundfloor. This PT classroom is very useful for our students. And in our canteen room we always buy very tasty cakes.

The classrooms of the first, second and the third form are on the first floor. But sometimes we spend there some breaks. My favorite classroom is the Biology classroom and English. Biology classroom is very beautiful, there are many flowers and animals there. And in English classroom there are not many tables, because our class is learned by three teachers. In our class there is a map of Great Britain. I like English, because it’s a subject I am interesting in. I like to learn new words, to dramatize texts and dialogues, discuss interesting things.

There are 500 pupils in our school. Some of them love our school but some of them thinks that it is a load of their life. I thought this way some years ago, but now I understand that all these ages I have spent in my school – the best ages in my life.

School year begin, as a rule, on the 1st of September and ends in May. It lasts 9 months: from September till May. We have 4 holidays a year. The Summer holidays are long. They last 3 months. The winter holidays are shorter, they lasts only two weeks. During the holidays we don’t study, we have a rest. We go to school every day except Sundays and Saturdays. On weekdays we work hard. On weekends we have a rest, as a rule.

All pupils of our school learn some foreign languages. All pupils of our class learn English and German or French ( on their mind).

At the lessons we check our hometasks. We ask and answer the questions, we read English texts and translate sentences both from English into Russian and from Russian into English. We describe pictures and speak on various topics. During the English lesson we do many exercises, we speak, read and write English. Sometimes we listen to the tapes. We don’t speak Russian in class. As I want to learn, to speak and to read English, I must be attentive in class and I must always prepare my homework.

Each lesson lasts forty minutes. During the breaks we just stand outside, talk, play and repeat our homework. We haven’t got lunch. But some students eat in the canteen, but most bring their own lunch. WE usually have a lot of homework and it takes us several hours to do it. Sometimes we have to sit up to write a composition, to prepare a report or to learn a poem by heart.

I like my school, because I’ve got many friends there and I always remember: “Education bring a child the world.”


Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other continents and countries, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. They travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. It’s always interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different people, to try to different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.

Those who live in the country like to go to the big city, visiting museums and art galleries, looking at shop windows and dinning at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers usually like acquired holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to do. Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and pictures of everything that interests them – the sightsights of a city, old churches, castles, views of mountains , lakes, lakes, waterfalls, forests, trees , flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be reminded by the photos of the happy times they have had. People travel by boat, by train, by plane or on foot. All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.

If we are fond of travelling we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see at home, though we may read about them in books and newspapers, or on TV.

Travelling by air is more popular in our days than other ways of travelling. You can see many continents and oceans, countries and rivers, cities and lakes.

I enjoy to stay at a hotel. It is more comfortable to stay there. You can enjoy being alone, to take a hot shower, to sleep in warm bed and many other advantages. Some people enjoy camping in tents. Of course, the weather must be good for that. There is nothing worse than camping in rain.

If you want to travel, first, you must look through some advertisement. You can choose what hotel is worth visiting and the place where your hotel situated. You can buy the magazine named “Tourism”. You can find there all trips you want. There are many photos of places which are recommend most of all. You can also find there information about camping in tents. It’s very interesting to spend the whole day on the nature in the forest or near the lake. So you can’t go anywhere without looking through some add.

There are 2 viewpoints on travel. Some people like to go on one place and spend their holidays there. The place may be an interesting city, a picturesque willage or some other attractive place. Others believe in seeing as much as possible in the time they have.

I think that our education becomes richer when you travel, meet new people, because you can see new things which you never seen in your life before.

Bottom of Form 0

Sports and Olympic Games.

A lot of people all over the world are interested in sport. Sport helps people to stay in good shape, keeps them fit, healthy and makes them more organized and better disciplined in there daily activities.

We have always paid great attention to sport in our schools, colleges and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sport ground. Every city and town has a few stadiums or swimming pools where local competitions are usually held. It’s been a tradition in Russia to divide sport into professional and amateur. There are different sporting societies and clubs in Russia. Many of them take part in different tournaments and are known all over the world. A great number of world records have been set by Russian sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figure skaters, runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen also participate in the Olympic games and always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals.

