English Literature books summary

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English Literature books summary



Last update: 17.12.2002 (version 3.1)


1) 1984 by G.Orwell_______________________________________________ 2

2)   Animal Farm by G.Orwell_______________________________________ 15

3) Childe Harold by G.G.Byron_____________________________________17

4) The French Lieutenant's Woman by J.Fowles______________________ 18

a) French Lieutenant’s Woman in Russian__________________________ 20

5) Gulliver’s Travels by Daniel Defoe________________________________ 21

6) Heart of Darkness by J.Conrad__________________________________ 29

7) Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott_____________________________________ 32

8) Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H.Lawrence_________________________ 36

9) Lord of the Flies by W.Golding___________________________________ 38

10) Middlemarch by G.Eliot_________________________________________ 42

11) Oliver Twist by Ch.Dickens_____________________________________ 55

a) The Poor Laws______________________________________________ 63

b) What does the phrase "justice is blind" normally mean?______________ 64

c)   The Victorian middle class's stereotypes of the poor.________________ 65

12) A Passage to India by E.M.Forster________________________________ 65

13) Pride and Prejudice by J. Austen_________________________________ 71

14) Pygmalion by B.Shaw_________________________________________ 82

15) The Quiet American by G.Greene_________________________________86

16) Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe_______________________________ 87

17) The Picture of Dorian Grey by O.Wilde____________________________ 92

18) The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1866 - 1946)_____________________ 102

19) Ulysses by J.Joyce___________________________________________ 103

20) Vanity Fair by W.Thackeray____________________________________ 109

21) William Shakespeare_________________________________________ 117

a) Extremely Short Summaries. Good for Seminars__________________ 117

i)   A Midsummer Night's Dream_____________________________ 117

ii)   The Merchant of Venice_________________________________ 118

iii)   The Tragedy of Richard II________________________________ 118

iv)   Hamlet, Prince of Denmark______________________________ 118

v)   Othello______________________________________________ 119

vi)   King Lear, 1594_______________________________________ 119

vii)   The First Part of King Henry IV____________________________ 119

viii)   The Tragedy of Julius Caesar____________________________ 120

ix)   Macbeth____________________________________________ 120

x)   Romeo and Juliet______________________________________ 120

b) Full Summaries of Some Shakespeare's Works___________________ 121

i)   Hamlet______________________________________________ 121

ii)   King Lear___________________________________________ 127

iii)   Macbeth____________________________________________ 133

iv)   The Merchant of Venice_________________________________ 138

v)   Othello______________________________________________ 142

vi)   Richard III____________________________________________ 144

vii)   Romeo and Juliet______________________________________ 149

viii)   The Tempest_________________________________________ 152

ix)   Twelfth Night_________________________________________ 153

22) Wuthering Heights___________________________________________ 156


1984 by G.Orwell

Part 1

Chapter 1


The book opens on a cold April day with 39-year-old Winston Smith returning to his dilapidated flat in Victory Mansions. The hallway sports an enormous poster of a man known as "Big Brother"; the caption reads, "BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU." The eyes of the poster seem to follow Winston as he moves.

Upon entering his flat, Winston dims the telescreen (where someone is reading statistics about pig-iron production), which can never be turned off completely, and which both receives and transmits. Outside, Winston can see "BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU" posters, a poster with the word "INGSOC" on it, and the police patrol spying on people.

Winston is living in London, the predominant city of the province known as Airstrip One in Oceania. Bombed sites reveal that some sort of war is going on. Winston tries to recall his childhood, to see if things have always been like this, but cannot.

Outside his window stands the Ministry of Truth (a.k.a. "Minitrue" in Newspeak, the official language of Oceania), an enormous structure displaying the three slogans of _the Party_: WAR IS PEACE, FREEDOM IS SLAVERY, IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH. There are four Ministries: the Ministry of Truth concerns itself with the spread of information through news, entertainment, education and the arts; the Ministry of Peace (Minipax) deals with war; the Ministry of Love (Miniluv) administers law and order; and the Ministry of Plenty (Miniplenty) handles economic affairs.

After swallowing some shocking Victory Gin and plying himself with a cheap Victory cigarette, Winston carefully tucks himself out of the telescreen's visual range with an old book, an old pen and an inkbottle. These are compromising possessions, acquired through various means; Winston is secretly something of a rebel, unhappy with the status quo. What he is about to do--start a diary--is not "illegal" (since, we discover, there are no laws anymore), but is certainly life-threatening.

Unused to writing by hand, Winston falters momentarily before writing "April 4th, 1984." He sits back, uncertain whether it actually is 1984, and he suddenly wonders for whom he is writing. Here the concept of _doublethink_ (see Analysis) hits him; his attempt to communicate with the future is impossible, futile. He is no longer sure what he wanted to write; the moment has been building for weeks and suddenly he finds himself wordless. Even when he tries to write, he finds he is not recording the incident which had inspired him to begin the diary on this day .

This incident took place during that morning's "Two Minutes Hate," a daily, almost orgiastic ritual of propaganda. Winston recalls noticing two people: a girl whose name he does not know but whom he recognizes as working in the Fiction Department, and O'Brien, an imposing man and member of the Inner Party. Winston feels a dislike for the girl, whose youth gives him the sense that she is a dangerous Party zealot; by contrast, he feels drawn to O'Brien in a way almost resembling trust, because he hopes that O'Brien is secretly politically unorthodox.

The "Two Minutes Hate" begins with footage of Emmanuel Goldstein, "the Enemy of the People," castigating the Party. Apparently, Goldstein had once been a leading Party member who rebelled, was condemned to death, and disappeared to form the underground Brotherhood. The symbol of ultimate treachery, Goldstein is featured in every Hate as the source of all crimes against the Party. [Through Winston's reaction, we begin to get the sense that the image and persona of Goldstein are actually completely manufactured, hinting at the possibility that he is in fact a propagandistic creation of the Party. This is reinforced by the observation that there are always new spies, new Brotherhood members, being exposed every day, despite the Party's brutal efficiency in creating universal hatred for Goldstein.]

As the Hate goes on, people get increasingly worked up, shouting and throwing things at the screen. [It is, Winston notes, impossible to avoid joining in.] The Hate overwhelms the members, sweeping them into a blind ecstasy of hatred. Winston directs his hatred at the girl, because, he realizes, he wants to sleep with her.

The Hate reaches its climax when the terrifying images melt into the face of Big Brother, who utters soothing words before fading away into the three Party slogans. The crowd, passionately relieved at the appearance of their "savior" starts to chant, "B-B! . . . B-B!" Here Winston catches O'Brien's eye. In an instant, Winston feels that O'Brien is communicating to him that he is on his side; this is the moment which brings him to his diary.

After some reflection, Winston looks again at his page and finds he has been writing automatically:


He knows there is no point in tearing out the page, because he has committed thoughtcrime, and in the end the Thought Police will get him anyway; he, and every last vestige of his existence, will be completely wiped out--"vaporized."

Suddenly there is a knock at the door. Winston is terrified by this, but knows that to delay would be worse than anything, so he gets up to answer it.

Chapter 2


Winston finds Mrs. Parsons, his neighbour, at his door, asking him if he can help repair her kitchen sink. Mrs. Parsons is a rather helpless, dusty-looking woman; her husband Tom works with Winston at the Ministry of Truth. Tom is something of an imbecile, slavishly devoted to the Party and quite active in its social workings.

As Winston clears the blockage from the pipe, the Parsons children come out and start dancing around him, calling him a "traitor" and a "thought-criminal." These children, like many others, are horrid little savages being trained to be good Party members through systematic brainwashing; many denounce their own parents to the Thought Police.

Winston returns to his diary and starts thinking of O'Brien. About seven years ago he had had a dream where he had been walking through a dark room and someone had said to him, "We shall meet in the place where there is no darkness." At some point, Winston identified the voice as O'Brien's. Whether or not O'Brien is a friend or an enemy--and Winston still isn't sure--they are connected by an understanding.

Winston feels isolated, yet pursued, everywhere faced (literally) by Big Brother. He knows his thoughtcrime--his diary--will result only in annihilation. Yet somehow, he takes heart in the idea that in the very act of recording truths he is keeping himself sane and carrying on humanity. He returns to his diary and starts to write "to the future or to the past, to a time when thought is free."

"Thoughtcrime does not entail death: thoughtcrime IS death," Winston writes, and in doing so recognizes himself as already dead. He now must simply stay alive as long as possible.

Winston carefully washes the ink from his hands and puts the diary away before going back to work.

Chapter 3


Winston dreams of his mother that she and his baby sister are sinking down away from him, having in some way given their lives so he could survive. He barely remembers his family, as they had likely fallen victim to a purge in the 1950s. His mother's death, he feels, was a particular tragedy, arising from a loyalty and complex emotion which are no longer possible.

The dream shifts suddenly to an idyllic spot Winston calls "the Golden Country," where the dark-haired girl comes to him and in one graceful, careless gesture, tears off her clothes and flings them aside. Winston feels no desire for her, but instead a strong admiration of the defiance of the gesture, which itself belongs to a previous time, just like Winston's mother's love. Winston wakes up saying the word "Shakespeare."

Winston is awakened by the telescreen. The Physical Jerks--morning exercises--begin, directed by a woman on the screen. As he exercises, Winston tries to remember the era of his childhood. He recalls an air raid which caught everyone off guard, and since which Oceania had been continuously at war. Currently, in 1984, Oceania is at war with Eurasia and allied with Eastasia.

Although there are no records kept to contradict the given current alignment, Winston knows that four years ago the alliance was reversed; still, the present situation is always officially represented as though it has always been. Winston is terrified by the thought that by so thoroughly controlling history and information, the Party might actually be creating a new truth. He reflects that the past has been destroyed because it only exists in his own memory. Only once has Winston held proof that a historical fact had been officially falsified--but his thoughts are interrupted by the woman on screen shouting at him, Winston Smith, to try harder.

Chapter 4


Winston is at his job in the Records Department in the Ministry of Truth. He receives four assignments, tiny slips of paper on which are written (mostly in Newspeak) his instructions. As it turns out, these messages involve the "correction" of past issues of the Times, where a speech of Big Brother's is "misreported" ("malreported" in Newspeak) or statistics forecasting manufacturing output are "misprinted." The first three assignments are simple; the fourth one, which mentions "unpersons," is an enticingly elaborate task which involves some use of imagination, and Winston sets it aside to be dealt with last, almost like a dessert.

Winston uses his speakwrite (a sort of dictaphone) to quickly deal with each of the first three assignments; he rewrites the articles, pushes his work through the pneumatic tube in his cubicle, and disposes of the original message and any notes through the "memory hole," which leads to a furnace. In this way, newspapers, books, cartoons, even films and photographs, are continually re-edited so as to conform with the current state of political and economic affairs, and to make it appear as though the Party has always been correct in its predictions or consistent in its alliances. Any and all prior editions are destroyed, no matter how many revisions are made.

Winston reflects that in many cases, what he is doing is not really forgery, because the original statistics or "facts" are made up to begin with. Nobody really knows anything except that on paper, millions of pairs of boots are being produced, while on the streets, half of Oceania's population runs barefoot.

Looking around, Winston notes that he hardly knows the people in his Department, or what they do exactly. Across the hall from him Tillotson, who flashes him a hostile look, sits with his speakwrite; a woman from the Two Minutes Hate, whose husband had been vaporized, works next to Winston at tracking down and eliminating references to "unpersons" (people whose existences had been obliterated); and the dreamy Ampleforth works a few cubicles away at rewriting poems so their ideologies will correspond with the dominant one. As Winston reflects on the Department as a whole, the staggering size of the operation becomes evident, especially as it is only one part of the Ministry of Truth, which not only supplies materials to Party members but to the "proles" (proletariat) as well.

At last, after disposing of some more messages and attending the Hate, Winston settles down to work away at his engaging assignment: rewriting a highly "unsatisfactory" article in an issue of the Times which references people who no longer exist. Winston reads the original article, where Big Brother's Order for the Day praises an organization called the FFCC and awards the Order of Conspicuous Merit, Second Class, to one Comrade Withers, a member of the Inner Party. Three months after this, however, the FFCC had been dissolved and its members presumably disgraced, though there was no report of this. Winston knows that this is the way it usually happens: people who somehow displease the Party simply vanish and are never heard from again. Although Winston does not know why Withers fell from grace, he does know that the man is most likely dead, since he is called an "unperson."

Winston decides to rewrite the speech entirely on a new topic: the commemoration of the exemplary life of Comrade Ogilvy. Ogilvy, of course, is purely Winston's invention, but he will be given life through a few lines and a faked photograph or two. Winston creates Ogilvy's life‹that of a textbook good Party member from the age of three‹and his heroic death with a zesty enjoyment of the process.

Although Winston is fairly certain that other people, including Tillotson, have been given the same assignment, he also believes that his own version will be the one that is chosen.

Chapter 5


Winston is in the rather unpleasant canteen, where he meets up with Syme‹not exactly his "friend" (since you have comrades rather than friends), but one whose society is more pleasant to Winston than that of others. Syme, a philologist, works in the Research Department and is one of a team of experts who are compiling the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary. (See Appendix for an in-depth discussion of Newspeak and points relevant to this chapter.)

Syme asks Winston if he has any razor blades‹there is currently a shortage, as there always is of one item or another. Winston lies that he hasn't, though he has been saving two unused ones against the razor blade famine. As he and Syme go through the queue, Syme discusses yesterday's public hanging of prisoners with a relish that demonstrates his rabid yet somehow intellectual orthodoxy.

As they eat their disgusting and somewhat unidentifiable lunch, Winston gets Syme talking about the Dictionary's progress. Syme, immediately fired with enthusiasm and a strange love for Newspeak, goes into a panegyric about the destruction of words and the nature of Newspeak, which is, he points out, the only language which gets smaller every year. This limiting of vocabulary, Syme points out, is aimed at limiting thought so that unorthodoxy will become literally impossible, since there will no longer exist words to express or explain concepts that run counter to the accepted ideology.

Syme discourses so intelligently upon these topics that Winston suddenly thinks that Syme will certainly be vaporized someday, despite his political orthodoxy. He is too intelligent for the Party to allow him to stick around. In addition, he is somehow "shady"‹not subtle enough, too well-read, with a tendency to frequent the Chestnut Street Cafe, where long ago the old Party leaders would meet before they were discredited, and Goldstein was rumored to have spent time.

Parsons, Winston's neighbor, appears in the canteen and makes his way over to Winston and Syme (who takes out some work to avoid having to interact with Parsons). Parsons, a large man with a dumb devotion to the Party and its ideals, asks Winston for his subscription payment for the upcoming "Hate Week." Parsons talks proudly about his monstrous children, the younger of whom turned in a suspicious-looking person to the authorities.

Discussion is halted by an announcement from the Ministry of Plenty, describing how production is up and the standard of living has been raised. It is reported that a demonstration has been held to thank B.B. for raising the chocolate ration to 20 grams/week, and Winston wonders incredulously whether people can swallow this after having been told the day before that the ration was being reduced from 30 grams/week to 20. Yet the people around him, either through not thinking at all or through doublethink, do accept it, forcing him to wonder whether he is the only person around who has a memory.

Depressed, Winston looks around, at the horrid food, ugly clothes, and bleak surroundings. Somehow he feels that things should be better, even though he has never known a time when they were‹when food tasted pleasant and things worked as they were supposed to. Even the people look ugly to him, belying the Party's Aryan ideal.

The announcement ends, and Winston lapses into a reverie thinking about who he knows will likely be vaporized, and who will not‹namely, Parsons, the girl with the dark hair, and the man at a nearby table who has been speaking in a quack about the wonders and achievements of the Party.

Winston is startled out of his reverie by the awareness that the girl with the dark hair is sitting at the next table, and is looking at him. She turns away, but Winston is terrified because she has been turning up near him a good deal lately. He worries that she may be an amateur spy and that he may have committed facecrime, the unconscious betrayal of unorthodox opinions via facial expressions or tics.

Parsons tells Winston another horrid story about his disgusting children, and they are signalled to return to work.

Chapter 6


Winston is writing in his diary about an encounter he had three years ago with a prostitute. The memory is embarrassing and difficult for him, and he feels an almost irresistible urge to scream obscenities or burst out into some violent action to relieve his tension.

Of course he doesn't give in to the urge, and steels himself to continue writing. His writing is interlaced with the memory of Katharine, his wife, to whom he would technically still be married‹unless she were dead‹although they are separated, because the Party does not permit divorce. Katharine was physically attractive but, Winston soon discovered, completely brainwashed by the Party, even in matters of sex. According to the Party, there should be no pleasure in sex, which was an act intended to beget children for the future of the Party. Katharine bought into this ideology to the point where sex was an outright unpleasant act for Winston; since no children were conceived, the couple were allowed to separate. Perhaps because of his experience with Katharine, Winston believes that none of the women in the Party have retained their natural sex drive.

Winston continues to write about his experience with the prostitute, who had led him into a dark room with a bed. When he turned up the light, he discovered to his horror that the woman was old, at least 50. But he proceeded anyway.

Despite having gotten it all out, Winston does not feel any less inclined to shout obscenities.

Chapter 7


Once again Winston is writing in his diary. "If there is hope," he writes, "it lies in the proles." Winston reasons that the proles are so numerous that if they simply woke up they could bring down the Party. But would they ever wake up? He remembers a day when he had been walking and heard a great cry of anger; in hope, he hurried to the spot to see what was happening. As it turned out, a stall that had been selling saucepans had run out, and the disappointed women were momentarily united in their despair. But, to Winston's disgust, rather than remaining united and surging up against the source of their misery, they turned on each other instead, fighting over the pans.

Winston reflects on the Party's attitude toward the proles, itself an exercise in doublethink: while the Party claims to have liberated the proles from the horrendous bonds of capitalism, it also teaches that the proles are inferior and must be kept in line with a few simple rules. But in general, the Party leaves the proles alone, to live as they have always lived, outside of the Party's strict moral and behavioral dictates.

What Winston is not sure of is whether life before the Revolution was really that much worse than it is in 1984. He looks at a children's history book which he has borrowed from Mrs. Parsons, reading a passage about life before the Revolution, when most people were poor and miserable, and all money and power were concentrated into the hands of a very few evil persons known as capitalists. Yet he can never be sure how much of it is lies; he only has an instinctive feeling in his bones that life doesn't have to be as miserable as it is, and that there must have been something better at one time. Life, in fact, not only belies the constant stream of Party propaganda, it does not even approach the Party's avowed ideal of a militarily ordered society in which every moment of every day is a triumphant struggle for the principles of Ingsoc.

