Темы по англ.яз. 9 класс
“Great Britain” has several different names. Some people say “Britain”, or “the United Kingdom”, or
just “UK”. There are four different countries in the
United Kingdom: England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
Altogether more than 56 million people live in
Britain, many of them in big industrial cities like London, Liverpool and
Manchester, but people are often surprised by how much of Britain is open
country, with lonely hills and woods, quiet rivers, lakes and farmlands.
Many people think that the weather is cold and wet in
Britain all the year round. But it isn’t! True, it sometimes
rains and even snows for days and days, but every year there are weeks of
beautiful sunny weather then the British take off their sweaters and go out to
Britain is only a small country, but every part is
different. Scotland is a land of mountains, lakes and romantic castles. The
winters are cold, with plenty of snow, but the summers are often warm and
sunny. Most farmers keep sheep, and they’re many small
factories, which make fine sweaters from their wool. In some parts of Scotland,
there are very few people. Deer live in the hills, and the rivers are full of
salmon. But Glasgow and Edinburgh are both large and busy, with all that is
good (and bad) in modern cities.
Northern Ireland has it problems, but it has beauty,
too. In the warm, wet climate, the grass grows a brilliant green, and much of
the land is farming country. Belfast is a large industrial city with many fine
buildings and big port from which ships come and go to Scotland and England.
But Belfast has had many difficulty years, and it is not the busy place it once
A hundred years ago the north of England was
industrial heart of the country. From the factories came cloth, wool, machines,
engines and china. The old factories came have gone now and the workers have to
look for jobs in the new “high-tech”
industries. Outside the towns, much of this part of England is beautiful
countryside, with green hills, lakes and sandy beaches. Fishing is still a big
industry in the North East, and every night (except Sunday) the fishing boats
go out to sea.
The centre of England (the “Midlands”) is also an important industrial area, especially near the huge cities
of Coventry and Birmingham, the centre of the car industry. But everyone, even
in the heart of the modern city, there are buildings from older Britain – cathedrals, castles, and houses built hundred years ago.
Wales is a special place, a country of high mountains
and pretty valleys. But Wales has plenty of industry, too, with many factories
and coal mines.
The west of England is rich farming country. It
produces milk, cream, butter, cheese and apples, which go to make cider, a
popular drink. In the villages, country people often grow their own fruit,
vegetables and flowers.
Some areas of Britain are very crowded. Around
Manchester, in north west England, and Glasgow, in Scotland, are large city
areas of houses and factories. The south east of England, too, has many towns
and cities, including London, the giant capital. But quiet near London there
are still some quiet villages and peaceful farms.
Britain is an island, of course, and you are never far
from the sea. Some of the coast, especially in the west, is wild and rocky,
with small, sandy beaches, and romantic old harbours. Other parts are
industrial. The East Coast of Scotland, for example, is busy with oil rings and
fishing boats. The most popular beaches are near the many holiday towns on the
south coast, where the weather is usually warmer. It is here that Londoners
come to relax.
London has been a capital city for nearly a thousand
years, and many of its ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of these
are the Tower of London (where the Crown Jewels are kept), Westminster Abbey
and St. Pals Cathedral, but most visitors also want to see the House of
Parliament, Buckingham Palace and the many magnificent museums.
Once, London was a small Roman town on the north bank
of the Thames, but slowly it grew into one of the world’s
major cities with more than seven million people. Fewer people live in the
centre now, but the suburbs are still growing.
Places now in the heart of London once stood in the
middle of green fields. Many small villages, like Hampstead, Chelsea and
Mayfair, became part of London, but they still keep some of their old
atmosphere. Different areas of London seem like different cities. The West End
is a rich man’s world of shops, offices and theatres. The
old port area is now called “Docklands”.
The great ships have gone, and the area is changing very fast. There are huge
new office buildings, and thousands of new flats and houses.
Other parts of London are changing, too. Some of the
poor areas have become fashionable, and people with money are moving into them.
A hundred years ago, the river was crowded by ships,
leaving for Java and Japan, New Zealand and New York, but now people travel by
air, and London’s main airport, Heathrow, is one of the
busiest in the world.
Like all big cities, London has streets and concrete
buildings, but it also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and grass.
Sit on the grass (you’re allowed to!) in the middle of Hyde Park
or Kensington Gardens, and you will think that you’re
in the country, miles away.
Many people live outside the centre of London in the
suburbs, and they travel to work, in the shops and offices by train, bus or
underground. The trains are full – and expensive – and
the roads are crowded with cars, but every day a million people come from far
out of London, even from the coast, and spend up to four hours travelling every
Most people work from 9 am to 5 p.m. From 8 till 10
every morning, and 4.30 to 6.30 every evening, the trains are crowded with
people, and after the morning “rush hour” the
By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, the
offices are quiet and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is
where Londoners come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here,
several concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas, and in nearby Soho
the pubs, restaurants and nightclubs are busy half the night.