The Olympic games has a very long history. They began in 777 BC in Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia. They included many different kinds of sports. All the cities in Greece sent their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. For the period of the Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic games became the symbol of peace and friendship.

Now, summer and winter Games are held separately. There are always several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the international Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations for the competitions, construct new sport facilities, stadiums, hotels, press centers. Thousand of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games , and it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Games.

Russia joined the Olympic movement in1952. In 1980 Moscow hosted the twenty-second Olympic Games. The latest Olympic Games were held in Barcelona. Russian sportsmen got medals for their records in many sport events.

nimals need help. Earth is in danger.

People have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on different continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun, on animals and plants around them. People must take care of Earth. Our ecology becomes worse and worse with every new day. Many species of animals and birds are disappearing nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to make furniture. They forget that people can’t live without trees and plants, because they fill air with oxygen. And, of course, great problems are population and animals destruction. The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most of our rubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps are very dangerous for our life ‘cause they are full of rats, which can carry infections away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it. But pollution isn’t the only actual problem. Every day a big number of animals dissapeares. People kill animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil; elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And also animals are used for medical experiments. The most wide – speared from such animals are monkeys. Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’t fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the life. You can find their names in the Red Book.

Of course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of special organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace. The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad use. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals. The WWF rescued several species of animals, mammals as well as birds. These organization also helped to create more than 250 National parks. Greenpeace began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. These organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help animals ‘cause many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live. Their homes, the trees, have disappeared. We must save wild animals. And we must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must lake care of nature, because we are part of it.


My plans for the future.

When you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession has come. It’s not an easy task to make right choice of a job. You can start a working career go into business or continue schooling to receive a higher education. There is one institute or a few institutes is nearly every Russian city. There are dozens of them in Moscow and St. Petersburg. If you want to get a professional training you can enter a technical college. There are over 2000 professions to choose and make a decision.

It is a dilemma for all family. Fathers usually wants their children to follow their footsteps. Mothers don’t want their sons and daughters to leave the native town. So they persuade kids to enter local colleges and universities.

Because of the wide difference in jobs, you should find out all you can about any job which interests you. This can be done by going to the library and by reading widely, and also by talking to adults who have different kinds of jobs. You also need to think about how well you can do what you would like to do.

Some follow their parents advice and some follow their own choice.

To make the right choice you should consider your traits and characters. To become a good doctor you must be patient, easygoing and kind/ The teacher’s work requires love for children, profound knowledge of subjects and the ability to explain. Detective’s job is very stressful. He must be brave, fair and strong.

A couple of years ago I wanted to become a doctor. I thought it was a very noble profession. I was good at biology at the 8 and 9 forms. I wanted to help people who had problems with their health. I know that a doctor should be noble in work and life, kind and attentive to people, honest and prudent. A doctor who is selfish and dishonest can’t be good at his profession. I tried to do my best to develop good traits in myself.

Now I have already decided what to do. I’d like to be a teacher. I know that it is very difficult to be a good teacher. You should know perfectly the subject you teach, you must be well-educated and well-informed. A good teacher develops in his students a desire for knowledge and love for truth and beauty. Teaching must be the greatest of all the arts. It is a great responsibility to educate the children. I think that’s the reason why teachers are deeply respected.

You study 5 years at Russian universities. After your final exams you are a qualified teacher of English. University education is deep and many-sided. Some students like a post-graduate course to follow an academic career. Most university graduates take up teaching and return to school. I know that a teacher’s job is quite difficult. A teacher can’t say that he knows everything in his field. He goes on learning his subject during all his career to be able to answer any question. He should be an example of competence.

So choosing a career and getting a job are two of the most important things, any person does in his lifetime. If we don’t think about the future, we won’t have one.
























My plans for the future.

When millions of young people leave school, they begin an independent life. Some of them start working, go into business, some of them continue schooling to receive a higher education.

Young people can learn about professions in magazines and advertisements. Magazines for teenagers often offer questionnaires, quizzes or surreys to help young people to find out what their interests and abilities are more clearly and to make a decision concerning their future occupation.

While choosing a career you should take into consideration main demands that you want your future profession to meet: the profession must be interesting, you have to be sure of your future (that means that you will be able to find a job after graduation from the university), a profession must be well-paid, otherwise you won’t be able to support yourself and your future family.