Considering the regular erasure of the past, Winston once again recalls the one time (mentioned earlier) when he had held concrete evidence of the falsification of history. In the mid-1960s, three of the last surviving original leaders of the Revolution, Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford, had been arrested, vanished temporarily, and then had returned to make spectacular confessions of treachery. Afterwards, they had been pardoned, reinstated in the Party and given hollow but important-sounding positions.

Winston had seen them in the Chestnut Street Cafe with a mixture of fascination at how they embodied history and terror at the certainty of their imminent destruction. No one sat near them; they sat alone at a table with an untouched chessboard and glasses of gin. Winston noticed that Rutherford, once a strong man, looked as though he were breaking up before his eyes.

A song came over the telescreen: "Under the spreading chestnut tree/ I sold you and you sold me:/ There lie they, and here lie we/ Under the spreading chestnut tree." The three men remained motionless, but Winston saw that Rutherford's eyes were full of tears, and suddenly noticed that both Aaronson and Rutherford had broken noses.

Shortly after this, they were re-arrested and executed after a second trial. Five years later, in about 1973, Winston was at his work when among his assignment-related documents he found part of a page from an earlier edition of the Times, dated about 10 years earlier, showing a photograph of Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford at a Party function in New York. At their trials, the men had confessed to have been in Eurasia consorting with the enemy on that very date. Clearly the confessions were untrue. Though this was not in itself surprising, the existence of this piece of paper was concrete evidence of the Party's action.

Winston carefully calmed himself, then disposed of the evidence through the memory hole. If it had happened today, he thinks, he would have kept the photograph; somehow the fact of its existence, the fact that he had held it in his hand, is reassuring to him. But he knows that because the past is continually rewritten, the photograph today might not even be evidence.

Winston does not understand why such an effort is being made to falsify the past (i.e. the long-term goal). Perhaps, he thinks, he is crazy; this does not scare him, though. What scares him is that he might be wrong in thinking the past unchangeable. He picks up the book and looks at the picture of B.B. on the frontispiece. In a sort of despairing fear, Winston thinks to himself that the Party will eventually claim that 2 + 2 = 5, and that you would have to believe it; and again he is tormented by the fear that they might, after all, be right.

But abruptly, his belief in common sense reasserts itself, and he somehow feels that he is writing his diary to O'Brien. Defiantly, he defends the truth of the obvious, writing, "Freedom is the freedom to say that two plus two make four. If that is granted, all else follows."

Chapter 8


Winston is walking through the streets, taking a risk in missing his second evening at the Community Centre in three weeks, but having been unable to pass up the lovely evening air. He has been walking aimlessly through the streets, observing the people and their surroundings, which are equally dilapidated. Identifiable as a Party member by his blue overalls, he is watched warily by the inhabitants, and reflects that it would be dangerous to run into the patrols here, since it could draw you to the Thought Police's attention.

Suddenly there is a commotion and people start bolting indoors; Winston is warned by a passerby that a bomb is about to fall. He throws himself down to protect himself against the blast. The bomb falls 200 meters away on a group of houses. He approaches the site and comes upon a severed human hand, which he kicks into the gutter before turning into a side street to avoid the crowd.

Winston passes a group of men who are arguing about the Lottery, which is the one public event the proles really attend to and sink their energy and powers of calculation into. However, as Winston knows, the big prizes are awarded to fictitious persons, and only small sums are actually paid out by the Ministry of Plenty.

Winston walks into a neighborhood which seems familiar; after a short while he recognizes it as the area where he had purchased his diary, penholder and ink. He pauses, and sees an old man entering a pub across the alley. He is suddenly seized with the impulse to try and find out from this old man what life was like before the Revolution.

He hurries into the pub, creating a bit of a pause in activity, and, after witnessing an argument between the old man (who demands a pint) and the barman (who only deals in liters and half-liters), Winston buys the old man a beer. They sit in a noisy corner near a window and Winston tries to get the old man to tell him about the past. However, the man latches onto details that are too small to prove to Winston one way or another whether the Party histories are true or false.

Winston leaves, thinking sadly that even now, when there are survivors of the pre-Revolution days, it is impossible to find out whether the big picture had changed for better or worse. He walks on, not thinking where he is going, until he stops and realizes that he is outside the junk-shop where he had bought the diary.

After some hesitation, he judges it safer to enter the shop than loiter outside of it, and starts to talk with the proprietor, Mr. Charrington. Winston wanders through the shop, and his attention is caught by a glass paperweight with a coral inside. Captivated by its beauty, Winston buys it for $4.00 and puts it into his pocket. The man, cheered by the money, invites Winston to see an upstairs room. It is a bedroom furnished with old-fashioned furniture, but most importantly, with no telescreen. Winston feels a nostalgic security, almost a familiarity with the room, and the thought flashes through his mind that it might be possible to rent this room‹though he immediately abandons the notion.

The proprietor shows Winston an engraving of an old church which had been bombed long ago, St. Clement's Dane. He quotes an old nursery rhyme: "Oranges and lemons,' say the bells of St. Clement's, You owe me three farthings,' say the bells of St. Martin's"; he doesn't remember the rhyme in full, but he does recall the ending: "Here comes a candle to light you to bed, Here comes a chopper to chop off your head." He talks a little about the churches in the rhyme; Winston wonders when they had been built, to what era they belonged.

Winston doesn't buy the engraving, but stays to talk a bit with Mr. Charrington, seeming somehow to hear the bells of the nursery rhyme in his head (though he has never actually heard church bells ringing as far as he remembers). As he leaves, he decides to return to the shop after a month or so, to buy things and talk to Charrington and maybe rent the room...

He is roused horribly from his reverie by seeing the girl with dark hair walking towards him. She looks directly at him, then continues on her way. Paralyzed, Winston realizes that she must be spying on him‹why else should she be there? He walks in the wrong direction with a pain in his gut, then turns, and considers killing her with the paperweight. But he abandons the idea, as well as every other one he considers for trying to safeguard himself. He simply goes home.

Once there, he takes out his diary but doesn't write anything for a while as he struggles with his fear and the paralysis it has brought upon him. He tries to open the diary, to think of O'Brien, but his mind is on the torture that inevitably falls between capture by the Thought Police and death (both of which are certain once you have committed thoughtcrime).

He recalls his dream, where O'Brien said that they would meet "in the place where there is no darkness"; this place, he believes, is the imagined future. But the face of B.B. drifts into his mind, pushing out O'Brien. Winston takes a coin out of his pocket, and looks at it, trying to fathom B.B.'s smile; the three Party slogans ring through his head.

Part 2

Chapter 1


On his way to the lavatory one morning, Winston encounters the girl with dark hair in the corridor. Her right arm is in a sling. As she approaches, she suddenly trips and falls on her arm, and cries out in pain. Although Winston regards her as a dangerous enemy, he also feels sorry for her and helps her up. As he does so, she very discreetly slips a small piece of paper into his hand, surprising him greatly.

Though he is fired with curiosity, Winston knows he cannot look at the piece of paper for a while. He goes back to his desk and tosses the slip casually among the other papers there. As he works, he speculates that the note could either be some sort of threat or summons or trap from the Thought Police, or‹and this excites him‹a message from some sort of underground organization like the Brotherhood.

When he finally gets the chance to look at the note, he is astounded, because it reads "I love you."

This naturally throws him into an agitation for the rest of the morning. During lunch he is not even allowed the luxury of temporary solitude, as Parsons immediately shows up to bore him with details of Hate Week preparations. After lunch, Winston immerses himself in his work, and goes to the Community Centre in the evening; he is waiting to be alone in bed to think.

At last he is alone, and he begins to think about how to meet her. It would be impossible to repeat that morning's method. He cannot follow her home because it would entail waiting around outside the Ministry, which would be bound to be noticed. Sending a letter would be impossible as mail is routinely opened. The only solution is to sit at a table with her in the canteen, somewhere in the middle of the room as far as possible from the telescreens, amidst a buzz of conversation in which the brief exchange of a few words could go unnoticed.

The next week is torture for Winston: the girl disappears for three days, during which time he cannot stop thinking about her and worrying that she has been vaporized or that she has changed her mind. She reappears, but Winston is unable to sit with her in the canteen, though he tries. The next day he succeeds, and they form a plan to meet that evening in Victory Square.

In the Square, Winston sees the girl but must wait until more people have gathered so as to speak with her unnoticed. Fortunately, the passing of a convoy of Eurasian prisoners allows Winston and the girl to lose themselves in a massive crowd of onlookers. They squeeze next to one another to watch, and the girl subtly gives Winston detailed directions to a place where they can meet on Sunday afternoon.

They continue to watch the prisoners, and right before they must part, the girl squeezes Winston's hand.

Chapter 2


It is Sunday afternoon. Winston is out in the country after what sounds like an almost pleasant journey by train. He is early, and comes across a thick patch of bluebells; he stoops to pick some, and the girl arrives. She leads him expertly through the woods to a hidden clearing. They talk a little, then start to kiss, but Winston feels no physical desire yet because his disbelief and proud joy are too strong.

The girl, Julia, doesn't seem to mind; she sits up and they start to talk some more. She is brassy and rebellious, even producing some wonderfully tasty black-market chocolate, though she goes out of her way to present a fanatically devout front in order to stay safe. She is young, and Winston doesn't understand why she should be attracted to him; she explains that it was something in his face, that she could tell he didn't belong, that he hated the Party.

They leave the clearing and walk around, coming finally to the edge of the wood. There, Winston has a gradual shock: he recognizes the landscape as the Golden Country of his dreams. As if to prove it, he asks Julia if there is a stream nearby, and she replies that there is.

A thrush lands nearby and starts to sing, its song startling in the stillness. The song is beautiful, original, never quite the same, and Winston watches and listens with awe. What, he asks himself, makes the bird sing, if there is no other bird around to listen or respond? Gradually, however, Winston stops thinking and simply feels the beauty of it. At this point he kisses Julia and feels that he is ready to make love.

They hasten back to the clearing. Julia turns to him, and just as in his dream, she defiantly tears off her clothes and flings them aside. Before doing anything, Winston takes her hands and asks her: has she done this before? Yes, quite a lot. With Party members? Always, though never with Inner Party members. Winston is filled with joy at the thought that the Party is at its foundation corrupt. He tells Julia that he hates purity and goodness and that he desires corruption; she responds that she ought to suit him just fine. His final question: does she enjoy the act of sex itself? When she replies, "I adore it," Winston's last hope is fulfilled, and they make love.

They fall asleep. Winston awakens first to reflect that their act has been a political one, "a blow struck against the Party."

Chapter 3


Julia arranges the details of her and Winston's departures from the clearing, using her practical sense (which Winston feels he lacks) and her thorough knowledge of the countryside around London. They never return to the clearing, as it turns out, and only once more that month succeed in making love, inside the ruins of a church.

As they meet during the evenings, they "talk by instalments," as Julia puts it‹their conversation cuts in and out mid-sentence according to the relative levels of safety in their surroundings. Once during a walk, a bomb falls near them, and Winston, thinking the plaster-whitened Julia is dead, kisses her‹to discover that she is alive and he is coated in plaster too.

Meetings are dangerous and difficult to coordinate as their schedules rarely coincide. Julia is astonishingly busy with Party activities; her view is that as long as you keep up appearances and obey the small rules, you could transgress the bigger ones. She even convinces Winston to volunteer as a part-time munition worker.

Julia is 26, and works on the machinery in the Fiction Department, literally churning out novels like any other mass-produced commodity. She has established such a good character for herself that she had even been selected to work in Pornosec, the division of the department dedicated to producing cheap pornography for the proles. Her first affair was at age sixteen; her view of life is simply that it is an eternal struggle between you and the Party over whether or not you can have a good time.

She and Winston never discuss marriage, knowing it to be an impossibility; but they do discuss Katharine. Julia asks about her, but seems to know most of the essentials regarding Katharine's frigidity, even the fact that she called sex "our duty to the Party." Julia knows because she had undergone the same education as Katharine; intriguingly, and perhaps because she is more sexually liberated, Julia has a clearer comprehension than Winston of the Party's stance on sex.

Winston tells Julia about an incident early in his marriage to Katharine where they had gotten lost on a community hike. They ended up near the edge of a cliff. Katharine, uncomfortable, wanted to turn around and try to find their way back; Winston points out a plant with two different-colored flowers growing from the same root. As she unwillingly returned to look, Winston realized that they were completely alone, and if he chose to he could push her off the cliff. But he didn't.

He tells Julia he regrets that he didn't, although he knows it wouldn't have made a difference. He lapses into a typically cynical philosophical mood, which Julia, in her youthful and perhaps stubborn optimism, rejects.

Chapter 4


Winston has rented the upstairs room from Mr. Charrington, the antique shop owner, and is waiting for Julia to arrive. Outside, a prole woman is singing one of the drivelly songs churned out by a versificator in the Music Department‹a monstrosity to begin with, but somehow pleasant-sounding in the woman's rendering. The room feels curiously still to Winston because of the absence of a telescreen.

Though taking this room is a huge risk, the couple were unable to resist it after days and weeks of being unable to meet. Winston recalls how when they at last manage to set a day to go back to the clearing, Julia tells him the night before (once again through a meeting on the street) that she can't go because she is menstruating. Winston feels furious‹his feeling toward Julia and desire for her has changed from an act of rebellion to a sense of proprietary physical obligation, and he feels almost like she is cheating him. But at this point, she squeezes his hand with affection and prompts a sudden, new tenderness in him. He realizes that this sort of thing must be normal for couples who live together, and he is overwhelmed by the wish that he and Julia were a happily married couple with no cares and complete privacy to do as they wished. Quite soon after this they agree to rent the room.

Julia arrives, bearing real sugar, white bread, jam, milk, and real coffee and tea‹all Inner Party privileges which she has filched somehow. She then asks Winston to turn his back for a short while; when he is allowed to turn around again, he finds that she has put on makeup and perfume. Before they get into bed, she expresses her intention to find a real dress and high heels so that she can be "a woman, not a Party comrade."

Winston wakes up around 9:00 (21:00), and wonders whether the peace and freedom of lying in bed with your loved one on a cool summer evening were ever a normal thing in the past. Julia wakes up, and is talking to Winston when suddenly she spots a rat and hurls a shoe at it. Winston is startled at the presence of a rat in this idyllic room, and recalls a recurrent nightmare he has always had where he is standing in front of a wall and behind it is something horrifying. He would always know, in some deeply buried part of his mind, what was behind the wall, but he never allowed himself to acknowledge it and would wake up without discovering it.

Julia gets up, makes coffee, and wanders around the room. She asks about the engraving of St. Clement's Dane (which coincidentally hangs right above where the rat had poked out its head), and to Winston's surprise, adds a line to the nursery rhyme: "When will you pay me?' say the bells of Old Bailey." Strangely, Julia too forgets the rest excepting the ominous ending, giving Winston a sense of fate. After observing that the picture likely has bugs behind it, and planning to clean it, Julia cleans herself, washing off the makeup, while Winston gazes at the paperweight.

Chapter 5


The chapter opens with a brief paragraph on Syme's disappearance, but quickly moves on to the intense preparations for Hate Week that are sweeping through the city and swallowing up everyone's time. Huge posters depicting a Eurasian soldier aiming his sub-machine gun at you crop up everywhere, intended to stir the population into a patriotic frenzy; as though by design, more rocket bombs fall on the city, killing more people than usual.

Winston and Julia continue to meet in the upstairs room. Winston's health, both physical and mental, has improved due to the existence of the room. Occasionally he talks to Mr. Charrington, who seems to embody history.

Though Winston and Julia know that they are doomed, they sometimes yield to the illusion of permanence, and frequently talk about escaping some way or another‹though they know that they will never commit even the only feasible act among these options, which is suicide.

They talk about rebelling against the Party in a vague way; Winston tells her about his unspoken bond with O'Brien, which does not strike her as at all strange. Though Julia takes it for granted that everyone harbors hatred for the Party, she does not believe in an organized underground; in fact, she thinks that Goldstein and the tales about him were invented by the Party for their own ends.

Julia's intelligence is also shown by her casually offered opinion that the war with Eurasia is not actually happening‹that the government of Oceania was dropping the bombs on its own people for the purposes of keeping the population scared and emotionally subjected to the Party. Winston has never even thought of this possibility. But for the most part, Julia does not question Party doctrine unless it touches her own life in some way; she believes much of the false history she has been taught in school, and it doesn't seem important to her that this is untrue. Winston is shocked by this, as well as by the fact that she doesn't seem to recall that only four years ago Eastasia, and not Eurasia, was Oceania's enemy in war.

Julia also does not seem to grasp the importance of Winston's story of the photograph clearing Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford of wrongdoing. In general she is not interested when Winston starts to delve into the problems the Party presents. He realizes that people like Julia, who accept what they are taught because they don't fully understand it, are in a fair way to remain more sane than persons like himself.

Chapter 6


Winston, walking down the long corridor where he had first spoken to Julia, encounters O'Brien, who addresses him cordially regarding Newspeak and what he considers Winston's elegant use of it. O'Brien obliquely refers to Syme as someone who shares this opinion, to whom he had spoken recently; Winston takes this as some sort of signal.

O'Brien says that he had noticed that Winston had recently used two words now obsolete in the forthcoming Tenth Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary, which has not been issued yet but of which O'Brien has an advance copy. He offers Winston to visit him at his flat to take a look at the Dictionary; through this device he gives Winston his address.

This whole exchange‹which has taken place under the watchful eye of a telescreen‹takes only a couple of minutes, but it has sparked in Winston both a cautious joy in the existence of the conspiracy he had hoped for, and a dreadful certainty that it is the beginning of the end for him.

Chapter 7


Winston awakens from a dream crying. The dream took place inside the glass paperweight and somehow was about a protective gesture made by his mother 30 years ago, and repeated in the film he wrote about in his diary (where a helpless Jewish mother ineffectually tries to protect her child from the bullets that are about to be fired at them). Within a few seconds of waking, the memories surrounding this gesture flood back to Winston.

He had been a young boy, and London was a disaster area of starvation, violence and unrest. His father disappeared, taking his mother's spirit with him so that she moved through daily life waiting for her own disappearance. She, Winston, and his baby sister lived in poor quarters and had not enough to eat; despite his knowledge that the mother and sister were starving, Winston would demand more food even though his mother would automatically give him the biggest portion. One day there was a chocolate ration, and Winston, though he knew the chocolate should be equally divided between the three of them, found himself demanding the whole piece. After long argument, his mother gave him 3/4 of the piece and the rest to his sister. But Winston grabbed the piece from his sister and dashed for the door, where he stopped at his mother's cry to come back. She looked at him; the baby wailed; and she drew the baby closer to her, in some way that told Winston the child was dying. He fled. When he came back a few hours later, they both had disappeared.