Many people think that London is all grey but in fact
red id the London’s favourite colour. The buses are red, the
letterboxes are red and the mail vans are all bright, bright red. London is at
its best when people are celebrating. Then the flags, the soldiers’ uniforms the cheering crowds and the carriages and horses all sparkle
in the sunshine – if it’s
not raining, of course!
Travelling by train.
Modern life is impossible without
travelling. Of course the fastest way of travelling is by plane. But many
people make their choice on travelling by train as with a train you have speed,
comfort and pleasure combined. Travelling by train is of course slower than by
air but it also has its advantages.
If you are going to travel by train you’d better book seats beforehand because many people are fond of
travelling by train. There are some reasons why people choose railroad. Train
is the cheap means of travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to
think of your trip before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is,
you only have to go to a railway station. There you will see hundreds of people
hurrying to catch a train. You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the
booking-office trying to buy a ticket.
Modern trains have very comfortable seats
in all passenger cars, and there are sleeping-cars and dining-cars which make
even the longest journey enjoyable. You can buy first-class, second-class and
third-class sleepers in a separate compartment. If you are early before the
train starts you can leave your suit-cases in the compartment and walk up and
down the platform. Some people forget when and from which platform and track
their train will be off. They can always ask for the track, platform and train
numbers at the railroad station information bureau and also get information
about next trains and their schedules. There are express, slow and
long-distance trains. If you want to go somewhere and get there as quickly as
possible you’d better know that express trains only stop
at the largest stations while slow trains stop at all stations. You can get to
far countries only by a long-distance train.
Once you are in your compartment you have
to ask the guide to bring in the bedding. There are usually two lower and two
upper berths in a third-class sleeper compartment. Some people like to occupy
upper berths because it is more convenient and exciting to travel. During your
way on the train you can read newspapers, books, look out of the window, drink
the tea, communicate with your neighbours or sleep. I prefer to look out of the
window, because you can see the country you are passing through, and not only
the clouds as when you are flying. You can have something to eat at the
stations when the train makes stops.
Though we all seem to agree that the future
belongs to air transport, the railroads today still carry a lot of passengers
Travelling by Air.
Modern life is impossible without
travelling. Of course the fastest way of travelling is by plane. Many people
prefer travelling by air as it is the most convenient, comfortable and quickest
means of travelling. Travelling by plane has also its advantages and
If you are going to travel by air you’d better buy tickets beforehand because many people are fond of
travelling by plane. There are some reasons why people choose that means of
travelling. If it is summer outside it will be better to think of your trip
before the vocation starts. To understand how true this is, you only have to go
to an airport. There you will see hundreds of people hurrying to catch a plane.
You’ll waste a lot of time standing near the booking
office trying to buy a ticket.
Modern planes have very comfortable seats
in all cabins, and there are first class, business and economy class cabins.
Inside the cabin the air is always fresh and warm. Before the plane takes off
the stewardess helps everyone get comfortable in the seats and wishes them a
pleasant trip. She also gives all the information about the flight, the speed
and the altitude. During the flight you can have something to drink and to eat.
You can read newspapers and magazines or simply look out of the pothole. But
you will sea nothing outside but the clouds. You can buy first-class,
second-class and third class. You must be in time for your flight because you
must have time to pass custom and passport controls and check in. Before
boarding the plane the passenger must register at the airport. While
registering he is required to have his luggage weighed. If the luggage weighs
more than 20 kilograms you have to pay extra. Sometimes people forget the time
and the number of the flight. They can always ask for that at the airport’s information bureau and also get information about next flights and
Sometimes passengers don’t feel as if they are walking on good solid ground when on board the
plane. They can get airsick and then travelling by air becomes a real torture
Nowadays travelling by air is one of the
dangerous means of travelling. There are a lot of air crashes and many people
die in them. And I think people prefer safety to comfort on board a ship.
Though we all seem to agree that the future
belongs to air transport, other means of travelling are still popular today.
Holiday is a day set apart for religious observance or for the commemoration of
some extraordinary event or distinguished person, or for some other public
National holidays are days set aside by official
government proclamation to celebrate different occasions.
The U.S. has no national holidays. Legal holidays – days on which banks, schools, or other public institutions and most
places of business are closed.