During our school life we begin to think about our future life, our job. There over 2000 professions in the world, so it is quite difficult to choose and to make a decision. Some follow their own choice and some follow their relation’s, teacher’s, parent’s advice, because they can guide them and help to make a decision concerning future plans. I have never had a question, what I am going to do when I graduate from my school. I have known from childhood that I want to be a linguist. I have chosen this profession, because a knowledge of foreign languages and foreign cultures is growing in importance nowadays. Foreign languages are needed as the main and the most efficient mean of information exchange between the people of our planet. Although there are 3000 languages, English is the most universal. It is the language of progressive science and technology, trade and cultural relations, and business. It is the universal language of international aviation, shipping, sports, medicine. English is the official language in nearly forty countries. It is spoken by more than 350 millions people and also spoken as a second language in many parts of India and Africa. Besides, millions of people study English as a foreign language . In our country English is very popular. It is studied at schools, colleges and universities.

It is important for me to learn English because I want to know what is going on round me in the world. With recent advances in technology, the world is changing rapidly in many fields, such as business, arts and medicine. These changes will affect me soon and its important for me to read and keep up with these changes. In fact, learning English is the answer to a lot of the things that I need and want. And I can’t help mentioning the quotation: “Every man is the maker of his own fortune.”

In conclusion I would like to say it is an advantage to choose our future career while at school. It gives us a goal to work towards and enables us to choose a right, suitable course of study. I’d like to mention also that if we don’t think about our future, nobody will think for us, so we just can’t have one. We must work hard to archive out ambitions and to realize our wishes, because future is purchased by the present.


















   The United Kingdom of Great Britain

and Northern Ireland.

The official name of GB is the United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland. It occupies the territory of the British Isles. The BI lie to the north-west of Europe and consists of two main islands: GB and Ireland. Their total area is over 244.000 square km. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea, the English Channel and the strait of Dover which is 18 miles wide. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic ocean and the Irish Sea. GB is one of the world’s smaller countries. Its population is over 57 millions. Four out of every five people are urban. But in spite of all the territory of GB is small, the country has a wide variety of scenery. GB is made of tree countries: England, Scotland and Wales. Everyone in Britain speaks English, but in some parts of Scotland and Wales people speak different languages as well. GB with NI forms the UK of GB and NI. The capital of the UK is London, in England. England is the largest of three countries which make up GB. The north and the West of England are mountainous, but the rest of the territory is a vast plain. The Lake District in Northern England with its lakes, mountains and valleys is favorite holiday resort. The national symbol of England is a red rose. The capital of England is London. Its economic, political and cultural centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and one of the world’s most important ports. It is situated upon both banks of the river Thames. But while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one, the Severn is the largest river.

Wales is the smallest land of the UK, but it is noted for its picturesque mountains with the highest peaks of GB rivers, waterfalls and lakes. Cardiff is the capital and the largest city in Wales and its also an important industrial centre and port. The national symbol of Wales is a leek or a daffodil.

Scotland is a land which is known for its beauty. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. This is the region of mountains and rivers, small towns and villages. The highest of mountains is Ben Nevis. The best known between the lakes is Loch Ness where as some people think a large monster lives. The capital of Scotland is Edinburg and the great industrial centre is Glasgow. The national symbol of Scotland is a thistle.

GB’s largest island neighbor is Ireland. This is mainly occupied by the independent Republic of Ireland. Many small islands are also linked with the UK. Most of the land is hilly, though the mountains are not very high. The capital of NI is Belfast. The national symbol of Ireland is a shamrock.

The mountains, the Atlantic ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of the British isles. The summers are usually cool and rainy. And there is much rain and fog in autumn and in winter. That’s why GB is a very damp country.

The flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of 3 crosses: the cross of St. Jorge, St. Andrew and St. Patrick.

Nowadays the UK is a highly developed industrial power. It is one of the most powerful countries in Europe.
















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The school system in Great Britain.

Education in Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5-16. Nine tenths of all children are educated in state schools. All books and equipment are provided free. Uniform is worn in many schools but this is mow quite flexible. Students never repeat a year in British system, but they may be sent to a vocation school or section.