This dream reminds him of the one he had had two months ago, where he saw his mother and sister sinking away from him. He wants to talk about his mother to Julia, but she is drifting in and out of sleep. Winston thinks about love, about the novelty of the past, where people would make an ineffectual gesture or act knowing that it was ineffectual but doing it just the same; this indicates to him that they acted of their own accord, out of their own private loyalties and standards. It strikes him that the proles had remained like this‹had remained human. For the first time in his life he feels no contempt or indifference toward the proles, but a strange sort of respect for them for remaining who they are.

Julia has awakened again, and they talk about their inevitable parting. Though they know they will be forced to confess and not be able to help one another, Winston says that the only important thing is that they should never betray one another, in the sense of being made to stop loving the other person. Julia considers this and opines that this would be impossible because they would never be able to get inside you and change what you think. Winston takes some hope from this, believing in Julia-esque fashion that you could beat them in the end because they couldn't change your feelings.

Chapter 8


Winston and Julia arrive together at O'Brien's flat. The neighborhood of Inner Party residences is a whole new world of wealth, cleanliness and luxury with which neither Winston nor Julia is familiar. O'Brien's servant Martin takes them in to O'Brien's office or drawing-room, where O'Brien is working. Winston, already afraid, feels suddenly embarrassed‹what if he has made a mistake and O'Brien is not sympathetic?

As O'Brien approaches, he astonishes the couple by shutting off the telescreen, which, he explains, is an Inner Party privilege. He stands sternly before them, waiting for a short while, before his face relaxes and he breaks the silence.

Winston explains that they are there because they believe that O'Brien works for an underground organization which they wish to belong to. Martin enters, but O'Brien says he is one of them, so they all sit down with a glass of wine (which neither Winston nor Julia has ever tasted) and talk about the Brotherhood. O'Brien asks a series of questions to test how far Winston and Julia will go to further the goals of the Brotherhood; when he asks whether they are willing to separate from one another, they both reply in the negative. O'Brien asks Julia whether she understands that even if Winston survives, he would be substantially altered both in physique and identity; she nods, pale.

O'Brien dismisses Martin, telling him to look carefully at Winston and Julia before he goes. Martin gives them a long look without any friendliness or emotion in it whatsoever, then leaves. O'Brien explains that the Brotherhood is unusual because each agent works alone, with no support, minimal information, and no link to one another except the common ideal they hold for the destruction of the Party. Matter-of-factly, he outlines their lives: they will work for a while, then be caught, forced to confess and executed. "We are the dead," he says, echoing Winston's words to Julia a couple of chapters ago.

O'Brien dismisses Julia, then settles some details with Winston about getting him a copy of the book, i.e. Goldstein's heretical text exposing the true nature of the current world and the methods by which the Brotherhood will destroy the Party. After working out these plans, O'Brien says to Winston, "We shall meet again . . . in the place where there is no darkness." Winston's last question to him regards the nursery rhyme of the bells, of which O'Brien knows the final line: "When I grow rich,' say the bells of Shoreditch."

Chapter 9


Winston, exhausted after five days of intense work, and carrying in his briefcase the book, goes to Mr. Charrington's shop.

The rush of work had begun on the sixth day of Hate Week, when‹at the climax of hatred directed at Eurasia‹suddenly Oceania's alliance switched, so that the enemy was now Eastasia and Eurasia was an ally. Remarkably, the change occurred without any admission that it had taken place; the anti-Eurasia posters and propaganda everywhere were suddenly deemed sabotage, the work of Goldstein and his agents, and promptly torn down, while the venomous speaker who had been castigating Eurasia shifted to vilifying Eastasia without losing a beat. During the confusion, Winston is handed a briefcase containing the book.

Winston and his fellow workers at the Ministry had spent 90 hours rewriting history so that no trace of the war with Eurasia could be found in the documents of the past 5 years. After the monumental task had been completed, every Ministry worker had been given the rest of the day off, so Winston had headed for the upstairs room.

As he waits for Julia to arrive, he starts to read the book, entitled The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism. He starts off looking at Chapter 1, entitled "Ignorance is Strength," but breaks off to enjoy the fact that he is reading, and takes up again with Chapter 3, "War is Peace."

This lengthy chapter discusses the history of events that led to the current state of the world with its three superpowers, Oceania, Eurasia, and Eastasia, and the territory they have theoretically been fighting over for a quarter-century (which comprises a wide swath of land across Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and Indonesia).

First, the nature of war has changed: it has become continuous, and therefore its aims are different. It is continuous because none of the superpowers could ever win, and unnecessary in the old sense because each could sustain itself materially and ideologically they're almost identical.

According to Goldstein, the aim of warfare is no longer conquest; it is to use up production surplus while not raising the standard of living at home. The reason for this is, essentially, that those in power wish to maintain a hierarchical society‹an aim that was threatened by scientific progress, whereby machines could raise the general standard of living to the point where wealth could theoretically be evenly distributed. Because hierarchy depends on poverty and ignorance, as well as keeping people too busy to complain about conditions, it became the goal of the ruling class to somehow maintain industry while not distributing goods. The only way to do so was continuous warfare, which addresses this need practically but also psychologically, by correctly maintaining the morale of the Party.

As long as they remain at war, the three superstates support one another. The standards of living in all three are actually the same, as are their socio-political systems. The techniques of warfare haven't really changed in 30-40 years, because they don't need to. None of the superstates ever undertakes a major risk, i.e. one that could lead to a serious defeat. Not much fighting really goes on and it never approaches the heartland of any of the three powers, because that would jeopardize cultural integrity and risk people finding that other humans are pretty much the same as they, which could prove the undoing of these governments. Whatever fighting or strategy there is a dance of alliances, where each power tries to swallow up an ally and then do the same with its remaining opponent.

When war becomes continuous, it is no longer dangerous, therefore no recourse to the past and lessons learned then is necessary; neither is efficiency; neither is any need to even address reality. Reality can be shaped however the ruling class chooses.

Thus war is waged by the state upon its own citizens, not for conquest but for maintaining the social structure. Because its nature has been so altered, and that the same effects can be achieved through a state of peace, "war is peace"‹the true meaning of the Party slogan.

Winston stops reading. The book is reassuring because it helps him to know he is not insane. Julia comes in, and is less interested in the book than in Winston.

Later, as they lie in bed, he starts to read it to her, from Chapter 1, which discusses class differences and the historical nature of the class struggle between High, Middle and Low.

Socialist movements aiming for liberty and equality were more and more openly abandoned over the first half of the twentieth century, until the three currently dominating world movements‹Ingsoc in Oceania, Neo-Bolshevism in Eurasia, and Death-Worship in Eastasia‹had emerged with their new aims of "unfreedom and inequality." Their intent: to become the High, and then freeze the cycle of class struggle so as to permanently maintain their status. To this end, technical advances were anathema because they promoted human equality, which was to be fought at all costs.

By the middle of the century, the new totalitarian forces had emerged from the Middle, but with a difference: they were less concerned with wealth than with power, and they had learned from history how they might maintain their power and stifle all opposition. Technologies enabled 24-hour surveillance and complete mind control; and the "abolition of private property" really meant the appropriation of all property by the Party as a group.

According to history, the new ruling class could only be toppled one of four ways. It could be conquered by an external power; this has effectually ceased to be a possibility with the mutual unconquerability of the three superstates. It could stimulate mass revolt due to its own inefficiency; but the masses have no standards of comparison to even show them the inefficiency or misery of Party rule. It could allow for the rise of a strong Middle class, or it could lose its confidence in itself and its ability to govern through the rise of certain attitudes in its own ranks. These last two comprise an educational problem, and are solved through the use of doublethink and the relative flexibility between the Outer Party and Inner Party. Because Party membership is not hereditary, the Party is not a class in the historical sense; it is concerned with propagating itself, rather than with putting forth its children.

There is a discussion of Oceanic society and a detailed description of the everyday life of a Party member, which delves into the mental disciplines of "crimestop" (the ability to protect yourself from committing thoughtcrime using stupidity), "blackwhite" (either an opponent's insolent claim that black is white, or a Party member's laudable willingness to claim black is white for the Party's sake), and doublethink (which in reality encompasses all).

The alteration of history is explained as having two reasons: to prevent Party members from having a standard of comparison, and to protect the Party's supposed infallibility. "The mutability of the past is the central tenet of Ingsoc," Goldstein writes, starting to touch upon the issue that haunts Winston. According to Ingsoc, the past is defined by record and memory; and since the Party creates and controls both of those, it creates the past.

Here Goldstein comes to the practice of doublethink, and after a detailed discussion of it (though nothing Winston doesn't already know), claims that ultimately it is doublethink which has allowed the Party to freeze the pendulum of social class struggle, because through doublethink the Party is able to learn from past errors while maintaining the illusion of its infallibility. Through the use of doublethink, the Party is able to create an atmosphere of "controlled insanity," which is the ideal for permanently keeping human equality at bay.

But when Goldstein comes to the central question‹i.e., why is it necessary to forever avoid human equality? Winston stops reading, aware that Julia has fallen asleep. He closes the book and reflects that he still doesn't understand why (his question from a previous chapter). He knew everything in those chapters already. But he derives comfort from the feeling that he is not mad, and falls asleep with a feeling that he is safe.

Chapter 10


Winston awakens, feeling like he has slept for a long time; but the old-fashioned clock says 8:30, i.e. 20:30. The woman outside starts singing the love song she always sings, waking Julia, who gets up to light the stove. Oddly, there is no oil left, although she had made sure it was full. Remarking that it is colder, she gets dressed; Winston follows suit. He goes to the window and looks out‹no sun. As he watches the prole woman, Julia joins him, and he is surprised to find that he thinks the huge lady beautiful. She must have had many children, he reflects, noting also that he and Julia can never do that; but with hope he thinks about the millions of people like that woman, who live their lives and will eventually rise up to construct a new world. He knows that while he and Julia are dead, they can yet share in the future by somehow passing along the secret that "2 + 2 = 4."

He says, "We are the dead." Julia echoes him.

And then they are startled by a voice from the wall echoing them. "You are the dead."

At last, they have been caught. There had been a telescreen behind the picture. Winston and Julia are ordered to remain still and untouching, in the middle of the room, hands behind their heads, while storm troopers surround the house and burst in through a window.

Winston remains as still as he can, trying to avoid being struck. One of the storm troopers smashes the paperweight. Another hits Julia in the solar plexus, knocking the wind out of her and sending her to the floor. She is picked up and ignominiously carried out as Winston watches helplessly.

Various uninteresting thoughts begin to hit Winston. It becomes apparent that he and Julia have overslept‹that it is now 9:00 in the morning, rather than in the evening. But he does not pursue this train of thought.

Mr. Charrington enters, but he is altered in accent and appearance. Winston realizes that he is a member of the Thought Police.

Part 3

Chapter 1


Winston is in the Ministry of Love (he presumes), in a high-ceilinged bare white cell with a telescreen in each wall and a bench running along the perimeter. He has not eaten since he was arrested, and he has no conception of how long ago that was.

Before being brought to this place he had been taken to a prison full of both "common criminals" (i.e. prole gangsters, thieves, prostitutes, etc.) and political prisoners like himself. He notes that the common criminals comport themselves with almost no fear of consequences, in direct contrast to the political prisoners, and that they have set up a sort of hierarchical social order within the prison.

One huge, drunken woman is brought in kicking and screaming and dumped on Winston's lap. She seems to take a liking to him, asks his name, and is surprised to find that it is the same as hers. She speculates that she might be his mother; he reflects that it is possible, given her age and the potential changes time may have wrought.

In this prison, Winston hears for the first time a reference to "Room 101," which he does not understand.

In the cell in the Ministry of Love, Winston has nothing to do except sit still and think. He is so paralyzed by hunger and fear that he cannot even feel for Julia. Dreading torture, he thinks hopefully of the razor blade O'Brien might send.

People start to come into the cell. The first is Ampleforth, the poet from Winston's department. They talk briefly before the telescreen shouts at them to be quiet. After a while, Ampleforth is taken out to Room 101.

The next person to enter is, to Winston's utter surprise, Parsons, whose daughter denounced him to the Thought Police for saying "Down with Big Brother" over and over again in his sleep.

After Parsons is removed, various other prisoners are brought in and taken out. Again, someone is assigned to be taken to Room 101, and Winston observes her fear without comprehending it. A starving man is brought in; everyone in the cell seems to realize at once that he is dying of starvation. Another prisoner, a chinless man, gets up to offer him a crust of bread. The telescreen roars at him to freeze and drop the bread. An officer and a guard enter; the guard smashes the man in the mouth, sending him across the cell and breaking his dental plate.

After this, the starving man is summoned to Room 101. In mortal terror, he flings himself into a posture of supplication, begging them not to send him there. The officer is implacable. The prisoner begs them to do anything to him, anything else but Room 101; still no relenting. Desperately, he tries to point the finger at the chinless man, shrieking that they should be taking him instead; the guards move forward to remove him by force. He grabs one of the iron legs supporting the bench and puts up a surprisingly good fight before his fingers are broken by a vicious kick and he is dragged away.

An unknown amount of time passes, and Winston is alone. He is tortured by hunger, thirst, and panic; he still hopes for the razor blade; his thoughts of Julia are distant and cannot compete with his fright of the pain he knows he will be suffering.

The door opens again, and O'Brien enters. Winston is shocked into forgetting the telescreen for the first time in years. "They've got you too!" he exclaims, to which O'Brien replies, "They got me a long time ago," and steps aside to reveal a guard with a truncheon. O'Brien was not, after all, the co-conspirator Winston had thought; but somehow, now, he sees that he has always known this was the case. This thought flits through his mind almost unnoticed as he watches the guard's truncheon..

The blow falls on Winston's elbow and he is blinded by pain. Writhing on the floor, he cannot think of anything except that there are no heroes in the face of pain.

Chapter 2


For an indeterminate amount of time, Winston has been tortured, first with frequent and vicious beatings, then with extensive interrogations where the nagging of his questioners wore him down even more than the beatings. He has confessed all manner of impossible crimes and implicated everybody he knows. His memories are discontinuous and in some cases hallucinatory. Through it all he has the sense that O'Brien has been in charge of his life in the Ministry of Love‹that O'Brien dictates when Winston shall be tortured and fed. Winston is not sure when it was, but he recalls hearing a voice telling him not to worry, because "I shall save you, I shall make you perfect." Winston is not certain whether it is O'Brien's voice, but it is the same voice he heard in his old dream.

Winston drifts into a consciousness that he is in a room with O'Brien, strapped to a bed. O'Brien is in control of some sort of pain-generating device which will play a part in the current interrogation.

O'Brien begins by telling Winston that he is insane because he does not have control of his memory, and that he recalls false events. He mentions the photograph of Jones, Rutherford and Aaronson as a hallucination Winston has had‹and then holds up the very photograph. Before Winston's eyes, O'Brien proceeds to dispose of the photograph through a memory hole and immediately deny that it ever existed. Winston feels helpless because he realizes it is quite possible that O'Brien is not lying, that he in fact believes that the photograph never existed.

They talk about the nature of the past and reality; O'Brien tells Winston that reality exists only in the mind of the Party, and that Winston has got to make an effort to destroy himself in order to become "sane." He then asks Winston if he recalls writing in his diary that "Freedom is the freedom to say that 2 + 2 =4," and this touches off a whole round of torture. O'Brien holds up four fingers and asks Winston how many there are, if the Party says there are five. Winston, for a long while, can only see four, and suffers increasing levels of pain for it. O'Brien does not accept Winston merely saying that he sees five; he has to actually believe it. At last, Winston's senses are so dazed by pain that he is no longer sure how many fingers there are.

O'Brien allows him a respite (for which Winston is lovingly grateful), and asks him why he thinks people are brought to the Ministry of Love. When Winston guesses that it is to make people confess or to punish them, O'Brien suddenly becomes quite animated, and almost indignant in his explanation. The point is not to hear about or punish petty crimes; it is to actually change the Party's enemy, i.e. to empty him of himself and his dangerous individualistic ideas, and to fill that void with the Party. This precludes the possibility of martyrdom and the subsequent threat of people rising up against the Party later. Even Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford, O'Brien tells Winston, were in the end filled only with penitence and adoration of Big Brother.

Winston feels that O'Brien's mind contains his own, and is not quite sure which one of them is mad, though he thinks it must be himself since it doesn't seem likely that O'Brien is.

O'Brien looks down at him sternly. He tells him, "What happens to you here is for ever. . . . Things will happen to you from which you could not recover, if you lived a thousand years." These things, notably, will wipe out all human feeling from Winston‹in other words, they will take away his humanity, and he will be nothing but a shell filled with the Party.

At this point, Winston is hooked up to another device which does not pain him but seems to knock out some part of his brain, so that for a short while he can remember nothing of his own accord but merely takes, and believes, whatever O'Brien tells him to be truth. The effect wears off, but it has made its point: that it is, in fact, possible for the Party to get inside him and make him believe its truth.

The session is drawing to its close, and O'Brien mentions how he agrees with Winston's diary entry about how it doesn't matter whether O'Brien was an enemy or a friend because he could be talked to. Magnanimously, he allows Winston to ask any question he desires; but his answers are yet cruel, "truthful" only in the sense that they reference the Party's truth.

Winston realizes suddenly that O'Brien knows what he is going to ask, and he does: "What is in Room 101?" But O'Brien merely responds that everyone knows what is in Room 101, and Winston is put to sleep.

Chapter 3


Some time has passed. After innumerable sessions with O'Brien, Winston has completed the first "stage in his re-integration"‹learning‹and O'Brien judges that it is time for him to move on to the second, understanding.

O'Brien quotes Winston's diary entry about understanding "how" but not "why." He mentions Goldstein's book, informing Winston that he was one of the people who wrote it, and that it is true as a description of the world but that its discussion of insurrection is nonsense and impossible; the Party, he says, will rule forever, and Winston must get that into his head.

That said, he turns to the question of why the Party holds onto its power. Winston answers incorrectly and suffers for it. O'Brien answers his own question: "The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake." Power is defined as something that must be collective, and as power over human beings. Almost as an aside, O'Brien says the Party already controls matter. Winston, roused, argues that they do not, but O'Brien silences him using plenty of doublethink, and returns to the idea of holding power over men.