Memorial Day is a legal holiday, observed annually on the last
Monday in May in most of the United States, It honours the nation's armed
services killed in wartime. The holiday, originally called Decoration Day, is
traditionally marked by parades, memorial speeches and ceremonies, and the
decoration of graves with flowers and flags. Memorial Day was first observed on
May 30, 1868, on the order of General John Alexander Logan for the purpose of
decorating the graves of the American Civil War dead. It was observed on May 30
until 1971, when most states changed to a newly established federal schedule of
Independence Day is an annual holiday commemorating the formal adoption
by the Continental Congress of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776,
in Philadelphia. Although the signing of the Declaration was not completed
until August, the Fourth of July holiday has been accepted as the official
anniversary of United States independence and is celebrated in all states and
territories of the U.S.
The Fourth of July is traditionally celebrated
publicly with parades and pageants, patriotic speeches, and organised firing of
guns and cannons and displays of fireworks. Family picnics and outings are a
feature of private Fourth of July celebrations.
Thanksgiving Day, a legal holiday in the U.S., was first celebrated in
early colonial times in New England. The actual origin is probably the harvest
festivals that are traditional in many parts of the world. After the first
harvest was completed by the Plymouth colonists in 1621, Governor William
Bradford proclaimed a day of thanksgiving.
In 1863 President Abraham Lincoln appointed a day of
thanksgiving, and since then each president has issued a Thanksgiving Day
proclamation, generally designating the fourth Thursday of November as a
New Year's Day is the first day of the year, January 1 in the
Gregorian calendar. In the Middle Ages most European countries used the Julian
calendar and observed New Year's Day on March 25, called Annunciation Day and
celebrated as the birth to the Son of God. With the introduction of the
Gregorian calendar in 1582, Roman Catholic countries began to celebrate New
Year's Day on January 1.
The custom of visiting friends, relatives and
neighbours on New Year’s Day is one of the Old World traditions
that has taken on a new form in the United States. A favourite place to see the
old year out is New York City’s Time Square.
Christmas is an annual festival, held on December 25, to
celebrate the Nativity, or birth of Christ. The Christmas tree, an evergreen
trimmed with lights and other decorations, is derived from the so-called
paradise tree, symbolising Eden.
Saint Valentine's Day, a holiday honouring lovers, is celebrated on February
14. There is a custom of sending greeting cards or gifts to express affection.
The cards, known as valentines, are often designed with hearts to symbolise
love. The holiday probably derives from the ancient Roman feast of Lupercalis (February
15). The festival gradually became associated with the feast day (February 14)
of two Roman martyrs, both named St. Valentine, who lived in the 3rd century.
St. Valentine has traditionally been regarded as the patron saint of lovers.
Washington is the capital city of the United States.
It is located on the north bank of the Potomac River.
George Washington, the first President of the USA,
after whom the city was named, selected an area for the capital. A hundred
square miles were taken from states of Maryland and Virginia. It was called the
District of Columbia. The city is divided into four sections: NW, NE, SW, and
SE. Numbered streets run north and south: First Street, Second Street… Lettered
streets such as A-street, B-street run east and west. Bear in mind that every
section has an independent street system. If you’re
looking for Third Street, you need to know what section of the city it is in.
Washington is one of the most beautiful and unusual
cities in the United States. It has little industry, and only one million
people. One reason Washington looks different from other cities is that no
building in the city may be more than 40 metres tall. There are no skyscrapers,
because they would hide the city’s many monuments from view. One can easily
find a park, a square or an open area there. The most impressive and the
best-known ones are the Lincoln Memorial and the Washington Monument.
The heart of Washington is the Capitol, which is
connected with the White House by Pennsylvania Avenue. It dominates the city of
Washington. All the tourists begin sightseeing from the Capitol and see the
Senate Chamber, the Hall of Representatives, the Statuary Hall and some others.
Thousands of tourists visit Washington every day.
People from all parts of the United States come to see their capital and the
monuments to those who in past centuries struggled for the independence of
their country. The Washington Monument, the tallest stone structure in the USA,
is in the Potomac River. It was opened to the public in 1888. It is 555 feet
tall, is called the “Pencil”
because of its shape. It is three blocks south of the White House. There is an
elevator, which will carry you to 500-foot level observation windows. The
Lincoln Memorial is in the west of the Washington Monument. It is designed like
a Greek temple. The dominant figure is the realistic figure of Abraham Lincoln
seated in the centre of the open temple. The Jefferson Memorial is worth seen,
too. It is situated south of the Washington monument near the Potomac River.
The Library of Congress contains millions of books and manuscripts. People are
also interested in churches and cathedrals. The Washington Cathedral is on
Massachusetts Avenue, and the Arlington National Cemetery is outside the city
limits just across the Potomac River near the Pentagon in Virginia. The famous
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is visited by millions of people every year.
Washington is the place where mass demonstrations take
place against unemployment and racism, for democracy and civil rights.
“Man and his rights and freedoms shall be supreme value”, - says the
Constitution of the Russian Federation. However actually rights and freedoms
can be treated variously. In any state, even totalitarian, nobody will write in
the Constitution that the rights and freedoms of the person should be offended.