Primary school. Schoolchildren attend a primary school for 6 years (from 5 to 11 years). They study general subjects and special help is given to children with handicaps and learning difficulties. The division between primary and secondary education is at the age of 11 when almost all children in the state system change schools.

Secondary school. When students transfer to Secondary school at the age of 11, they don’t take any examination, but their reports are sent on from Primary school.

Most children - over 80 % - go to a comprehensive school. “Comprehensive” means all-inclusive. They admit pupils of all abilities. But there are also grammar schools and secondary modern schools. The pupils have to pass an exam to go there; so admission depends on the result of the selective exams and the pupils abilities.

All types of secondary school have the five year courses for pupils from 11 years up to the school leaving age.

Pupils in all State schools in England and Wales study 10 main subjects: English, Mathematics, Science. Foundation subjects: History, Geography, A Modern language, Art, Music, Information Technology, Physical education, Religious education is also taught.

Attainment tests are given at the ages of 7, 11, 14, 16. At the end of a 5-year course, at the age of 16, students sit the General Certificate of Secondary Education exams in as many subjects as possible. Weak students may only sit for free or four subjects. Better students take ten


At the age of 16 about two third of these pupils leave school and get jobs or apprenticeships. About one-third stay at school until the age of 18 preparing themselves for higher education.

The 6th form. More ambitious pupils continue to study in the 6th form. They stay on at school for one or two years to prepare themselves for university. They have only three or four main subjects which are necessary to pass the advanced level exams at the age of 18. In addition to the foundation subjects the 6th formers are offered many other courses at Advanced Level such as classical Civilization, Further Mathematics, Information Technology, History of Art, Social Biology and many others.

The school year is divided into three terms with the intervals between them during the Christmas and Easter holidays lasting about two weeks each and the summer holiday which begins rather late and is usually six weeks long.

All kinds of out-of-class activities are part of school life in Britain. Students have a lot of opportunities for playing sports, attending different clubs and singing in choir. Most schools have very good libraries which students use for reference work.




“There is no frigate like a book.”

An English author once wrote: “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed or digested.” This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds. Most travel books are to be tasted. It’s enough to dip into them and read bits here, bits there. If you are fond of crime stories you will read them quickly, you’ll ‘swallow’ them and then there are books that you’ll read slowly and carefully. If a book is on important subject and a subject you are interested in you will want to chew it and digest it. And you’ll want to weight what the author says and consider his ideas and arguments.

The rise of television has been coupled with the death of books. Some people ask what can be done to rescued them. But I think that books don’t need to be rescued. A book is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives us a unique chance to link up with authors who lived hundreds and thousands of years ago. I thank books, because if there were no books, we couldn’t talk to people who lived in different years and countries. Through reading books we hear their voices, thoughts and feelings. Books are the surest way to bring nations together. They give us an insight not only into the past but also into the future. I think that book is a faithful and undemanding friend for all of us: it can be put aside and taken up again at any moment.

I have recently read a book which has made a very deep impression on me. It is called “Gone with the Wind” and it makes really unforgettable reading. The author of the book is Margaret Mitchell. “Gone with the Wind” published in 1936, became an immediate bestseller and won the Pulitzer Prize. A film version of the novel was made in 1939.

Margaret Mitchell and all her family was interesting in American history, and she grew up in an atmosphere of stories about the Civil War.

In 1925 she got married. In the following ten years she put on paper all stories she had heard about the Civil War. And this way was born “Gone with the Wind”.

The story is set around the time of the America Civil War, when the Southern States went to war with the North to defend their way of life. It was the way of life in which rich gentry lived in large houses, cultivated by black slaves. Scarlet O’Hara was born into one of these rich houses. When this way of life was destroyed she use all her beauty to build a new life.

“Art washes away from the soul all the dust of everyday life”.-Pablo Picasso. I agree with this quotation, because art is really a fantastic thing, and it can influence our minds and our behavior.

This quotation is tightly connected with literature. While reading any book, it appeals to us. Books impress you so much that you are taken to another world. You start to look at the world through rose colors.

And when you read something interesting you become emotional and you think only about that book. So you forget about life with problems it has. When you read a book you become another person.

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