Since power over others depends on making the subject suffer, the Party's view of the future is a world based upon hatred, fear, and destruction. All instincts of love and beauty will be eradicated and only power, ever more refined and absolute, will remain.

Winston, horrified, again attempts to argue against the possibility that such a world could ever last eternally. When O'Brien asks why Winston thinks it should fail, he cites his belief that the spirit of man will prevail. Ironically, O'Brien asks Winston if he thinks he is a man. Winston replies that he does. O'Brien tells him that he must be the last man, and bids him take off his clothes and go look in the mirror at the end of the room.

When Winston sees himself, he has a nasty shock. He is a skeleton, dirty, broken, disgusting. He is, as O'Brien cruelly emphasizes, falling apart. He breaks down into tears. Once again, O'Brien's manner changes to near-kindness, as he tells Winston that he can get himself out of this state because he got himself into it. He lists the humiliations Winston has suffered, and asks him whether there is a single degradation he has not experienced. Winston looks up and replies that he has not betrayed Julia.

O'Brien seems to understand this, and agrees, looking at Winston thoughtfully. Far from taking this as any sort of hint, Winston is flooded with his old worship of O'Brien, almost grateful that he has understood without explanation.

Chapter 4


More time has passed, and Winston is no longer being tortured. In fact, he is being fed and kept clean and allowed to sleep. At first he is only interested in sleep and no conscious mental activity; he dreams abundantly, always happy peaceful dreams, with Julia, his mother, or O'Brien‹the three people he cares about.

Gradually he grows stronger, though he is shocked at how weak he had become. Correspondingly, his mind becomes more active, and he sits down to try and re-educate himself. He reviews everything he has been told, writes down Party slogans and falsities such as "2 + 2 = 5," all the while reflecting how easy it has been to mentally surrender, to "think as they think."

Still, he is troubled by some mental objections, and tries to practice crimestop, which is the conscious stopping of thought before it leads you into thoughtcrime. He finds that it is difficult to attain the stupidity necessary to avoid seeing blatant logical flaws. At the back of his mind, he wonders how soon he will be shot. The only thing he knows is that they always shoot you in the back of the head.

Winston has a dream or reverie in which he is walking down the corridor, waiting to be shot, feeling happy and at peace. He walks into the Golden Country..

Suddenly he bolts awake, having heard himself cry out longingly for Julia.

He had had a fleeting sensation of her being inside him, and at that moment had loved her more than at any previous moment. Somehow he feels she is still alive and that she needs his help.

Despairing, Winston lies back, waiting for the tramp of boots in the corridor. His thoughtcrime sprang from the fact that while he has tamed his mind to the Party, he has tried to keep his innermost self‹his heart‹away from them. He wonders how much time he has added to his torment by the cry.

Rebelliously, he decides to lock his hatred of the Party so far inside him that it is even a secret from himself, and envisions the final moment where, just before the bullet hits him, all his hatred would explode. This, he feels, is the last avenue of freedom open to him: to have his final heretical thought right before their bullet reached him.

But this will be difficult. He thinks of Big Brother and wonders what he really feels toward him.

O'Brien enters at that moment with an officer and guards. He orders Winston to stand up and examines him. He asks Winston what he feels towards Big Brother. Winston replies that he hates him. The last step, O'Brien tells him, is to learn to love Big Brother, and he orders Winston to be taken to Room 101.

Chapter 5


Winston has been taken to Room 101 and strapped into a chair. O'Brien enters and tells him what is in Room 101: the worst thing in the world, which varies between individuals but is always something unendurable to the person in the chair. For Winston, it is rats.

A mask with a cage attached to it is brought in. From its construction, it is clear that the mask is designed to fit over Winston's face, and at the pulling of a lever, the rats inside the cage‹enormous, ravenous brutes‹will be free to attack him.

O'Brien casually mentions Winston's recurring nightmare, and tells him what he already knows: that behind the dark wall of his nightmare were rats. Winston, beyond panic, begs O'Brien to tell him what he wishes him to do. O'Brien does not answer, but engages in a sort of ponderous mental torture by bringing the contraption closer and pedantically musing on rats.

Winston's terror increases, but at the last moment it occurs to him what must be done, and that is to beg that this be done to Julia rather than to him.

He has saved himself; O'Brien shuts the cage door rather than opens it.

Chapter 6


It is 15:00 and Winston sits alone in the Chestnut Tree Cafe. He is anxiously listening for news of the war with Eurasia.

However, Winston is not able to keep his mind on one topic for very long these days, and he gulps down his glass of clove-flavored gin. He is fatter and pinker now‹to the point of looking unhealthy. Without being asked, a waiter brings him the current issue of the Times, opened to the chess problem, and a chessboard; he sees that Winston's glass is empty and refills it. The waiters know Winston's habits and bill him irregularly (and, he suspects, they undercharge him), though with his new higher-paying job this wouldn't have presented a problem either way.

An announcement from the Ministry of Plenty reveals that Oceania is in the midst of the Tenth Three-Year Plan. Winston starts to attack the chess problem. The telescreen announcer advises everyone to listen for an important announcement at 15:30, which Winston knows must be about the fighting in Africa. He has the sinking feeling that it will be bad news; the thought that this could lead to the end of the Party triggers a powerful but unclear reaction in him. He imagines a mysterious force assembling to the rear of the Eurasian army, cutting off its communications, and feels that by willing it he can bring that force into existence.

His thoughts wander; almost unconsciously he traces the equation "2 + 2 = 5" on the table. He recalls Julia saying "They can't get inside you," but knows she is wrong; he remembers O'Brien saying "What happens to you here is for ever," and knows he is right.

He had encountered Julia one freezing, dead March day in the Park. Knowing that the Party no longer cared about what he did, he had followed her, but not very eagerly. Something about her had changed. She had not been particularly excited about having him around, but resigned herself. They walked. He had put his arm around her waist; she did not respond. He had realized that the change in her was not so much the scar across her face or her pallor, but that her waist had thickened and stiffened into something like a corpse or marble.

They did not speak or kiss. When Julia looked at him, it was with contempt and dislike. They seated themselves on a bench and finally Julia had said, "I betrayed you." He told her he had betrayed her as well. From her explanation‹that they threaten you with the unendurable and you place your loved one inside it instead of yourself, thereby changing forever how you feel about the person‹it seems apparent that she, too, had been taken to Room 101.

There was nothing more to say, and they had parted uncomfortably, with empty words about meeting again, but really only the desire to get away from one another.

Recalling Julia's words about betrayal, Winston reflects that he had really wished for her to be devoured by the rats instead of himself‹but before he can even get to the word "rats" in his thoughts (which we know he will never do anyway), a voice from the telescreen starts to sing, "Under the spreading chestnut tree, I sold you and you sold me . . ."

Winston's eyes fill with tears. A waiter passes by and refills his glass; he thinks about how dependent he has become on gin, drinking it every hour of the day. No one cares how he spends his days. His "job" involves dealing with trivialities that arise from the current work being done on the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary. His sub-sub-committee consists of four other people like himself.

He thinks briefly again about the struggle in Africa, then picks up a chess piece, and somehow triggers a memory of his childhood. His mother, after entreating him to be good, had bought him the game Snakes and Ladders, and although he had not been interested in it at first, he was soon captivated, and the three of them had a happy, enjoyable afternoon.

Recalling himself, Winston shakes this off as a false memory, and is picking up the chess piece again when a trumpet-call from the telescreen startles him. The trumpet-call always signifies a victory, and excitement spreads through the cafe and the streets like wildfire. The announcement is that the very strategy Winston had imagined has taken place, utterly defeating Eurasia and giving Oceania control of all of Africa.

Caught up in the excitement of this news, Winston looks up at the portrait of Big Brother, overwhelmed, and feels the "final, healing change": He loves Big Brother.



The Appendix details the underlying principles of Newspeak (essentially that it was designed to limit the range of thought), and details the word classes as follows:

The A vocabulary consisted of everyday words used in the expression of simple thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions.

The B vocabulary consisted of words created to hold political connotations and impose a politically desirable state of mind upon the user. These were all compound words, like "Ingsoc" or "doublethink." Many meant the opposite of what they really were, in keeping with the concept of doublethink.

The C vocabulary consisted of scientific and technical terms which it behooved no one but scientists and technicians to use.

The grammar of Newspeak had two notable characteristics:

There was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts of speech. A noun and verb were basically the same, and formed the root for all other forms of the word. Adjectives were formed by tacking "-ful" onto the end of the word; adverbs, by adding the suffix "-wise." Any word could be negated by the prefix "un-," and other prefixes like "plus-" and "doubleplus-" could strengthen the word.

The grammar was exceedingly regular, with very few exceptions. All past tenses were formed using "-ed," all plurals with "-s" or "-es," and comparatives with "-er" and "-est."

Euphony was privileged above everything, including grammatical regularity, except precision of meaning. This is because the end goal was to produce words that could be spoken so quickly that they would not have the time to prompt thought; in other words, so that people could speak without thinking at all.

The meanings of Newspeak words were carefully controlled so that in many cases most connotations were destroyed. For instance, the word "free" still existed, but only in the sense of something being "free from" something else, e.g. "This field is free from weeds." It could not be used with reference to political freedom, as this meaning had been drilled out of the word.

This also precluded the ability to argue heretical opinions. Though, for instance, it would have been possible to say "Big Brother is ungood," there were not the words necessary to defend or argue this assertion. Through this process, Oldspeak would become not only obsolete but impossible to understand or translate, since its words hold meanings and can express ideas that would be inexpressible in Newspeak (except using the single word "crimethink").

Animal Farm by G.Orwell

Chapter One: Summary

As the story opens on Mr. Jones's farm, the farm animals are preparing to meet after Mr. Jones goes to sleep, to hear the words that the old and well-respected pig, Old Major, wants to say to them. The animals gather around as Old Major tells them that he had a dream the previous night and senses that he will not live much longer. As the animals prepare for his speech, the narrator identifies several of the animals which will become more important in the story: the cart-horses Boxer and Clover, the old donkey Benjamin, and Mollie the pretty mare. Before he dies, he wants to tell the animals what he has observed and learned in his twelve years. Old Major goes on to say that animals in England are cruelly kept in slavery by man, who steals the animals' labor and is "the only creature that consumes without producing". He describes his vision of an England in which animals are free and live in complete harmony and cooperation, free of the tyranny of man and his evil habits.

Old Major tells the animals that they must all band together to fight the common enemy, Man, and rise up in rebellion when the opportunity comes. He exhorts them to remain true to their animal ways, and then leads them in a rousing song of revolution, called "Beasts of England". They are stirred into a frenzy by Old Major's speech and sing the song five consecutive times, until Mr. Jones stirs and fires a shot into the air to quiet them down. Soon the whole farm falls asleep.

Chapter Two: Summary

Three days later, Old Major dies and is buried. His revolutionary fervor lives on, and the animals begin to flesh in the revolutionary ideology with which they will overthrow Mr. Jones. Two of the pigs, Snowball and Napoleon, emerge as the leaders of the animals. Snowball is naturally vivacious, while Napoleon "has a reputation for getting his own way". Another pig named Squealer also becomes prominent for his persuasive speaking ability. These three pigs create a system of tenets and name it "Animalism," and begin imparting it to the rest of the animals, often simplifying and slowly reasoning with the less-intelligent animals such as the Sheep, or the frivolous animals, like Mollie the white mare. The cart-horses Boxer and Clover are the most responsive of all the animals, and Moses the tame raven is the most difficult animal for the pigs to persuade to join the revolution. Moses claims that he knows of the existence of a magical place called Sugarcandy Mountain, and his tales are a constant distraction to the other animals.

Revolution comes earlier than anyone expected, when Mr. Jones gets so drunk that he is unable to go feed the animals. After a day and a half without food, the hungry animals finally riot and break into the feeding area themselves, prompting Mr. Jones and his field hands to come outside. The animals attack them with a vengeance, and the men flee, leaving Manor Farm to the animals. Mrs. Jones wakes up during the commotion, and when she discovers what has happened, she runs off with a suitcase of clothes herself. The animals rejoice, walking over the farm to examine their property, curiously investigate the farmhouse interior, and celebrate with extra rations of food. The next morning, Snowball repaints the sign reading "Manor Farm" to say "Animal Farm," and he and Napoleon introduce the animals to The Seven Commandments, which form the tenets of their "Animalism":

Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.

Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.

No animal shall wear clothes.

No animal shall sleep in a bed.

No animal shall drink alcohol.

No animal shall kill another animal.

All animals are created equal.

The cows by this time need milking, so the pigs manage to milk them. Several of the animals want some of the milk for themselves, but Napoleon distracts them, saying that they have more important things to attend to and that he will take care of it. Later that day, the animals notice that the milk had disappeared.

Chapter Three: Summary

The Animalism regime begins very promisingly, with all the animals working industriously to improve the farm, and enjoying the feeling of self-governance and "animal pride" which their regime produces. Inspired by the idea that they would enjoy the fruits of their own labors for the first time, the animals overcome the challenges of farming without man and bring in the largest harvest Animal Farm has ever produced. Boxer the horse becomes a model of hard work and devotion to the cause, and adopts the personal motto, "I will work harder". The pigs do not actually perform any work, but instead supervise and coordinate the work for the rest of the animals. Mollie the mare is the only animal who shirks work. Benjamin, the old donkey, remains unchanged after the revolution, and cryptically says that "Donkeys live a long time." The animals observe a flag-raising ritual on Sundays, which is a day of rest for them. Snowball forms an array of committees aimed at social improvements, education, training, and the like. The education program achieves the greatest success, with all the animals achieving some degree of literacy. After the discovery that the stupider animals could not learn the Seven Commandments, Snowball reduces the tenets down to the maxim "Four legs good, two legs bad," which even the sheep can memorize, and bleat for hours on end. The dogs have a litter of nine puppies, which Napoleon takes under the guise of educating them. He keeps them secluded in the loft, and soon the other animals forget about them. After the apple harvest, the pigs announce that they will reserve all the apples and milk for themselves, to fuel the strenuous efforts required to manage the farm. The other animals reluctantly acquiesce.

Chapter Four: Summary

News of the rebellion at Animal Farm spreads quickly to the rest of the animals in England, and the words to "Beasts of England" can soon be heard on farms everywhere. Emboldened by the Animal Farm revolution, other previously subdued animals begin displaying subversive behavior in subtle ways, such as tearing down fences and throwing riders. This development alarms the local farmers, who have listened to Mr. Jones's tale of woe at the Red Lion tavern where he now spends most of his time. Alarmed by the developments at Animal Farm and the threat of revolution spreading, the townsmen band together with Mr. Jones and attempt to reclaim his farm. The animals successfully defend it, led by the strategy and bravery of Snowball. A young farm hand is thrown to the ground by Boxer, and at first it appears that he has been killed, but he gains consciousness a few moments later and runs off. At the first gunshot, Mollie the mare runs into the barn in terror and buries her head in the hay. Snowball and Boxer are given medals for their courageous fighting.

Chapter Five: Summary

Unhappy with the new workload at Animal Farm, Mollie runs away to work pulling a dogcart for a man who feeds her sugar lumps, and she is never spoken of again. When winter comes, Snowball begins talking of a plan to build a windmill to bring electricity to the farm. Snowball has spent much of his spare time reading Mr. Jones's old books on farming techniques, and he envisions an Animal Farm where increased productivity will result in less work and more comfortable lifestyles for all the animals. Napoleon, who by this times disagrees with Snowball about almost everything, is bitterly opposed, and the animals become divided into two camps of supporters. Napoleon and Snowball also disagree about the best course of defense for the farm, with Snowball advocating the spread of the revolutionary spirit to neighboring farms, while Napoleon feels the animals should procure weapons and develop a military force. The animals are set to vote, and after Snowball's impassioned speech, Napoleon whistles for nine large dogs (the puppies that he has trained), and they attack Snowball and drive him off the farm. Napoleon becomes the single leader of the animals, abolishes their weekly debates and meetings, and announces that they will go through with the windmill scheme after all. The animals are initially dismayed by these developments, but Squealer eventually smoothes things over.

Chapter Six: Summary

The animals begin working like slaves to complete the harvest and build the windmill. Napoleon announces that the animals will now perform "voluntary" work on Sundays. Though the work is officially called voluntary, any animal who does not participate will have their food rations cut in half. To finance the completion of the windmill, Napoleon announces that Animal Farm will begin trading with the men who run nearby farms. The animals think they remember Old Major speaking against evil human habits such as trade. Squealer convinces the animals that they are only imagining it. The sight of Napoleon on four legs conducting business with the farm's trade agent Mr. Whymper, who stands upright, makes the animals so proud that they ignore their misgivings. The pigs then move into the farmhouse, and Squealer again convinces that animals that they are only imagining the earlier rules against sleeping in beds. Some of the animals go to check the Fourth Commandment, and discover that it actually reads "No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets". Rather than realizing that the Commandment has been altered, the animals accept that they must have forgotten the ending before. The windmill is destroyed in a storm, and Napoleon blames it on Snowball, and places a reward on his head.

Chapter Seven: Summary

A hard winter comes, and the animals face near-starvation. To hide the food shortage from the outside world, Napoleon fills the grain bins with sand to fool Mr. Whymper. He also plants several animals at strategic locations during Mr. Whymper's visits so that he can hear them making "casual" (and false) remarks about food surpluses and increased rations. Napoleon announces the plan to sell a pile of timber to one of two neighboring farmers, Mr. Frederick or Mr. Pilkington. At Napoleon's bidding, Squealer announces that the hens will have to give up their eggs to be sold for money to buy grain. The hens refuse at first, but Napoleon cuts off their food rations until they relent, after nine of them have died from starvation. All sorts of acts of mischief and vandalism begin to surface, which are immediately attributed to Snowball. Soon after, Napoleon announces that an attempted rebellion has been discovered, and has several of the farm animals executed. The remaining animals react with fear and horror, and huddle around Clover the mare for comfort. She reminds them of Old Major's glorious speech and leads them all in "Beasts of England," which prompts Napoleon to forbid the singing of the song and replace it with the song "Animal Farm, Animal Farm, never through me shall thou come to harm".