But that is the legible legislation that should guarantee keeping of the human
rights. In Russia the basic human rights are named in the Constitution, and
their fullest disclosure is in the laws.
According to the Russian Constitution rights and freedoms are declared
not only for the citizens of Russian Federation, but also for the foreign
subjects, and for the stateless persons. The exception constitutes only rights
connected with participating in government.
These rights were not thought up in 1993, when the Constitution was
accepted. The idea of the natural law, which belongs to the person from birth,
appeared in 17 century. The development of the humanitarian law was found in
such documents as English and American Bill of Rights, the French Manifest of
the Rights and Freedoms of Man and Citizen, French Constitutions of 1791 and
1795 and many other documents. However the greatest influence on development of
the human rights was rendered by the Overall Declaration of Human Rights
accepted on the session of the United Nations in 1948.
Besides in the Soviet Union and the Russia signed some more
international treaties on the human rights, including Covenant on the Economic,
Social and Cultural Rights, Convention on Protection of the Rights of the
Child, European Convention on Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental
Freedoms, Agreements of OSCE, accepted in different time in Helsinki, Madrid,
Paris, Copenhagen, Vienna, Moscow. The Soviet Union tried not to participate in
signing the international legal acts on the Human Rights, but even if they had
been ratified, all the same they weren’t respect. Russia has joined many facts,
agreements and conventions before 1993, therefore in the Russian Constitution
the international standards of the human rights are expressed. In the second
chapter of the Russian Constitution called ‘Human and civil rights and freedoms’
the following statements established:
The Russian Federation human
and civil rights and freedoms shall be recognized and guaranteed according to
the universally recognized principles and norms of international law and this
Basic human rights and freedoms
shall be inalienable and shall be enjoyed from birth.
The exercise of human and civil
rights must not violate the rights and the freedoms of other people.
Human and civil rights and freedoms shall have direct force. They shall
determine the meaning, content and the implementation of laws. The functioning
of legislative and executive authority and of local government, and shall be
guaranteed by law.
The basic human rights
The private rights are:
The right to life.
The right to human dignity, It means that ‘ nobody should be subjected
to torture, violence or other severe or humiliating treatment or punishment’.
The right to freedom and personal inviolability. A person may not be
detained for more than 48 hours without a court order.
The right to the inviolability of private life, personal and family
privacy and protection of honor and good name, the right to privacy of
correspondence, of telephone conversations and of postal, telegraph and other
The right to the inviolability of the home.
The right to determine and declare nationality.
The right to use native language and to a free choice of the language.
The right to travel freely and to freely choice of the place of
temporary of the permanent residence.
The right to freely live in Russian Federation and the right to freely
The right to freedom of conscience and religion.
The freedom or thought and speech.
The political rights and freedoms are:
The freedom of mass media.
The right to associate, including the right to establish trade unions.
The right to assemble peacefully without weapon.
The right to participate in managing state affairs both directly and
through their representatives.
The right to elect and be elected to state and local government bodies
and to participate in the referendum.
The right to equal access to state service.
The right to participate in justice.
The right to appeal to state and local bodies.
The main economic, social and culture rights are:
The right to use freely abilities and property for entrepreneurial and
other economic activities.
The right to of private property.
The Russian Constitution guarantees the rights and freedoms by means of
direct operation of the Constitution, adoption of the federal laws, judicial
and administrative protection.
Despite all democratic provisions in the Russian Constitution many of
them haven’t acted yet. Therefore the following problems are urgent for Russia:
the alternative military
the capital punishment;
the Judicial problem;
the right on worthy life
the problem of land
possessing. There’s still no property on the land.
In conclusion Russia goes on a way of becoming lawful state. In
comparison with the former Soviet Union, in the Russia Federation exists many
new civil rights and freedoms. However, the actions of the government are
obviously not enough of the society of general welfare.
My school is very
big and not very old with its traditions. It is named after V.V. Mayakovski. On
the ground floor there are several classrooms of English for the Primary school
and workshops, a cloakroom and a canteen, a library and a headmaster office.
There are a lot of interesting books in the library. In the library there are
many portraits of famous Russian writers on the walls. Our school has two PT
classrooms. One of them is situated on the underground floor. This PT classroom
is smaller than another one, which situated between the ground and
undergroundfloor. This PT classroom is very useful for our students. And in our
canteen room we always buy very tasty cakes.
The classrooms of
the first, second and the third form are on the first floor. But sometimes we
spend there some breaks. My favorite classroom is the Biology classroom and
English. Biology classroom is very beautiful, there are many flowers and
animals there. And in English classroom there are not many tables, because our
class is learned by three teachers. In our class there is a map of Great
Britain. I like English, because it’s a subject I am interesting in. I like to
learn new words, to dramatize texts and dialogues, discuss interesting things.