Chapter Eight: Summary

The animals discover that after the executions, another commandment is different from how they remembered it; the Sixth Commandment now reads "No animal shall kill another animal without cause". Napoleon has a long poem praising his leadership painted on the side of the barn, and it is announced that the gun will be fired each year on his birthday. All orders are delivered through Squealer, with Napoleon living in near seclusion in the farmhouse and rarely appearing on the farm in person. When he does make public appearances, it is only while accompanied by a retinue of dogs and other servants. Napoleon announces the sale of the pile of timber to Frederick, a neighboring farmer whose acts of cruelty toward his animals are legendary. After the transaction, it is revealed the Frederick paid with forged bank notes. Napoleon pronounces a death sentence onto Frederick. Shortly thereafter, the farm is again attacked by neighboring farmers, led by Frederick himself. Napoleon appeals to Pilkington to help the cause of Animal Farm, but Pilkington's interest in the farm were only economic, and since he did not get the pile of timber, he refuses to help, sending Napoleon the message "Serves you right". The animals finally repel the farmers, but only with great difficulty, with Boxer sustaining a severe injury to his hoof and the windmill being destroyed in an explosion. Napoleon celebrates the victory by drinking lots of whisky, and despite his vicious hangover, the Fifth Commandment soon reads "No animal shall drink alcohol in excess".

Chapter Nine: Summary

More and more, the animals begin to think about the generous retirement plans that had been part of the ideology of the early Revolution. Life is hard for the animals, and rations continue to be reduced, except for the pigs, who are allowed to wear green ribbons on Sundays, drink beer daily, and actually seem to be gaining weight. To keep the animals from complaining about the obvious discrepancies, Squealer continually reads the animals reports which detail how much better off they are now then before the Revolution. Animal Farm is declared a Republic and must elect a President. Napoleon is the only candidate and is elected unanimously. Moses the raven returns after an absence of several years, still talking about the mystical Sugarcandy Mountain. Boxer falls ill and Napoleon promises to send him to a hospital, but the animals read the sign of the truck as he is hauled away and discover that he is being taken to the butcher's. Squealer eventually convinces the animals that they are mistaken.

Chapter Ten: Summary

Years pass, and many of the older animals, who remember life before the Revolution, die off. Only cynical Benjamin remains just as he always was. The animal population has increased, but not as much as would have been predicted at the Revolution's beginning. Talk of retirement for the animals stops, and the pigs, who have become the largest group of animals by far, form a bureaucratic class in the government. As Napoleon ages, Squealer assumes a position of increasing power, and learns to walk upright. He teaches the sheep to change their chant to "Four legs good, two legs better," and the Seven Commandments are replaced with a single commandment: "All animals are created equal, but some animals are more equal than others". The animals are once again uneasy by the new political developments, but they comfort themselves with the knowledge that at least they have no human master. Squealer begins to seek out the approval of the neighboring farmers for his efficiency and order at Animal Farm. The pigs invite a group of townsmen to dinner to inspect the efficiency of Animal Farm, and the men congratulate the pigs on their achievements, noting that the animals at Animal Farm did more work and required less food than any farm in the county. Napoleon refers to the farm animals as "the lower classes" and announces that Animal Farm will take back its original name of The Manor Farm. As the animal watch the dinner proceedings through the window, they realize with horror that they can no longer tell the pigs' faces from the human ones.


Childe Harold by G.G.Byron

Canto 1: A wayward, wild, immoral youth grows weary of his ways and seeks to gain a surer foothold on life by traveling. A rambling account follows in which Harold goes to Spain and Portugal, with momentary lapses where other areas of Europe are recalled. Familiarity with the area in the reader might make the descriptions more meaningful, but they are romantic nevertheless.

Canto 2: Harold then journeys to the Baltics, where he is impressed by the fierce culture of the Albanians, and the past glory of Greece. A reminiscence and some extensive notes on the state of Greece and its bondage to foreign powers are included. The descriptions are often picturesque, but the poem as a whole lacks coherence. We see no growth in Harold-- in fact, it is not a story about him at all, but rather a poetic chronicle of travels and thoughts. As such, though, it is passable.

Canto 3: This is a far superior piece of work to the last two cantos. Harold develops, affected by and reflecting deeply and interestingly on Waterloo and Napoleon in Belgium, on the Alps, the Rhine and the battles fought there. His cynicism begins to soften, and he begins to yearn for his beloved. With the place-descriptions are woven (this time, rather than simply interspersed as before) meditations on people, such as the Aventian princess Julia whose love for her father affected Byron so deeply; and Rousseau, of whom Byron is critical but admiring (see also his long thoughtful note on this subject); and Voltaire and Gibbon, who are acknowledged but claimed to be wrongheaded. Also, he thinks about nature as a respite from the "madding crowd" (fortified with a prose argument in a note), entertains what we would now call some "environmentalist" thoughts, and finally comments on his shunning of the world's trends and his sorrow as an estranged father to his girl. This canto is very like the meandering thoughts of a traveler or a wanderer. But here they are fruitful and bubble forth to a greater extent than in the first two.

Canto 4: In keeping with the progression of this poem, this canto is the best of the four. In Italy, we see the places and hear reminiscences of the people, but these in this canto seem oddly secondary. Harold's journey is now admitted to be Byron's journey, and the meditations which the sites and scenes inspire are deep and thoughtful as never before. We get much more of an idea that this is Byron speaking to us rather than an imagined character; indeed, Byron in the prefatory letter calls the work his most thoughtful composition (as of 1818). He reaches highs of contemplation more than once-- on imagination and the eternal glimpses it brings; on suffering and painful memory; on solitude and its virtues and vices; on education; on man's humility and state of political and spiritual slavery; on freedom; on our poor souls and the illusory nature of love; on thought and truth; on the joys of the wilderness and the power of the ocean; and an excellent conclusion which humbly and thoughtfully closes the mind's eye of the reader in rest. Meanwhile, of course, we are shown Venice, several ancient sites, and (for the bulk of the canto) Rome, about whose history Byron muses, talking of the rise and fall of civilizations. We see the Pantheon, Circus, Coliseum, Vatican... and all inspire thought and reflection. No real conclusions are reached-- Harold/Byron does not have a sustained and rejuvenation epiphany-- but still we get the idea that he is better for having superfluity wrung from him on this trip. For, how can one descend to the level of a profligate again, after tasting the greatness which man has attained in a worldly sense, and being inspired by that to think (to some extent at least) of great things in a spiritual sense?

The French Lieutenant's Woman by J.Fowles

The first chapter describes Lyme Regis and its Cobb, a harbor quay on which three characters are standing: Charles Smithson, Ernestina Freeman, and Sarah Woodruff. The describing narrator has a distinctive voice, all-knowing yet intimate, with a wide-ranging vocabulary and evidently vast knowledge of political and geographical history. In one sentence the narrator sounds like a Victorian, as he remarks that the male character recently "had severely reduced his dundrearies, which the arbiters of the best English male fashion had declared a shade vulgar--that is, risible to the foreigner--a year or two previously." In the next sentence he sounds modern, as he describes how "the colors of the young lady's clothes would strike us today as distinctly strident." The narrator's double vision and double voice make him as important as the characters in this novel.

Charles is a middle-aged bachelor and amateur paleontologist; Ernestina is his fiancée, who has brought him to spend a few days with her aunt. Out of a chivalric concern for Sarah, Charles advises her to return from the end of the Cobb to a safer position, but she merely stares at him. As he reflects on this curious meeting, the narrator begins to comment on Charles's outlook on life and on the attitudes that were typical of the age in 1867, with occasional comparisons with 1967.

Ernestina is revealed to be a pretty but conventional young woman. Sarah is an outcast who is reputed to be pining for the French lieutenant who has jilted her. Charles is earnest but intelligent enough to be aware of Ernestina's limitations. When he is looking for fossils along the wooded Undercliff, Charles discovers Sarah sleeping, and must apologize when she awakes and sees him observing her. As he returns to Lyme, he inquires about her at a nearby farm, whose owner tells him that the "French Loot'n'nt's Hoer" often walks that way. Sarah's employer, having separately become aware of that fact, forbids her to walk there any more. Sarah spends that night contemplating suicide, and Chapter 12 ends with two questions: "Who is Sarah? Out of what shadows does she come?"

Chapter 13 begins "I do not know," and the narrator proceeds to discuss the difficulty of writing a story when characters behave independently rather than do his bidding. Charles, he complains, did not return to Lyme as the narrator had intended but willfully went down to the Dairy to ask about Sarah. But, the narrator concedes, times have changed, and the traditional novel is out of fashion, according to some. Novels may seem more real if the characters do not behave like marionettes and narrators do not behave like God. So the narrator, in effect, promises to give his characters the free will that people would want a deity to grant them. Likewise, the narrator will candidly admit to the artifice of the narration and will thereby treat his readers as intelligent, independent beings who deserve more than the manipulative illusions of reality provided in a traditional novel.

Subsequent chapters contain representations of domestic life--a quiet evening with Charles and Ernestina, a morning with Charles and his valet, a concert at the Assembly Rooms. During this last, Charles reflects on where his life seems to be leading and on the fact that, as he puts it, he has become "a little obsessed with Sarah…or at any rate with the enigma she presented." He returns to the Undercliff, again finds Sarah there, and is shocked to be told by her that she is not pining for her French lieutenant, that he is married. The next time Charles encounters her in the Undercliff she offers Charles some fossils she has found and tells him that she thinks she may be going mad; she asks him to meet her there once more, when she has more time, so that she can tell him the truth about her situation and obtain his advice.

Charles decides to seek advice himself and visits Dr. Grogan, an elderly bachelor and an admirer of Darwin, whose theories they discuss. When the conversation turns to Sarah, Grogan expresses the belief that she wants to be a victim. Sarah seems to bear out his view when she explains to Charles that she indeed became infatuated with the French lieutenant when he was recovering from an injury in the house, where Sarah was governess, and that she followed him when he left to return to France. She tells Charles that she quickly realized that he had regarded her only as an amusement, but that she "gave" herself to him nonetheless, doubly dishonoring herself by choice as well as by circumstances. She seems to be proud of her status as outcast, for it differentiates her from a society she considers unjust. Charles accepts her story--even finds it fascinating.

When Charles returns to his room at the inn, he finds a telegram from his bachelor uncle Robert, summoning him home to the family estate he is in line to inherit. To Charles's surprise, Robert has decided to marry Bella Tomkins, a young widow, whose sons--if she has any--would displace Charles as heir. On Charles's return to Lyme Regis, Ernestina mentions that Sarah was seen returning from their last meeting in the Undercliff, where she had been forbidden to walk, and has been dismissed by Mrs. Poulteney. At his hotel, Charles finds a message from Sarah, urging him to meet her one more time. Charles has Dr. Grogan call off the search for Sarah, who, it was thought, might have killed herself Grogan again warns Charles against Sarah, this time by offering him a document to read about a case of bizarre behavior by a young woman in France who manages to get one of her father's officers unjustly convicted of attempting to rape her. Charles decides to meet Sarah again, despite the possibility that she may be deranged and trying to destroy him.

Now even more of two minds about his marriage, Charles decides to go to London to discuss his altered financial prospects with Ernestina's father, a prosperous merchant there. Mr. Freeman is more concerned for the happiness of his daughter, who evidently loves Charles dearly, so the engagement stands; but Charles is increasingly uncomfortable with, even trapped by, his situation. He goes to his club and drinks too much. He visits a brothel with two of his friends, but finds the entertainment repellant, and leaves. He picks up a Cockney streetwalker and returns to her flat with her; when she tells him her name is, coincidentally, Sarah, Charles becomes ill and, subsequently, returns to his room. The next morning Charles receives a letter from Grogan, and a note from Sarah with the name of a hotel in Exeter.

Because the train station nearest to Lyme Regis is in Exeter, Charles must pass through that town on his way back from London. Having steamed open the note from Sarah, Sam is confident that they will spend the night in Exeter, so that Charles can visit Sarah, but they proceed to Lyme, where Charles and Ernestina are reunited. The narrator recounts that they go on to marry, have seven children, and live well into the twentieth century. In the next chapter, the narrator explains that this traditional ending is just one possibility, a hypothetical future for his characters. Charles recognized his freedom of choice and "actually" did decide to put up at Exeter for the night, precisely as Sam had expected.

As the story resumes and continues to unfold, Charles visits Sarah at her hotel. He must see her in her room because she has supposedly injured her ankle, though she has purchased the bandage before the "accident" occurred. Charles is overcome by passion and takes her to bed, only to discover that she is a virgin, despite what she had told him about the French lieutenant. She confesses that she has deceived him, says that she cannot explain why and, furthermore, cannot marry him. Stunned by the whole experience, Charles visits a nearby church and meditates on the human condition. He decides that Sarah has been trying to "unblind" him with her stratagems, so that he would recognize that he is free to choose. He writes a letter to Sarah, telling her how much she means to him, and then returns to Lyme to call off his engagement.

Sam does not deliver the letter. Ernestina is distraught when Charles tells her that he is unworthy to be her husband, more so when she realizes that the true reason is another woman. Sam correctly surmises that his master's star will wane as the marriage is called off, so determined to protect his prospect of marriage to Mary, he leaves his position as Charles's valet in hope that Ernestina's aunt and her father will help him.

When Charles returns to Exeter, he finds Sarah gone to London, having left no forwarding address. As he follows her, by train, a bearded figure sits opposite Charles and watches him as he dozes. The character is the narrator himself, who professes not to know where Sarah is or what she wants; indeed, he is wondering what exactly to do with Charles. He compares writing a novel to fixing a fight in favor of one boxer or another; to seem less dishonest, he decides to show the "fight" as if "fixed" both ways, with different "victors," or endings. Because the last ending will seem privileged by its final position, he flips a coin to determine which ending to give first.

The narrative resumes the description of Charles's search for Sarah. He checks agencies for governesses, patrols areas frequented by prostitutes, and advertises--all without success. He visits the United States and advertises there. Two years after she disappeared, Charles gets a cable from his solicitor saying that Sarah has been found. Charles hopes that Sarah has decided to answer the ad, but the narrator explains that Mary has seen Sarah enter a house in Chelsea, and that it is Sam who responded to the ad, now that he is a thriving employee of Mr. Freeman as well as a happy father and husband, but still slightly guilt-ridden over his having intercepted the letter at Lyme.

When Charles arrives at Sarah's house, he finds her surprised to see him and not apologetic about having left him in ignorance of her whereabouts. She gradually is revealed to be living in the house of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and several other artists and models of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. Charles is shocked, partly by the rather notoriously unconventional company she is keeping and partly by her lack of repentance for having deceived him and left him in uncertainty. He accuses her of implanting a dagger in his breast and then twisting it. She decides not to let Charles leave without revealing that she has had a child by him, named Lalage. Chapter 60 ends with the three of them evidently on the threshold of some kind of future together.

Chapter 61 begins with the bearded narrator in front of Sarah's house with a watch, which he sets back fifteen minutes and drives off. The narrative resumes with the same piece of dialogue from Chapter 60, about twisting the knife. In this version of the conversation, Charles sees that she cannot marry without betraying herself, and that he cannot accept her on more independent terms. He leaves without realizing that the child he notices on the way out is his. The narrator ends the novel by noting that Charles has at least begun to have some faith in himself, despite his not feeling that he understands Sarah, and that the reader should not imagine that the last ending is any less plausible than the one before it.



French Lieutenant’s Woman in Russian

Краткое содержание

Ветреным мартовским днем 1867 г. вдоль мола старинного городка Лайм-Риджиса на юго-востоке Англии прогуливается молодая пара. Дама одета по последней лондонской моде в узкое красное платье без кринолина, какие в этом провинциальном захолустье начнут носить лишь в будущем сезоне. Ее рослый спутник в безупречном сером пальто почтительно держит в руке цилиндр. Это были Эрнестина, дочь богатого коммерсанта, и ее жених Чарльз Смитсон из аристократического семейства. Их внимание привлекает женская фигура в трауре на краю мола, которая напоминает скорее живой памятник погибшим в морской пучине, нежели реальное существо. Ее называют несчастной Трагедией или Женщиной французского лейтенанта. Года два назад во время шторма погибло судно, а выброшенного на берег со сломанной ногой офицера подобрали местные жители. Сара Вудраф, служившая гувернанткой и знавшая французский, помогала ему, как могла. Лейтенант выздоровел, уехал в Уэймут, пообещав вернуться и жениться на Саре. С тех пор она выходит на мол, "слоноподобный и изящный, как скульптуры Генри Мура", и ждет. Когда молодые люди проходят мимо, их поражает ее лицо, незабываемо-трагическое: "скорбь изливалась из него так же естественно, незамутненно и бесконечно, как вода из лесного родника". Ее взгляд-клинок пронзает Чарльза, внезапно ощутившего себя поверженным врагом таинственной особы.

Чарльзу тридцать два года. Он считает себя талантливым ученым-палеонтологом, но с трудом заполняет "бесконечные анфилады досуга". Проще говоря, как всякий умный бездельник викторианской эпохи, он страдает байроническим сплином. Его отец получил порядочное состояние, но проигрался в карты. Мать умерла совсем молодой вместе с новорожденной сестрой. Чарльз пробует учиться в Кембридже, потом решает принять духовный сан, но тут его спешно отправляют в Париж развеяться.

Он проводит время в путешествиях, публикует путевые заметки - "носиться с идеями становится его главным занятием на третьем десятке". Спустя три месяца после возвращения из Парижа умирает его отец, и Чарльз остается единственным наследником своего дяди, богатого холостяка, и выгодным женихом. Неравнодушный к хорошеньким девицам, он ловко избегал женитьбы, но, познакомившись с Эрнестиной Фримен, обнаружил в ней незаурядный ум, приятную сдержанность. Его влечет к этой "сахарной Афродите", он сексуально неудовлетворен, но дает обет "не брать в постель случайных женщин и держать взаперти здоровый половой инстинкт". На море он приезжает ради Эрнестины, с которой помолвлен уже два месяца. Эрнестина гостит у своей тетушки Трэнтер в Лайм-Риджисе, потому что родители вбили себе в голову, что она предрасположена к чахотке. Знали бы они, что Тина доживет до нападения Гитлера на Польшу! Девушка считает дни до свадьбы - осталось почти девяносто... Она ничего не знает о совокуплении, подозревая в этом грубое насилие, но ей хочется иметь мужа и детей. Чарльз чувствует, что она влюблена скорее в замужество, чем в него.