There are 500
pupils in our school. Some of them love our school but some of them thinks that
it is a load of their life. I thought this way some years ago, but now I understand
that all these ages I have spent in my school – the best ages in my life.
School year begin,
as a rule, on the 1st of September and ends in May. It lasts 9
months: from September till May. We have 4 holidays a year. The Summer holidays
are long. They last 3 months. The winter holidays are shorter, they lasts only
two weeks. During the holidays we don’t study, we have a rest. We go to school
every day except Sundays and Saturdays. On weekdays we work hard. On weekends
we have a rest, as a rule.
All pupils of our
school learn some foreign languages. All pupils of our class learn English and
German or French ( on their mind).
At the lessons we
check our hometasks. We ask and answer the questions, we read English texts and
translate sentences both from English into Russian and from Russian into
English. We describe pictures and speak on various topics. During the English
lesson we do many exercises, we speak, read and write English. Sometimes we
listen to the tapes. We don’t speak Russian in class. As I want to learn, to
speak and to read English, I must be attentive in class and I must always
prepare my homework.
Each lesson lasts
forty minutes. During the breaks we just stand outside, talk, play and repeat
our homework. We haven’t got lunch. But some students eat in the canteen, but
most bring their own lunch. WE usually have a lot of homework and it takes us
several hours to do it. Sometimes we have to sit up to write a composition, to
prepare a report or to learn a poem by heart.
I like my school,
because I’ve got many friends there and I always remember: “Education bring a
child the world.”
Millions of people
all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other
continents and countries, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns. They
travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. It’s always
interesting to discover new things, different ways of life, to meet different
people, to try to different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
Those who live in
the country like to go to the big city, visiting museums and art galleries,
looking at shop windows and dinning at exotic restaurants. City-dwellers
usually like acquired holiday by the sea or in the mountains, with nothing to
do. Most travelers and holiday makers take a camera with them and pictures of
everything that interests them – the sightsights of a city, old churches,
castles, views of mountains , lakes, lakes, waterfalls, forests, trees ,
flowers and plants, animals and birds. Later, perhaps years later, they will be
reminded by the photos of the happy times they have had. People travel by boat,
by train, by plane or on foot. All means of travel have their advantages and
disadvantages. And people choose one according to their plans and destinations.
If we are fond of
travelling we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see at home,
though we may read about them in books and newspapers, or on TV.
Travelling by air
is more popular in our days than other ways of travelling. You can see many
continents and oceans, countries and rivers, cities and lakes.
I enjoy to stay at
a hotel. It is more comfortable to stay there. You can enjoy being alone, to
take a hot shower, to sleep in warm bed and many other advantages. Some people
enjoy camping in tents. Of course, the weather must be good for that. There is
nothing worse than camping in rain.
If you want to
travel, first, you must look through some advertisement. You can choose what
hotel is worth visiting and the place where your hotel situated. You can buy
the magazine named “Tourism”. You can find there all trips you want. There are
many photos of places which are recommend most of all. You can also find there
information about camping in tents. It’s very interesting to spend the whole
day on the nature in the forest or near the lake. So you can’t go anywhere
without looking through some add.
There are 2
viewpoints on travel. Some people like to go on one place and spend their
holidays there. The place may be an interesting city, a picturesque willage or
some other attractive place. Others believe in seeing as much as possible in
the time they have.
I think that our
education becomes richer when you travel, meet new people, because you can see
new things which you never seen in your life before.
Bottom of Form 0
Sports and Olympic Games.
A lot of people all over the world are interested in sport. Sport helps
people to stay in good shape, keeps them fit, healthy and makes them more
organized and better disciplined in there daily activities.
We have always paid great attention to sport in our schools, colleges
and universities. You can hardly find a school without a gym or a sport ground.
Every city and town has a few stadiums or swimming pools where local
competitions are usually held. It’s been a tradition in Russia to divide sport
into professional and amateur. There are different sporting societies and clubs
in Russia. Many of them take part in different tournaments and are known all
over the world. A great number of world records have been set by Russian
sportsmen: gymnasts, weightlifters, tennis players, swimmers, figure skaters,
runners, high jumpers. Our sportsmen also participate in the Olympic games and
always win a lot of gold, silver and bronze medals.
The Olympic games has a very long history. They began in 777 BC in
Greece and took place every four years for nearly twelve centuries at Olympia.
They included many different kinds of sports. All the cities in Greece sent
their best athletes to Olympia to compete in the Games. For the period of the
Games all the wars stopped. So the Olympic games became the symbol of peace and
Now, summer and winter Games are held separately. There are always
several cities wishing to host the Games. The most suitable is selected by the
international Committee. After that the city of the Games starts preparations
for the competitions, construct new sport facilities, stadiums, hotels, press
centers. Thousand of athletes, journalists and guests come to the Games , and
it takes great efforts to arrange everything. There is always an interesting
cultural programme of concerts, exhibitions, festivals, etc., for each Games.
Russia joined the Olympic movement in1952. In 1980 Moscow hosted the
twenty-second Olympic Games. The latest Olympic Games were held in Barcelona.
Russian sportsmen got medals for their records in many sport events.
need help. Earth is in danger.
have lived on our planet for many years. They lived and live on different
continents, in different countries. People depend on their planet, on the sun,
on animals and plants around them. People must take care of Earth. Our ecology
becomes worse and worse with every new day. Many species of animals and birds
are disappearing nowadays. People destruct wildlife, cut down trees to make
furniture. They forget that people can’t live without trees and plants, because
they fill air with oxygen. And, of course, great problems are population and
animals destruction. The main reason of pollution is rubbish. Most of our
rubbish goes to big holes in the ground, called ‘dumps’. But dumps are very
dangerous for our life ‘cause they are full of rats, which can carry infections
away from dumps. Another way to get rid of rubbish is to burn it. But the fires
make poisons, which go into the air and pollute it. But pollution isn’t the
only actual problem. Every day a big number of animals dissapeares. People kill
animals for different aims: e.g. people hunt whales for their meat and oil;
elephants for their tusks, crocodiles for their leather and so on. And also
animals are used for medical experiments. The most wide – speared from such
animals are monkeys. Modern life is bad for animals, birds, fish. The air isn’t
fresh and the water isn’t pure. They don’t have good meal and facilities for the
life. You can find their names in the Red Book.
course, people can’t stay indifferent to these problems. There are a lot of
special organizations, which try to save our nature. The most known are: The
Royal Society for the prevention of cruelty to animals (The RSPCA), the World
Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Greenpeace. The RSPCA tries to protect animals from bad
use. It operates big nation campaigns aimed at lost pets, circus animals. The
WWF rescued several species of animals, mammals as well as birds. These
organization also helped to create more than 250 National parks. Greenpeace
began its work 20 years ago from saving whales. And now Greenpeace is a
world-famous organization, which saves plants, animals and people. These
organization, want to rescue animals, to help them to survive and to save
jungle rain forests, which are in danger of destruction. And they also help
animals ‘cause many of them have already gone as they have nowhere to live.
Their homes, the trees, have disappeared. We must save wild animals. And we
must find the right way to save land, people and animals. We must lake care of
nature, because we are part of it.
plans for the future.
you leave school you understand that the time to choose your future profession
has come. It’s not an easy task to make right choice of a job. You can start a
working career go into business or continue schooling to receive a higher
education. There is one institute or a few institutes is nearly every Russian
city. There are dozens of them in Moscow and St. Petersburg. If you want to get
a professional training you can enter a technical college. There are over 2000
professions to choose and make a decision.
is a dilemma for all family. Fathers usually wants their children to follow
their footsteps. Mothers don’t want their sons and daughters to leave the
native town. So they persuade kids to enter local colleges and universities.
of the wide difference in jobs, you should find out all you can about any job
which interests you. This can be done by going to the library and by reading
widely, and also by talking to adults who have different kinds of jobs. You
also need to think about how well you can do what you would like to do.
follow their parents advice and some follow their own choice.
make the right choice you should consider your traits and characters. To become
a good doctor you must be patient, easygoing and kind/ The teacher’s work
requires love for children, profound knowledge of subjects and the ability to
explain. Detective’s job is very stressful. He must be brave, fair and strong.
couple of years ago I wanted to become a doctor. I thought it was a very noble
profession. I was good at biology at the 8 and 9 forms. I wanted to help people
who had problems with their health. I know that a doctor should be noble in
work and life, kind and attentive to people, honest and prudent. A doctor who
is selfish and dishonest can’t be good at his profession. I tried to do my best
to develop good traits in myself.