Однако их помолвка - взаимовыгодное дело. Мистер Фримен, оправдывая свою фамилию (свободный человек), прямо сообщает о желании породниться с аристократом, несмотря на то что увлеченный дарвинизмом Чарльз с пафосом доказывает ему, что тот произошел от обезьяны. Скучая, Чарльз начинает поиски окаменелостей, которыми славятся окрестности городка, и на Вэрской пустоши случайно видит Женщину французского лейтенанта, одинокую и страдающую. Старая миссис Поултни, известная своим самодурством, взяла Сару Вудраф в компаньонки, чтобы всех превзойти в благотворительности. Чарльз, в обязанности которого входит трижды в неделю наносить визиты, встречает в ее доме Сару и удивляется ее независимости. Унылое течение обеда разнообразит лишь настойчивое ухаживание голубоглазого Сэма, слуги Чарльза, за горничной мисс Трэнтер Мэри, самой красивой, непосредственной, словно налитой девушкой. На следующий день Чарльз вновь приходит на пустошь и застает Сару на краю обрыва, заплаканную, с пленительно-сумрачным лицом. Неожиданно она достает из кармана две морские звезды и протягивает Чарльзу. "Джентльмена, который дорожит своей репутацией, не должны видеть в обществе вавилонской блудницы Лайма", - произносит она. Смитсон понимает, что следовало бы подальше держаться от этой странной особы, но Сара олицетворяет собой желанные и неисчерпаемые возможности, а Эрнестина, как он ни уговаривает себя, похожа, порою на "хитроумную заводную куклу из сказок Гофмана". В тот же вечер Чарльз дает обед в честь Тины и ее тетушки. Приглашен и бойкий ирландец доктор Гроган, холостяк, много лет добивающийся расположения старой девы мисс Трэнтер. Доктор не разделяет приверженности Чарльза к палеонтологии и вздыхает о том, что мы о живых организмах знаем меньше, чем об окаменелостях.

Наедине с ним Смитсон спрашивает о странностях Женщины французского лейтенанта. Доктор объясняет состояние Сары приступами меланхолии и психозом, в результате которого скорбь для нее становится счастьем. Теперь встречи с ней кажутся Чарльзу исполненными филантропического смысла. Однажды Сара приводит его в укромный уголок на склоне холма и рассказывает историю своего несчастья, вспоминая, как красив был спасенный лейтенант и как горько обманулась она, когда последовала за ним в Эймус и отдалась ему в совершенно неприличной гостинице: "То был дьявол в обличий моряка!" Исповедь потрясает Чарльза. Он обнаруживает в Саре страстность и воображение - два качества, типичных для англичан, но совершенно подавленных эпохой всеобщего ханжества. Девушка признается, что уже не надеется на возвращение французского лейтенанта, потому что знает о его женитьбе. Спускаясь в лощину, они неожиданно замечают обнимающихся Сэма и Мэри и прячутся. Сара улыбается так, как будто снимает одежду. Она бросает вызов благородным манерам, учености Чарльза, его привычке к рациональному анализу. В гостинице перепуганного Смитсона ждет еще одно потрясение: престарелый дядя, сэр Роберт, объявляет о своей женитьбе на "неприятно молодой" вдове миссис Томкинс и, следовательно, лишает племянника титула и наследства, Эрнестина разочарована таким поворотом событий. Сомневается в правильности своего выбора и Смитсон, в нем разгорается новая страсть. Желая все обдумать, он собирается уехать в Лондон. От Сары приносят записку, написанную по-французски, словно в память о лейтенанте, с просьбой прийти на рассвете.

В смятении Чарльз признается доктору в тайных встречах с девушкой. Гроган пытается объяснить ему, что Сара водит его за нос, и в доказательство дает прочитать отчет о процессе, проходившем в 1835 г. над одним офицером. Он обвинялся в изготовлении анонимных писем с угрозами семье командира и насилии над его шестнадцатилетней дочерью Мари. Последовала дуэль, арест, десять лет тюрьмы. Позже опытный адвокат догадался, что даты самых непристойных писем совпадали с днями менструаций Мари, у которой был психоз ревности к любовнице молодого человека.. Однако ничто не может остановить Чарльза, и с первым проблеском зари он отправляется на свидание. Сару выгоняет из дома миссис Поултни, которая не в силах перенести своеволие и дурную репутацию компаньонки. Сара прячется в амбаре, где и происходит ее объяснение с Чарльзом. К несчастью, едва они поцеловались, как на пороге возникли Сэм и Мэри. Смитсон берет с них обещание молчать и, ни в чем не признавшись Эрнестине, спешно едет в Лондон. Сара скрывается в Эксетере.

У нее есть десять соверенов, оставленные на прощание Чарльзом, и это дает ей немного свободы. Смитсону приходится обсуждать с отцом Эрнестины предстоящую свадьбу. Как-то, увидев на улице проститутку, похожую на Сару, он нанимает ее, но ощущает внезапную тошноту. Вдобавок шлюху также зовут Сарой. Вскоре Чарльз получает письмо из Эксетера и отправляется туда, но, не повидавшись с Сарой, решает ехать дальше, в Лайм-Риджис, к Эрнестине. Их воссоединение завершается свадьбой. В окружении семерых детей они живут долго и счастливо. О Саре ничего не слышно. Но этот конец неинтересен. Вернемся к письму. Итак, Чарльз спешит в Эксетер и находит там Сару. В ее глазах печаль ожидания. "Мы не должны... это безумие", - бессвязно повторяет Чарльз. Он "впивается губами в ее рот, словно изголодался не просто по женщине, а по всему, что так долго было под запретом". Чарльз не сразу понимает, что Сара девственна, а все рассказы о лейтенанте - ложь. Пока он в церкви молит о прощении, Сара исчезает. Смитсон пишет ей о решении жениться и увезти ее прочь. Он испытывает прилив уверенности и отваги, расторгает помолвку с Тиной, готовясь всю жизнь посвятить Саре, но не может ее найти. Наконец, через два года, в Америке, он получает долгожданное известие. Возвратившись в Лондон, Смитсон обретает Сару в доме Росетти, среди художников. Здесь его ждет годовалая дочка по имени Лалаге (ручеек).

Нет, и такой путь не для Чарльза. Он не соглашается быть игрушкой в руках женшины, которая добилась исключительной власти над ним. Прежде Сара называла его единственной надеждой, но, приехав в Эксетер, он понял, что поменялся с ней ролями. Она удерживает его из жалости, и Чарльз отвергает эту жертву. Он хочет вернуться в Америку, где открыл "частицу веры в себя". Он понимает, что жизнь нужно по мере сил претерпевать, чтобы снова выходить в слепой, соленый, темный океан.

Gulliver’s Travels by Daniel Defoe


Gulliver's Travels was published in 1726 by satirist Jonathan Swift. Because it can be read as a fantasy novel, a story for children, and a social satire, its tales of dwarves, giants, oating islands and talking horses have long entertained readers from every age group. It has often been issued with long passages omitted, particularly those concerning bodily functions and other distasteful topics. Even without these passages, however, Gulliver's Travels serves as a biting satire, and Swift ensures that it is both humorous and critical, constantly criticizing British and European society through its descriptions of imaginary countries.

The book was originally published as Travels to Several Remote Nations of the World by Captain Lemuel Gulliver. It is set at the turn of the 18th century, and it details four journeys made over the course of several years. It describes only vaguely the locations of the fantastic lands to which Gulliver travels, ultimately insisting that European maps are too awed to allow them to be easily found.

There is a general tone of mockery in the text, echoing the sarcastic voice found in other works by Swift (e.g. "A Modest Proposal"). Gulliver is sometimes wise, sometimes foolish, but always eager to please his new masters. The sarcastic tone of the text sets Swift himself as a kind of foil to Gulliver; unlike his protagonist, Swift's purpose was no doubt to annoy the leaders of Britain rather than please them.

Swift wrote Gulliver's Travels at a time of political change and scientific invention, and many of the events he describes in the book can easily be linked to contemporary events in Europe. One of the reasons that the stories are deeply amusing is that, by combining real issues with entirely fantastic situations and characters, they suggest that the realities of 18th-century England were as fantastic as the situations in which Gulliver finds himself.


Gulliver  The narrator and protagonist of the story, Lemuel Gulliver is a English ship's surgeon carried by circumstance into a series of adventures in strange parts of the world. He is well-traveled and speaks several languages.

The Emperor  The ruler of Lilliput; he, like all Lilliputians, is less than six inches tall.

Reldresal  A government official in Lilliput; he befriends Gulliver and warns him when his life is threatened.

The farmer  Gulliver's first master in Brobdingnag; in order to make money, he puts Gulliver on display around Brobdingnag.

Glumdalclitch  The farmer's nine-year-old daughter; she becomes Gulliver's friend and nursemaid.

The Queen  The Queen of Brobdingnag.

The King  The King of Brobdingnag.

Yahoo  Unkempt beasts who live under the power of the Houyhnhnms; they are strong, malicious, and cowardly, and resemble humans in most respects.

Houyhnhnms  Horses who maintain a simple, peaceful society, in which the Yahoos are subordinate; they befriend Gulliver, but cannot accept him as an equal.


Gulliver's Travels details a sailor's journey to four very different fantastical societies. The first, Lilliput, is populated by miniature people who brought wars over the proper way to break an egg. The second, Brobdingnag, is inhabited by giants who put Gulliver on display as a curiosity. The third consists of a kingdom governed by a king who lives on a oating island; the kingdom also contains an academy of scientists performing futile experiments, such as trying to extract sunbeams from cucumbers. The fourth is a society in which human-like creatures are made to serve their horse-like superiors, the Houyhnhnms.

In his first adventure, in Lilliput, Gulliver becomes a hero by destroying an enemy's fleet of ships. He is constantly under threat of execution by the little people of Lilliput, however, who believe that trivial crimes deserve severe punishments. The willingness of the Lilliputians and their enemies to risk their lives in defense of their methods of egg-breaking is a way for Swift to criticise the European tendency to focus on, and _get over, trivialities.

In his next adventure, in Brobdingnag, Gulliver finds himself in the opposite situation, now many times smaller than his hosts. He is made to see things up close, and notices things that would have escaped him had the people been his own size. To him, the Brobdingnagians seem vulgar and ugly, since the aws, which would be invisible on smaller beings, become all too obvious when expanded to their gargantuan size. Gulliver is treated poorly by the farmer who first discovers him, but is then rescued by the Queen, who turns him into a pet. The giants see him, and the society from which he comes, as tiny and insignificant.

Next, Gulliver visits the oating island of Laputa, where he encounters a government so absorbed in its theories that the King must be aroused during conversation by being hit with a stick. While the people on the oating island concern themselves with theories, the people of the kingdom below suffer from poverty and hunger. On the ground a scientific academy is similarly concerned with the most impractical projects; the value of academia is challenged by their ineptitude.

Finally, Gulliver travels to a country populated by intelligent horses, the Houyhnhnms, and the brutish, human-like Yahoos who serve them. During his stay, he is treated like a Yahoo and comes to think of his own European society as being not that different from theirs. He wants to stay with the Houyhnhnms, but he is eventually banished from their company for resembling a Yahoo. Knowing that the ways of his people are awed and irrational, he finds it very difficult to return home to England.

Part I, Chapter 1


The novel begins with Lemuel Gulliver recounting the story of his life, beginning with his family history. He was born to a family in Nottinghamshire, the third of five sons. Although he studied at Cambridge as a teenager, his family was too poor to keep him there, so he was sent to London to be a surgeon's apprentice. There, he learned mathematics and navigation with the hope of travelling. When his apprenticeship ended, he studied physics at Leyden.

He then became a surgeon aboard a ship called The Swallow for three years. Afterwards, he settled in London, working as a doctor, and married a woman named Mary Burton. His business began to fail when his patron died, so he decided to go to sea again and travelled for six years. Although he had planned to return home, he decided to accept one last job on a ship called The Antelope.

Here the background information ends and Gulliver's story really begins. In the East Indies, The Antelope encounters a violent storm in which twelve crewmen die. Six of the crew members, including Gulliver, board a small rowboat to escape. Soon the rowboat capsizes, and Gulliver loses track of his companions; they are never seen again. Gulliver, however, swims safely to shore.

He lies down on the grass to rest and soon falls asleep. When he wakes up he finds that his arms, legs, and long hair have been tied to the ground with ropes bound across the rest of his body. Tied as he is, he can only look up, and the bright sun prevents him from seeing anything. He feels something move across his leg and over his chest. He looks down at it and sees, to his surprise, a six-inch-tall human carrying a bow and arrow. At least forty more little people climb onto his body. He is surprised and shouts loudly, frightening the little people away. They return, however, and one of the little men cries out "Hekinah Degul."

Gulliver struggles to get loose and finally succeeds in breaking the strings binding his left arm. He loosens the ropes tying his hair so he can turn to the left. In response, the little people _re a volley of arrows into his hand and violently attack his body and face. He decides that the safest thing to do is to lie still until nightfall. The noise increases, as the little people build a stage next to Gulliver about a foot o_ the ground. One of them climbs onto it and makes a speech in a language that Gulliver does not understand.

Gulliver indicates that he is hungry, and the little people bring him baskets of meat. He devours it all, and then shows that he is thirsty, so they bring him two large barrels of wine. Gulliver is tempted to pick up forty or fifty of them and throw them against the ground, but he decides that he has made them a promise of goodwill and is grateful for their hospitality. He is also struck at their bravery, since they climb onto his body despite his great size.

An official climbs onto Gulliver's body and tells him that he is to be carried to the Capital City. Gulliver wants to walk, but they tell him that that will not be permitted. Instead, they bring their largest machine; a frame of wood raised three inches o_ the ground and carried by twenty-two wheels.

Nine hundred men pull this cart about half a mile to the city. His left leg is padlocked to a building, giving him only enough freedom to walk around the building in a semicircle and lie down inside the temple.

Part I, Chapters 2-3


Chained to the building, Gulliver is finally able to stand up and view the entire countryside, which he discovers is beautiful and rustic. The tallest trees are seven feet tall, and the whole area looks to him like a theatre set.

Gulliver describes his process of relieving himself, which initially involved walking inside the building to the edge of his chain. After the first time, he makes sure to relieve himself in open air; the sewage is carried away in wheelbarrows by servants. He is careful to describe this process in order to ensure that his cleanliness is known, since critics have called it into question.

The Emperor visits from his Tower, on horseback. He orders his servants to give Gulliver food and drink. The Emperor is dressed plainly and carries a sword to defend himself. He and Gulliver converse, though they cannot understand each other. Gulliver tries to speak every language he knows, but nothing works. After two hours, Gulliver is left with a group of soldiers guarding him. Some of them try to shoot arrows at him, and as a punishment the Brigadier ties up six of them and places them in Gulliver's hand. Gulliver puts five of them into his pocket and takes the fifth into his hand. They think he is to be eaten, but Gulliver cuts loose his ropes and sets him free. He does the same with the other five, which pleases the Court.

After two weeks, a bed is made for Gulliver. It consists of 600 small beds sewn together. News of his arrival also spreads throughout the kingdom, and curious people from the villages come to see him. Meanwhile, the government attempts to decide what is to be done with Gulliver. Frequent Councils bring up various concerns: for instance, that he will break loose or that he will eat enough to cause a famine. It is suggested that they starve him or shoot him in the face to kill him, but that would leave them with a giant corpse and a large health risk.

Officers that had witnessed Gulliver's lenient treatment of the six offending soldiers report to the Council, and the Emperor and his Court decide to respond with kindness. They arrange to deliver large amounts of food to Gulliver every morning, and to supply him with servants to wait on him, tailors to make him clothing, and teachers to instruct him in their language.

Every morning Gulliver asks the Emperor to set him free, but he refuses, saying that Gulliver must be patient. The Emperor also orders him to be searched to ensure that he does not have any weapons. Gulliver agrees to this, and the little people take an inventory of all his possessions; in the process, all of his weapons are taken away.

Gulliver hopes to be set free, as he is getting along well with the Lilliputians and earning their trust. The Emperor decides to entertain him with shows, including a performance by Rope-Dancers.

Rope-Dancers are Lilliputians who are seeking employment in the government; for the performance, which doubles as a sort of competitive entrance examination, the candidates dance on "ropes" slender threads suspended two feet above the ground. When a vacancy occurs, candidates petition the Emperor entertain him with a dance; whoever jumps the highest earns the office. The current ministers continue this practice as well, in order to show that they have not lost their skill.

As another diversion for Gulliver, the Emperor lays three silken threads of different colors on a table. He then holds out a stick, and candidates are asked to leap over it or creep under it. Whoever shows the most dexterity wins one of the ribbons.

Gulliver builds a platform from sticks and his handkerchief and invites horsemen to exercise upon it. The Emperor greatly enjoys watching this new entertainment, but it is cut short when a horse steps through the handkerchief and Gulliver decides that it is too dangerous for them to keep riding on the cloth.

Some Lilliputians discover Gulliver's hat, which had washed ashore after him, and he asks them to bring it back. Soon after, the Emperor asks Gulliver to pose like a Colossus, so that his troops might march under him.

Gulliver's petitions for freedom are finally answered. Gulliver must swear to obey the articles put forth. Included in these articles are the stipulations that he must assist the Lilliputians in times of war, survey the land around them, help with construction, and deliver urgent messages. Gulliver agrees and his chains are removed.

Part I, Chapters 4-5


The first thing Gulliver does after regaining his freedom is to ask to see the city, which is called Mildendo. The residents are told to stay indoors, and they all sit on their roofs and in their garret windows to see him. He describes the town as being five hundred feet square, with a wall surrounding it. The town can hold five hundred thousand people. The Emperor's Palace is at the center, where the two large streets meet. The Emperor wants Gulliver to see the magnificence of his palace, so Gulliver cuts down trees to make himself a stool, which he carries around with him so that he can sit down and see things from a shorter distance than a standing position allows.

About two weeks after Gulliver obtains his liberty, a government official, Reldresal, comes to see him. Gulliver offers to lie down to make conversation easier, but Reldresal prefers to be held in Gulliver's hand. He tells Gulliver that the kingdom is threatened by two forces, one rebel group and one foreign empire. The rebel group exists because the kingdom is divided into two factions, called Tramecksan and Slamecksan; the people in the two factions are distinguished by the heights of their heels.

Reldresal tells Gulliver that the current Emperor has chosen to employ primarily the low-heeled Slamecksan in his administration. He adds that the Emperor himself has lower heels than all of his officials, but that his heir has one heel higher than the other, which makes him walk unevenly. At the same time, the Lilliputians fear an invasion from the Island of Blefuscu, which Reldresal calls the "Other Great Empire of the Universe" (25). He adds that the philosophers of Lilliput do not believe Gulliver's claim that there are other countries in the world inhabited by other people of his size, preferring to think that Gulliver dropped from the moon or a star.

Reldresal describes the history of the two nations, starting out by saying that it makes no mention of any other empire ever existing. The conflict between them, he tells Gulliver, began years ago, when the Emperor's father, then in command of the country, commanded all Lilliputians to break their eggs on the small end first. He made this decision after breaking an egg in the old way, large end first, and cutting his finger. The people resented the law, and six rebellions were started in protest. The monarchs of Blefuscu fuelled these rebellions, and when they were over the rebels fled to that country to seek refuge. Eleven thousand people chose death rather than submitting to the law. Many books were written on the controversy, but books written by the Big-Endians were banned. The government of Blefuscu accused the Lilliputians of disobeying their religious doctrine, the Brundrecal, by breaking their eggs at the small end. The Lilliputians argued that the doctrine reads "That all true believers shall break their eggs at the convenient end," which could be interpreted as the small end.

The exiles gained support in Blefuscu to launch a war against Lilliput and were aided by rebel forces inside Lilliput. A war has been raging ever since between the two nations, and Gulliver is asked to help defend Lilliput against its enemies. Gulliver does not feel that it is appropriate to intervene, but he nonetheless offers his services to the Emperor.

Gulliver then visits Blefuscu and devises a plan. He asks for cables and bars of iron, out of which he makes hooks with cables attached. He then walks to Blefuscu and catches their ships at port. The people are so frightened that they leap out of their ships and swim to shore. Gulliver attaches a hook to each ship and ties them together. While he does this the soldiers _re arrows at him, but he keeps working. In order to protect his eyes, he puts on the spectacles he keeps in his coat pocket. He tries to pull the ships away, but they are anchored too tightly, so he cuts them away with his pocketknife and pulls the ships back to Lilliput with them.

In Lilliput, Gulliver is greeted as a hero. The Emperor asks him to go back to retrieve the other ships, intending to destroy Blefescu's military strength and make it a province in his empire. Gulliver dissuades him from this, saying that he does not want to encourage slavery or injustice. This causes great disagreement in the government, with some officials turning staunchly against Gulliver and calling for his destruction.

Three weeks later a delegation arrives from Blefuscu, and the war ends with their surrender. They are privately told of Gulliver's kindness towards them, and they ask him to visit their kingdom. He wishes to do so, and the Emperor reluctantly allows it.

As a Nardac, or person of high rank, Gulliver no longer has to perform all the duties laid down in his contract. He does, however, have the opportunity to help the Lilliputians when the Emperor's wife's room catches _re. He forgets his coat and cannot put the flames out with his clothing, so instead he thinks of a new plan: he urinates on the palace, putting out the _re entirely. He worries afterwards that, since the act of public urination is a crime in Lilliput, he will be prosecuted, but the Emperor tells him he will be pardoned. He is told, however, that the Emperor's wife can no longer tolerate living in her rescued quarters.

Part I, Chapters 6-8


In these chapters, Gulliver describes the customs and character of Lilliput in more detail, beginning by explaining that everything in Lilliput is sized in proportion to the Lilliputians: their animals, trees, and plants are all proportional to their own height. Their eyesight is also adapted to their scale; Gulliver cannot see as clearly close-up as they can, while they cannot see as far.

The Lilliputians are well-educated, but their writing system is odd to Gulliver, who jokes that they write not left to right like the Europeans or top to bottom like the Chinese, but from one corner of the page to the other, "like the ladies in England."

The dead are buried with their heads pointing directly downwards, because the Lilliputians believe that eventually the dead will rise again and that the earth, which they think is at, will turn upside-down. Gulliver adds that the more well-educated Lilliputians no longer believe in this custom.

Gulliver describes some of the other laws of Lilliput, such as a tradition by which anyone who falsely accuses someone else of a crime is put to death.

Deceit is considered worse than theft, because honest people are more vulnerable to liars than to thieves. The law provides not only for punishment but also for rewards of special titles and privileges for good behavior.

Children are raised not by individual parents but by the kingdom as a whole. They are sent to live in schools at a very young age; the schools are chosen according to the station of their parents, whom they see only twice a year. Only the laborers' children stay home, since their job is to farm. There are no beggars at all, since the poor are well looked-after.

Gulliver goes on to describe the "intrigue" that precipitates his departure from Lilliput. While he is preparing to make his trip to Blefuscu, a court official pays him a visit. He tells Gulliver that he has been charged with treason by enemies in the government. He shows Gulliver the document calling for his execution: Gulliver is charged with public urination, refusing to obey the Emperor's orders to seize the remaining Blefuscu ships, aiding enemy ambassadors, and travelling to Blefuscu.

Gulliver is told that Reldresal has asked for his sentence to be reduced, calling not for execution but for putting his eyes out. This has been agreed upon, along with a plan to starve him to death slowly. The official tells Gulliver that the operation to blind him will take place in three days.

Fearing this resolution, Gulliver crosses the channel and arrives in Blefuscu. Three days later, he sees a boat of "normal" size that is, big enough to carry Gulliver overturned in the water. He asks the emperor of Blefuscu to help him _x it. At the same time, the emperor of Lilliput sends an envoy with the articles commanding him to give up his eyesight. The emperor of Blefuscu sends them back with the message that Gulliver will be leaving both their kingdoms soon. After about a month the boat is ready and Gulliver sets sail. He arrives safely back in England, and makes a good profit showing miniature farm animals that he had carried away from Blefuscu in his pockets.

Part II, Chapters 1-2


Two months after returning to England, Gulliver is restless again. He sets sail on a ship called the Downs, travelling to the Cape of Good Hope and Madagascar before encountering a monsoon that draws the ship o_ course.

They continue to sail, eventually arriving at an unknown land mass. They find no inhabitants, and the landscape is barren and rocky. Gulliver is walking back to the boat when he sees that it has already left without him. He tries to chase after it, but then he sees that they are being followed by a giant. Gulliver runs away; when he stops, he is on a steep hill from which he can see the countryside. He is shocked to see that the grass is about twenty feet high.

He walks down what looks like the high road, but turns out to be a footpath through a field of barley. He walks for a long time, but cannot see anything beyond the stalks of corn, which are forty feet high. He tries to climb a set of steps into the next field, but he cannot mount them because they are too high. As he is trying to climb up the stairs he sees another one of the island's giant inhabitants. He hides from the giant, but it calls for more people to come, and they begin to harvest the crop with scythes.

Gulliver lies down and bemoans his state, thinking about how insignificant he must be to these giant creatures.

One of the servants comes close to Gulliver with both his foot and his scythe, so Gulliver screams as loudly as he can. The giant finally notices him, and picks him up between his fingers to get a closer look. Gulliver tries to speak to him in plaintive tones, bringing his hands together, and the giant seems pleased. Gulliver makes it clear that the giant's fingers are hurting him, and the giant places him in his pocket and begins to walk towards his master.

His master, the farmer of these fields, takes Gulliver from his servant and observes him more closely. He asks the other servants if they have ever seen anything like Gulliver, and places him onto the ground. They sit around him in a circle. Gulliver kneels down and begins to speak as loudly as he can, taking o_ his hat and bowing to the farmer. He presents a purse full of gold to the farmer, which he takes into his palm. He cannot seem to figure out what it is, even after Gulliver empties the coins into his hand.

The farmer takes him back to his wife, who is frightened of him. The servant brings in dinner and they all sit down to eat, Gulliver sitting on the table not far from the farmer's plate. They give him tiny bits of their food, and he pulls out his knife and fork to eat, which delights the giants. The farmer' son picks him up and scares him, but the farmer takes Gulliver from his hands and strikes his son. Gulliver makes a sign that the boy should be forgiven, and kisses his hand. After dinner, the farmer's wife lets Gulliver nap in her own bed. When he wakes up he finds two rats attacking him, and he defends himself with his weapon.

The farmer's nine-year-old daughter, whom Gulliver calls Glumdalclitch, or nursemaid, has a doll's cradle, which becomes Gulliver's permanent bed. This is placed inside a drawer to keep him away from the rats. The girl becomes Gulliver's caretaker and guardian, sewing clothes for him and teaching him the giants' language.

The farmer begins to talk about Gulliver in town, and a friend of the farmer's comes to see him. He looks at Gulliver through his glasses, and Gulliver begins to laugh at the sight of his eyes through the glass. The man becomes angry, and advises the farmer to take Gulliver into the market to display him. He agrees, and Gulliver is taken in a carriage, which he finds very uncomfortable, to the town. There he is placed on a table and the little girl sits down on a stool beside him, with thirty people at a time walking through as he performs "tricks."

Gulliver is exhausted by the journey to the marketplace, but finds upon returning to the farmer's house that he is to be shown there as well. People come from miles around and are charged great sums to view him. Thinking that Gulliver can make him a great fortune, the farmer takes him and his daughter on a voyage to the largest cities.

They arrive in the largest city, Lorbrulgrud, and the farmer rents a room with a table for displaying Gulliver. By now he can understand their language and speak it fairly well. He is shown ten times a day and pleases the visitors greatly.

Part II, Chapters 3-5


The strain of travelling and performing "tricks" takes its toll on Gulliver, and he begins to grow very thin. The farmer notices this and resolves to make as much money as possible before Gulliver dies. Meanwhile, an order comes from the court, commanding the farmer to bring Gulliver to the Queen for her entertainment.

The Queen is delighted with Gulliver's behavior and buys him from the farmer for a thousand gold pieces. Gulliver requests that Glumdalclitch be allowed to live in the palace as well. Gulliver explains his suffering to the Queen, and she is impressed by his intelligence. She takes him to the King, who at first thinks he is a mechanical creation. He sends for great scholars to observe Gulliver, and they decide that he is unfit for survival, since there is no way he could feed himself. Gulliver tries to explain that he comes from a country in which everything is in proportion to himself, but they do not seem to believe him.

Glumdalclitch is given an apartment in the palace and a governess to teach her, and special quarters are built for Gulliver out of a box. They also have clothes made for him from fine silk, but Gulliver finds them very cumbersome. The Queen grows very used to his company, finding him very entertaining at dinner, especially when he cuts and eats his meat. He finds her way of eating repulsive, since her size allows her to swallow huge amounts of food in a single gulp.

The King converses with Gulliver on issues of politics, and laughs at his descriptions of the goings-on in Europe. He finds it amusing that people of such small stature should think themselves so important, and Gulliver is at first offended. He then comes to realize that he too has begun to think of his world as ridiculous, since it is so small and yet sees itself as so important.

The Queen's dwarf is not happy with Gulliver, since he is used to being the smallest person in the palace and a source of diversion for the royal court. He drops Gulliver into a bowl of cream, but Gulliver is able to swim to safety and the dwarf is punished. At another point the dwarf sticks Gulliver into a marrowbone, where he is forced to remain until someone pulls him out.

Gulliver then describes the country for the reader, noting first that since the land stretches out about six thousand miles there must be a severe error in European maps. The kingdom is bound on one side by mountains and on the other three sides by the sea. The water is very rough, so there is no trade with other nations. The rivers are well stocked with giant-sized fish, but the fish in the sea are of the same size as those in the rest of the world and therefore not worth catching.

Gulliver is carried around the city in a special travelling-box, and people always crowd around to see him. He asks to see the largest temple in the country and is not overwhelmed by its size, since at a height of three thousand feet it is proportionally smaller than the largest steeple in England.

Gulliver is happy in Brobdingnag except for the many mishaps that befall him because of his diminutive size. In one unpleasant incident, the dwarf, unhappy at Gulliver for teasing him, shakes an apple tree over his head and one of the apples strikes Gulliver in the back and knocks him over. Another time, he is left outside during a hailstorm and is so bruised and battered that he cannot leave the house for ten days.

Gulliver and his nursemaid are often invited to the apartments of the ladies of the court, and there he is treated as a plaything of little significance. They enjoy stripping his clothes and placing him in their bosoms, and he is appalled by their strong smell, noting that he was told by a Lilliputian that he smelled quite repulsive to them. The women also strip their own clothes in front of him, and he finds their skin very ugly and uneven.

The Queen constructs a way for Gulliver to sail, ordering a special boat to be built for him. This is placed in a cistern, and Gulliver rows in it for his own enjoyment and for the amusement of the Queen and her court. Yet another danger arises in the form of a monkey, which takes Gulliver up a ladder, holding him like a baby and force-feeding him. He is rescued from the monkey, and Glumdalclitch pries the food from his mouth with a needle, after which he vomits. He is so weak and bruised that he stays in bed for two weeks. The monkey is killed and orders are sent out that no other monkeys be kept in the palace.

Part II, Chapters 6-8


Gulliver makes himself a comb from the stumps of hair left after the King has been shaved. He also collects hairs from the King and uses them to weave the backs of two small chairs, which he gives to the Queen as curiosities.

Gulliver is brought to a musical performance, but it is so loud that he can hardly make it out. Gulliver decides to play the spinet for the royal family, but must contrive a novel way to do it, since the instrument is so big. He uses large sticks and must run over the keyboard with them, but he can still strike only sixteen keys.

Thinking that the King has unjustly come to regard his home country as insignificant and laughable, Gulliver tries to tell him more about Britain, describing the government and culture there. The King asks many questions, and is particularly struck by the violence of the history Gulliver describes.

He then takes Gulliver into his hand and, explaining that he finds the world that Gulliver describes to be ridiculous, contemptuous and strange, tells him that he concludes that "the bulk of your natives [are] the most pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl upon the surface of the earth."

Gulliver is disturbed by the King's proclamation. He tries to tell him about gunpowder, describing it as a great invention, and offering it to the King as a gesture of friendship. The King is appalled by the proposal, and Gulliver is taken aback, thinking that the King has refused a great opportunity. He says that the King is unnecessarily scrupulous and narrow-minded for not being more open to the inventions of Gulliver's world.

Gulliver finds the people of Brobdingnag in general to be ignorant and poorly educated. Their laws are not allowed to exceed in words the number of letters in their alphabet, and no arguments may be written about them.

They know the art of printing but do not have many books, and their writing is simple and straightforward. One text describes the insignificance and weakness of humans, and argues that at one point they must have been much larger.

Gulliver wants to recover his freedom. The King orders any small ship to be brought to the city, hoping that they might find a woman with which Gulliver can propagate. Gulliver fears that any offspring thus produced would be kept in cages or given to the nobility as pets. He has been in the country for two years and wants to be among his owned kind again.

Gulliver is taken to the south coast, and both Glumdalclitch and Gulliver fall ill. Gulliver says that he wants fresh air, and a page carries him out to the shore in his travelling-box. He asks to be left to sleep in his hammock, and the boy wanders o_. An eagle grabs hold of his box and flies off with him, and then suddenly Gulliver feels himself falling and lands in the water.

He worries that he will drown or starve to death, but then feels the box being pulled. He hears a voice telling him that his box is tied to a ship, and that a carpenter will come to drill a hole in the top. Gulliver says that they can simply use a finger to pry it open, and hears laughter. He realizes that he is speaking to people of his own height and climbs a ladder out of his box and onto their ship.

Gulliver begins to recover on the ship, and he tries to tell the sailors the story of his recent journey. He shows them things he saved from Brobdingnag, like his comb and a tooth pulled from a footman. He has trouble adjusting to their small size, and finds himself shouting all the time. When he reaches home it takes him some time to grow accustomed to his old life, and his wife asks him never to go to sea again.

Part III, Chapters 1-3


Gulliver has only been home in England ten days when a visitor comes to his house, asking him to sail aboard his ship in two months' time. Gulliver agrees and prepares to set out for the East Indies. On the voyage, the ship is attacked by pirates. Gulliver hears a Dutch voice among them and speaks to the pirate in Dutch, begging to be set free since he and the pirate are both Christians. A Japanese pirate tells them they will not die, and Gulliver tells the Dutchman that he is surprised to find more mercy in a heathen than in a Christian. The pirate grows angry and punishes him by sending him out to sea in a small boat with only four days' worth of food.

Gulliver finds some islands and goes ashore on one of them. He sets up camp but then notices something strange: the sun is mysteriously obscured for some time. He then sees a land mass dropping down and notices that it is crawling with people. He is baffed by this oating island, and he shouts up to its inhabitants. They lower the island and send down a chain, by which he is able to crawl up.

He is immediately surrounded by people and notices their oddities. Their heads are all tilted to one side or the other, with one eye turned inward and the other looking up. Their clothes are adorned with images of celestial bodies and musical instruments. Some of the people are servants, and they carry a Goddamn knows what made of a stick with a pouch tied to the end. Their job is to aid conversation by striking the ear of the listener and the mouth of the speaker at the appropriate times; otherwise, the minds of their masters would wander o_.

Gulliver is conveyed to the King, who sits behind a table loaded with mathematical instruments. They wait an hour before there is some opportunity to arouse him from his thoughts, at which point he is struck with the apper. The King says something, and Gulliver's ear is struck with the apper as well, even though he tries to explain that he doesn't require it. It becomes clear that he and the King cannot speak any of the same languages, so Gulliver is taken to an apartment and served dinner.

A teacher is sent to instruct Gulliver in the language of the island, and he is able to learn several sentences. He discovers that the name of the island is Laputa, which in their language means " oating island." A tailor is also sent to improve his clothes, and while he is waiting for these the King orders the island to be moved. It is taken to a point above the capital city of the kingdom, Lagado, passing villages along the way and collecting petitions from the King's subjects by means of ropes sent down to the lands below.

The language of the Laputans depends greatly on mathematics and music, and they despise practical geometry, thinking it vulgarso much so that they make sure that there are no right angles in their buildings. They are very good with charts and figures but very clumsy in practical matters. They dread changes in the celestial bodies.

The island is exactly circular and consists of ten thousand acres of land. At the center there is a cave for astronomers, containing all their instruments and a loadstone six yards long. It moves the island with its magnetic force, since it has two charges that can be reversed by means of an attached control.

The mineral that acts upon the magnet is only large enough to allow it to move over the country directly beneath it. When the King wants to punish a particular region of the country, he can keep the island above it, depriving the lands below of sun and rain. This failed to work in one town, where the rebellious inhabitants had stored provisions of food in advance. They planned to force the island to come so low that it would be trapped forever and to kill the King and his officials in order to take over the government.

Instead, the King ordered the island to stop descending and gave in to the town's demands. The King is not allowed to leave the oating island, nor is his family.

Part III, Chapters 4-10


Gulliver feels neglected on Laputa, since the inhabitants seem interested in only mathematics and music and are far superior to him in their knowledge.

He is bored by their conversation and wants to leave. There is one lord of the court whom Gulliver finds to be intelligent and curious, but who is known to the other inhabitants of Laputa as the stupidest of all because he has no ear for music. Gulliver asks this lord to petition the King to let him leave the island. The petition succeeds, and he is let down on the mountains above Lagado. He visits another lord there and is invited to stay at his home.