I have already decided what to do. I’d like to be a teacher. I know that it is
very difficult to be a good teacher. You should know perfectly the subject you
teach, you must be well-educated and well-informed. A good teacher develops in
his students a desire for knowledge and love for truth and beauty. Teaching
must be the greatest of all the arts. It is a great responsibility to educate
the children. I think that’s the reason why teachers are deeply respected.
study 5 years at Russian universities. After your final exams you are a
qualified teacher of English. University education is deep and many-sided. Some
students like a post-graduate course to follow an academic career. Most
university graduates take up teaching and return to school. I know that a
teacher’s job is quite difficult. A teacher can’t say that he knows everything
in his field. He goes on learning his subject during all his career to be able
to answer any question. He should be an example of competence.
choosing a career and getting a job are two of the most important things, any
person does in his lifetime. If we don’t think about the future, we won’t have
plans for the future.
millions of young people leave school, they begin an independent life. Some of
them start working, go into business, some of them continue schooling to
receive a higher education.
people can learn about professions in magazines and advertisements. Magazines
for teenagers often offer questionnaires, quizzes or surreys to help young
people to find out what their interests and abilities are more clearly and to
make a decision concerning their future occupation.
choosing a career you should take into consideration main demands that you want
your future profession to meet: the profession must be interesting, you have to
be sure of your future (that means that you will be able to find a job after
graduation from the university), a profession must be well-paid, otherwise you
won’t be able to support yourself and your future family.
our school life we begin to think about our future life, our job. There over
2000 professions in the world, so it is quite difficult to choose and to make a
decision. Some follow their own choice and some follow their relation’s,
teacher’s, parent’s advice, because they can guide them and help to make a
decision concerning future plans. I have never had a question, what I am going
to do when I graduate from my school. I have known from childhood that I want
to be a linguist. I have chosen this profession, because a knowledge of foreign
languages and foreign cultures is growing in importance nowadays. Foreign
languages are needed as the main and the most efficient mean of information
exchange between the people of our planet. Although there are 3000 languages,
English is the most universal. It is the language of progressive science and
technology, trade and cultural relations, and business. It is the universal
language of international aviation, shipping, sports, medicine. English is the
official language in nearly forty countries. It is spoken by more than 350
millions people and also spoken as a second language in many parts of India and
Africa. Besides, millions of people study English as a foreign language . In
our country English is very popular. It is studied at schools, colleges and
is important for me to learn English because I want to know what is going on
round me in the world. With recent advances in technology, the world is
changing rapidly in many fields, such as business, arts and medicine. These
changes will affect me soon and its important for me to read and keep up with
these changes. In fact, learning English is the answer to a lot of the things
that I need and want. And I can’t help mentioning the quotation: “Every man is
the maker of his own fortune.”
conclusion I would like to say it is an advantage to choose our future career
while at school. It gives us a goal to work towards and enables us to choose a
right, suitable course of study. I’d like to mention also that if we don’t
think about our future, nobody will think for us, so we just can’t have one. We
must work hard to archive out ambitions and to realize our wishes, because
future is purchased by the present.
The United Kingdom of Great
official name of GB is the United Kingdom of GB and Northern Ireland. It
occupies the territory of the British Isles. The BI lie to the north-west of
Europe and consists of two main islands: GB and Ireland. Their total area is
over 244.000 square km. The British Isles are separated from the continent by
the North Sea, the English Channel and the strait of Dover which is 18 miles
wide. The western coast of GB is washed by the Atlantic ocean and the Irish
Sea. GB is one of the world’s smaller countries. Its population is over 57
millions. Four out of every five people are urban. But in spite of all the
territory of GB is small, the country has a wide variety of scenery. GB is made
of tree countries: England, Scotland and Wales. Everyone in Britain speaks
English, but in some parts of Scotland and Wales people speak different
languages as well. GB with NI forms the UK of GB and NI. The capital of the UK
is London, in England. England is the largest of three countries which make up
GB. The north and the West of England are mountainous, but the rest of the
territory is a vast plain. The Lake District in Northern England with its
lakes, mountains and valleys is favorite holiday resort. The national symbol of
England is a red rose. The capital of England is London. Its economic,
political and cultural centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and
one of the world’s most important ports. It is situated upon both banks of the
river Thames. But while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one,
the Severn is the largest river.
is the smallest land of the UK, but it is noted for its picturesque mountains
with the highest peaks of GB rivers, waterfalls and lakes. Cardiff is the
capital and the largest city in Wales and its also an important industrial
centre and port. The national symbol of Wales is a leek or a daffodil.
is a land which is known for its beauty. The north of Scotland is mountainous
and is called the Highlands. This is the region of mountains and rivers, small
towns and villages. The highest of mountains is Ben Nevis. The best known
between the lakes is Loch Ness where as some people think a large monster
lives. The capital of Scotland is Edinburg and the great industrial centre is
Glasgow. The national symbol of Scotland is a thistle.
largest island neighbor is Ireland. This is mainly occupied by the independent
Republic of Ireland. Many small islands are also linked with the UK. Most of
the land is hilly, though the mountains are not very high. The capital of NI is
Belfast. The national symbol of Ireland is a shamrock.
mountains, the Atlantic ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence
the climate of the British isles. The summers are usually cool and rainy. And
there is much rain and fog in autumn and in winter. That’s why GB is a very
flag of the UK is known as the Union Jack. It is made up of 3 crosses: the
cross of St. Jorge, St. Andrew and St. Patrick.
the UK is a highly developed industrial power. It is one of the most powerful
countries in Europe.
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school system in Great Britain.
in Britain is compulsory and free for all children between the ages of 5-16.
Nine tenths of all children are educated in state schools. All books and
equipment are provided free. Uniform is worn in many schools but this is mow
quite flexible. Students never repeat a year in British system, but they may be
sent to a vocation school or section.
school. Schoolchildren attend a primary school for 6 years (from 5 to 11
years). They study general subjects and special help is given to children with
handicaps and learning difficulties. The division between primary and secondary
education is at the age of 11 when almost all children in the state system
school. When students transfer to Secondary school at the age of 11, they don’t
take any examination, but their reports are sent on from Primary school.
children - over 80 % - go to a comprehensive school. “Comprehensive” means
all-inclusive. They admit pupils of all abilities. But there are also grammar
schools and secondary modern schools. The pupils have to pass an exam to go
there; so admission depends on the result of the selective exams and the pupils
types of secondary school have the five year courses for pupils from 11 years
up to the school leaving age.
in all State schools in England and Wales study 10 main subjects: English,
Mathematics, Science. Foundation subjects: History, Geography, A Modern
language, Art, Music, Information Technology, Physical education, Religious
education is also taught.
tests are given at the ages of 7, 11, 14, 16. At the end of a 5-year course, at
the age of 16, students sit the General Certificate of Secondary Education
exams in as many subjects as possible. Weak students may only sit for free or
four subjects. Better students take ten
the age of 16 about two third of these pupils leave school and get jobs or
apprenticeships. About one-third stay at school until the age of 18 preparing
themselves for higher education.
6th form. More ambitious pupils continue to study in the 6th form. They stay on
at school for one or two years to prepare themselves for university. They have
only three or four main subjects which are necessary to pass the advanced level
exams at the age of 18. In addition to the foundation subjects the 6th formers
are offered many other courses at Advanced Level such as classical
Civilization, Further Mathematics, Information Technology, History of Art,
Social Biology and many others.
school year is divided into three terms with the intervals between them during
the Christmas and Easter holidays lasting about two weeks each and the summer
holiday which begins rather late and is usually six weeks long.
kinds of out-of-class activities are part of school life in Britain. Students
have a lot of opportunities for playing sports, attending different clubs and
singing in choir. Most schools have very good libraries which students use for
is no frigate like a book.”
English author once wrote: “Some books are to be tasted, others to be swallowed
or digested.” This quotation tells us how to read books of different kinds.
Most travel books are to be tasted. It’s enough to dip into them and read bits
here, bits there. If you are fond of crime stories you will read them quickly,
you’ll ‘swallow’ them and then there are books that you’ll read slowly and
carefully. If a book is on important subject and a subject you are interested
in you will want to chew it and digest it. And you’ll want to weight what the
author says and consider his ideas and arguments.
rise of television has been coupled with the death of books. Some people ask
what can be done to rescued them. But I think that books don’t need to be
rescued. A book is one of the greatest wonders in the world. It gives us a
unique chance to link up with authors who lived hundreds and thousands of years
ago. I thank books, because if there were no books, we couldn’t talk to people
who lived in different years and countries. Through reading books we hear their
voices, thoughts and feelings. Books are the surest way to bring nations
together. They give us an insight not only into the past but also into the
future. I think that book is a faithful and undemanding friend for all of us:
it can be put aside and taken up again at any moment.
have recently read a book which has made a very deep impression on me. It is
called “Gone with the Wind” and it makes really unforgettable reading. The
author of the book is Margaret Mitchell. “Gone with the Wind” published in
1936, became an immediate bestseller and won the Pulitzer Prize. A film version
of the novel was made in 1939.
Mitchell and all her family was interesting in American history, and she grew
up in an atmosphere of stories about the Civil War.
1925 she got married. In the following ten years she put on paper all stories
she had heard about the Civil War. And this way was born “Gone with the Wind”.
story is set around the time of the America Civil War, when the Southern States
went to war with the North to defend their way of life. It was the way of life
in which rich gentry lived in large houses, cultivated by black slaves. Scarlet
O’Hara was born into one of these rich houses. When this way of life was
destroyed she use all her beauty to build a new life.
washes away from the soul all the dust of everyday life”.-Pablo Picasso. I
agree with this quotation, because art is really a fantastic thing, and it can
influence our minds and our behavior.
quotation is tightly connected with literature. While reading any book, it
appeals to us. Books impress you so much that you are taken to another world.
You start to look at the world through rose colors.
when you read something interesting you become emotional and you think only
about that book. So you forget about life with problems it has. When you read a
book you become another person.