Gulliver and his host visit a nearby town, which Gulliver finds to be populated by poorly dressed inhabitants living in shabby houses. The soil is badly cultivated and the people appear miserable. They then travel to the lord's country house, first passing many barren fields but then arriving in a lush green area that the lord says belongs to his estate. He says that he is criticized heavily by the other lords for the "mismanagement" of his land.

The lord explains that forty years ago some people went to Laputa and returned with new ideas about mathematics and art. They decided to establish an academy in Lagado to develop new theories on agriculture and construction and to initiate projects to improve the lives of the city's inhabitants. However, the theories have never produced any results and the new techniques have left the country in ruin. He encourages Gulliver to visit the academy, which Gulliver is glad to do since he had once been intrigued by projects of this sort himself.

Gulliver visits the academy, where he meets a man engaged in a project to extract the sunbeams from cucumbers. He also meets a scientist trying to separate out the different parts of excrement, hoping to produce food from it. Another is attempting to turn ice into gunpowder and is writing a treatise about the malleability of _re, hoping to have it published. An architect is designing a way to build houses starting from the roof, and a blind master is teaching his blind apprentices to mix colors for painters according to smell and touch. An agronomist is designing a method of plowing fields with hogs by first burying food in the ground and then letting the hogs loose to dig them out. A doctor in another room tries to cure patients by blowing air through them; Gulliver leaves him trying to revive a dog that he has killed by "curing" him in this way.

On the other side of the academy there are people engaged in speculative learning. One professor has a class full of boys working from a machine that produces random sets of words; using this, the teacher claims, anyone can write a book on philosophy or politics. A linguist in another room is attempting to remove all the elements of language except nouns; this would make language more concise and prolong lives, since every word spoken is detrimental to the human body. Since nouns are only things, furthermore, it would be even easier to carry things and never speak at all.

Gulliver then visits professors who are studying issues of government. One claims that women should be taxed according to their beauty and skill at dressing, another that conspiracies against the government could be discovered by studying the excrement of subjects. Gulliver grows tired of the academy and begins to yearn for a return to England. He tries to travel to Luggnagg, but finds no ship available. Since he has to wait a month, he is advised to take a trip to the island of GLUBBDUBDRIB the island of magicians.

Gulliver visits the governor of GLUBBDUBDRIB, and finds that he is attended by servants who appear and disappear like spirits. The governor tells Gulliver that he has the power to call up whomever he would like to speak to; Gulliver chooses Alexander the Great, who assures him that he died not from poison but from excessive drinking. He then sees Hannibal, Caesar, Pompey and Brutus. Gulliver sets apart one day to speak with the most venerated people in history, starting with Homer and Aristotle. He asks Descartes and Gassendi to describe their systems to Aristotle, who freely acknowledges his own mistakes.

Gulliver returns to Luggnagg, where he is confined despite his desire to return to England. He is ordered to appear at the King's court and is given lodging and an allowance. The Luggnuggians tell him about certain immortal people, children born with a red spot on their foreheads and called Struldbruggs. Gulliver devises a whole system of what he would do if he were immortal, starting with the acquisition of riches and knowledge. He is told that after the age of thirty, most Struldbruggs grew sad and dejected; by eighty, they were incapable of affection and envious of those who could die. If two of the Struldbruggs married, the marriage was dissolved when one reached eighty, because "those who are condemned without any fault of their own to a perpetual continuance in the world should not have their misery doubled by the load of a wife." He meets some of these people and finds them to be unhappy and unpleasant, and he regrets ever wishing for their state.

Gulliver is then finally able to depart from Luggnagg, refusing employment there, and he arrives safely in Japan. From there he gains passage on a Dutch ship by pretending to be from Holland and sets sail from Amsterdam to England, where he finds his family in good health.


Gulliver stays home for five months, but then leaves his pregnant wife to set sail again, this time as the captain of a ship called the Adventure. Many of his sailors die of illness, so he recruits more along the way. His crew mutinies under the influence of these new sailors, and they become pirates. Gulliver is left on an unknown shore, after being confined to his cabin for several days.

He sees animals in the distance, and describes them as long-haired, with beards like goats and sharp claws which they use to climb trees. Gulliver decides that they are very ugly and sets forth to find settlers, but encounters one of the animals on his way.

He takes out his sword and hits the animal with the side of it. The animal roars loudly, and a herd of others like it attack Gulliver by attempting to defecate on him. He hides, but then sees them hurrying away. He emerges from his hiding place to see that the beasts have been scared away by a horse.

The horse observes him carefully, and then neighs in a complicated cadence. Another horse joins the first and the two seem to be involved in a discussion. Gulliver tries to leave but one of the horses calls him back.

The horses appear to be so intelligent that Gulliver concludes that they are magicians who have transformed themselves into horses. He addresses them directly, and asks to be taken to a house or village. The horses use the words Yahoo and Houyhnhnm, which Gulliver tries to pronounce.

Gulliver is led to a house, and he takes out gifts, expecting to meet people. He finds instead that there are more horses in the house, sitting down and engaged in various activities. He thinks that the house belongs to a person of great importance, and wonders why they should have horses for servants. A horse looks Gulliver over and says the word "Yahoo." Gulliver is led out to the courtyard, where a few of the ugly creatures are tied up. One creature and Gulliver are lined up and compared, and he finds that the creature does look quite human. The horses test him by offering him various foods: hay, which he refuses, and flesh, which he finds repulsive but which the Yahoo devours. The horses determine that he likes milk and give him large amounts of it to drink.

Another horse comes to dine, and they all take great pleasure in teaching Gulliver to pronounce words in their language. They cannot determine what he might like to eat, until Gulliver suggests that he could make bread from their oats. He is given a place to sleep with straw for the time being.

Gulliver endeavours to learn the horses' language, and they are impressed by his intellect and curiosity. After three months he can answer most of their questions and tries to explain that he comes from across the sea, but the horses, or "Houyhnhnms," do not believe it to be possible. They think he is some kind of a Yahoo, though superior to the rest of his species. He asks them to stop using that word to refer to him, and they consent.

Gulliver tries to explain that the Yahoos are the governing creatures where he comes from, and the Houyhnhnms ask how their horses are employed. Gulliver explains that they are used for travelling, racing, and drawing chariots, and the Houyhnhnms express disbelief that anything as weak as a Yahoo would dare to mount a horse that was so much stronger than it does. Gulliver explains that the horses are trained from a young age to be tame and obedient. He describes the state of humanity in Europe and is asked to speak more specifically of his own country.

Part IV, Chapters 5-12


Gulliver describes the state of affairs in Europe over the course of two years, speaking to the Houyhnhnms of the English Revolution and the war with France. He is asked to explain the causes of war, and he does his best to provide reasons. He is also asked to speak of law and the justice system, which he does in some detail.

The discussion then turns to other topics, such as money and the different kinds of food eaten in Europe. Gulliver explains the different occupations in which people are involved, including service professions such as medicine and construction.

Gulliver develops such a love for the Houyhnhnms that he no longer desires to return to humankind. However, fate has other plans for him. His Master tells him that he has considered all of his claims about his home country and has come to the conclusion that his people are not as different from the Yahoos as they may first have seemed. He describes all the aws of the Yahoos, principally detailing their greed and selfishness. He admits that the humans have different systems of learning, law, government, and art, but says that their natures are not different from those of the Yahoos.

Gulliver wants to observe these similarities for himself, so he asks to go among the Yahoos. He finds them to be very nimble from infancy, but unable to learn anything. They are strong, cowardly, and malicious.

The principle virtues of the Houyhnhnms are their friendship and benevolence. They are concerned more with the community than with their own personal advantages, even choosing their mates in order to promote the race as a whole. They breed industriousness, cleanliness, and civility in their young, and exercise them for speed and strength. They have no writing system and no word to express anything evil.

A room is made for Gulliver, and he furnishes it well. He also makes new clothes for himself and settles into life with the Houyhnhnms quite easily. He begins to think of his friends and family back home as Yahoos. However, he is called by his Master and told that others have taken offence at his being kept in the house as a Houyhnhnm; he has no choice but to ask Gulliver to leave. Gulliver is very upset to hear that he is to be banished. He builds a

canoe with the help of his Master and sadly departs.

Gulliver does not want to return to Europe, and so he begins to search for an island where he can live, as he likes. He finds land and discovers natives there. He is struck by an arrow and tries to escape the natives' darts by paddling out to sea. He sees a sail in the distance and thinks of going towards it, but then decides he would rather live with the barbarians than the European Yahoos, so he hides from the ship. The seamen find him and question him, laughing at his strange horse-like manner of speaking. He tries to escape from their ship, and they do not understand why.

Gulliver then travels back to England and sees his family. They were certain he was dead, and he is filled with disgust and contempt for them.

For a year he cannot stand to be near to his wife and children, and he buys two horses and converses with them for four hours each day. Gulliver concludes his narrative by acknowledging that the law requires him to report his findings to the government, but that he can see no military advantage in attacking any of the locations he discovered; and he particularly wishes to protect the Houyhnhnms.


Heart of Darkness by J.Conrad

Summary Part I:

A ship called the Nellie is cruising down the Thames‹it will rest there as it awaits a change in tide. The narrator is an unidentified guest aboard the ship. He describes at length the appearance of the Thames as an interminable waterway, and then he moves on to describing the inhabitants of the ship. The Director of Companies doubles as Captain and host. They all regard him with affection, trust and respect. The Lawyer is advanced in years and possesses many virtues. The Accountant is toying with dominoes, trying to begin a game. Between them already is the "bond of the sea." They are tolerant of one another. Then there is Marlow. He has an emaciated appearance sunken cheeks and a yellow complexion.

The ship drops anchor, but nobody wants to begin the dominoes game. They sit and meditatively at the sun, and the narrator takes great notice of how the water changes as the sun sets. Marlow suddenly speaks, noting that "this also has been one of the dark places of the earth." He is a man who does not represent his class: he is a seaman but also a wanderer, which is disdainful and odd, since most seamen live sedentary lives aboard the ship that is their home. No one responds to the remark, and Marlow continues to talk of olden times when the Romans arrived and brought light, which even now is constantly flickering. He says those people were not colonists but conquerors, taking everything by brute force. This "taking of the earth is not a pretty thing" when examined too closely; it is the idea behind it which people find redeeming. Then, to the dismay of his bored listeners, he switches into narration of a life experience, how he decided to be a fresh water sailor and had come into contact with colonization.

After a number of voyages in the Orient and India, Marlow began to look for a ship, but he was having hard luck in finding a position. As a child, he had a passion for maps, and would lose himself in the blank spaces, which gradually turned into dark ones as they became peopled. He is especially taken with the picture of a long coiling river. Marlow thinks to get charge of the steamboats that must go up and down that river for trade. His aunt has connections in the Administration, and writes to have him appointed a steamboat skipper. The appointment comes through very quickly, as Marlow is to take the place of Fresleven, a captain who has been killed in a scuffle with the natives. He crosses the Channel to sign the contract with his employers. Their office appears to him like a white sepulchre. The reception area is dimly lit, and two women sullenly man the area. Marlow notes an unfinished map, and he is going into the yellow section, the central area that holds the river. He signs, but feels very uneasy as the women look at him meaningfully. Then there is a visit to the doctor. Marlow questions him on why he is not with the Company on its business. The doctor becomes cool and says he is no fool. Changes take place out there. He asks his patient whether there is madness in the family. With a clean bill of health and a long goodbye chat with his aunt, Marlow sets out on a French steamer, feeling like an "impostor."

Watching the coast as it slips by, our newly named skipper marvels at its enigmatic quality‹it tempts and invites the seer to come ashore, but in a grim way. The weather is fierce, for the sun beats down strongly. The ship picks up others along the way: soldiers and clerks mainly. The trade names they pass on ships and on land seem almost farcical. There is a uniformly somber atmosphere. After a month, Marlow arrives at the mouth of the big river, and takes his passage on a little steamer. Once aboard he learns that a man picked up the other day hanged himself recently. He is taken to his Company's station. He walks through pieces of "decaying machinery" and observes a stream of black people walking slowly, very thin and indifferent. One of the "reclaimed" carries a rifle at "it's middle." Marlow walks around to avoid this chain gang and finds a shade to rest. He sees more black people working, some who look like they are dying. One young man looks particularly hungry, and Marlow goes to offer him the ship biscuit in his pocket. He notices that the boy is wearing white worsted around his neck, and wonders what this is for. Marlow hastily makes his way towards the station. He meets a white man dressed elegantly and in perfect fashion. He is "amazing" and a "miracle." After learning that he is the chief accountant of the Company, Marlow respects him. The station is a muddle of activity. The new skipper waits there for ten days, living in a hut. Frequently he visits the accountant, who tells him that he will meet Mr. Kurtz, a remarkable man in charge of the trading-post in the ivory-country. The accountant is irritated that a bed station for a dying man has been set up in his office. He remarks that he begins to "hate the savages to death." He asks Marlow to tell Kurtz that everything is satisfactory.

The next day Marlow begins a 200 mile tramp into the interior. He crosses many paths, many deserted dwellings, and mysterious "niggers." His white companion becomes ill on the journey, which makes Marlow impatient but attentive. Finally they arrive at the Central Station, and Marlow must see the General Manager. The meeting is strange. The Manager has a stealthy smile. He is obeyed, but he does not inspire love or fear. He only inspires uneasiness. The trading had begun without Marlow, who was late. There were rumors that an important station was jeopardy, and that its chief, Kurtz, was ill. A shipwreck on Marlow's boat has set them back. The manager is anxious, and says it will be three months before they can make a start in the trading. Marlow begins work in the station. Whispers of "ivory" punctuate the air throughout the days. One evening a shed almost burns down. A black man is beaten for this, and Marlow overhears: "Kurtz take advantage of this incident." The manager's main spy, a first-class agent, befriends the new skipper and begins to question him extensively about Europe and the people he knows there. Marlow is confused about what this man hopes to learn. The agent becomes "furiously annoyed." There is a dark sketch on his wall of a woman blindfolded and carrying a lighted torch. The agent says that Kurtz painted it. Upon Marlow's inquiry as to who this man is, he says that he is a prodigy, an "emissary of pity and science." They want Europe to entrust the guidance of the cause to them. The agent talks precipitately, wanting Marlow to give Kurtz a favourable report about his disposition because he believes Marlow has more influence in Europe than he actually does.

The narrator breaks off for an instant and returns to his listeners on the ship, saying that they should be able to see more in retrospect than he could in the moment. Back in the story, the droning of the agent bores him. Marlow wants rivets to stop the hole and get on with the work on his ship. He clambers aboard. The ship is the one thing that truly excites him. He notes the foreman of the mechanics sitting on board. They cavort and talk happily of rivets that should arrive in three weeks. Instead of rivets, however, they receive an "invasion" of "sulky niggers" with their white expedition leader, who is the Manager's uncle. Marlow meditates for a bit on Kurtz, wondering if he will be promoted to the General Manger position and how he will set about his work when there.

Summary Part II

While lying on the deck of his steamboat one evening, Marlow overhears a conversation between the Manager and his uncle, leader of the Expedition group that has arrived. Snatches of talk indicate that the two are conferring about Kurtz. The Manager says he was "forced to send him there." They say his influence is frightful, and that he is alone, having sent away all his assistants. The word "ivory" is also overheard. The two men are wondering how all this ivory has arrived, and why Kurtz did not return to the main station as he should have. Marlow believes this fact allows him to see Kurtz for the first time. The Manager and his uncle say that either Kurtz or his assistant must be hanged as an example, so that they can get rid of unfair competition. Realizing that Marlow is nearby, they stop talking.

In the next few days, the Expedition goes into the wilderness and loses all their donkeys. As they arrive at the bank below Kurtz's station, Marlow is excited at the prospect of meeting him soon. To Marlow, travelling up the river is like going to the beginning of the world. He sees no joy in the sunshine, however. The past comes back to haunt him on this river. There is a stillness that does not resemble peace. It is alive and watching Marlow. He is concerned about scraping the bottom of his steamship on the river floor‹this is disgraceful for seamen. Twenty "cannibals" are his crew. The Manager and some pilgrims are also onboard. Sailing by stations, they hear the word "ivory" resonating. The trees are massive and make you feel very small. The earth appears "unearthly." The men are monstrous but not inhuman. This scares Marlow greatly. He believes the mind of man is capable of anything. They creep on towards Kurtz. The ship comes across a deserted dwelling. Marlow finds a well-kept book about seamanship. It has notes in a language he cannot understand. Back on the boat, he pushes ahead.

Eight miles from Kurtz's station, the Manager decides they will stay put for the evening. No sounds are heard. The sun rises, and "complaining clamor" with "savage discord" fills the air. Everyone fears an attack. One of the black crew members says that the attackers should be handed over to them and eaten. Marlow wonders why he and the other whites have not been eaten. The Manager insincerely worries that something might have happened to Kurtz. Marlow does not believe there will be an attack‹the jungle and fog seem impenetrable. No one believes him. Some men go and investigate the shore. A pattering sound is audible: flying arrows! The helmsman on the ship panics and does not steer properly. The crew is firing rifles into the bushes. A black man is shot and lays at Marlow's feet. He tries to talk and dies before he can get any words out. Marlow supposes that Kurtz has perished in this attack. He is exceedingly upset: talking to the mythical man has become a major point of interest. In a fit of distress Marlow throws his shoes overboard. He tells the listeners on the Thames ship that the privilege of talking to Kurtz was waiting for him. Marlow relates that Kurtz mentioned a girl, and how his shanty was busting with ivory. Kurtz has taken position of "devil of the land." Originally he was well-educated, but he has become entirely native in Africa, participating in rituals and rites. Kurtz is anything but common. Back in the battle, the helmsman is killed. Marlow throws the body overboard. After a simple funeral, the steamer continues moving. Miraculously they spy Kurtz's station, which they had assumed to be lost. They see the figure of a man who resembles a harlequin. This man says that Kurtz is present, and assures them that they need not fear the natives, who are simple people. He speaks with Marlow, introducing himself as a Russian. The book Marlow holds is actually his, and he is grateful to have it returned. The Russian says the ship was attacked because the natives do not want Kurtz to leave with the crew‹he has broadened everybody's mind.

Summary Part III:

Marlow is astonished at the Russian's words. He is gathering a clearer picture of Kurtz. The Russian says that he has gone so far that he doesn't know if he will ever get back. Apparently he has been alone with Kurtz for many months. His sense of adventure is pure, and glamour urges him onward. The Russian remembers the first night he spoke to Kurtz‹he forgot to sleep, he was so captivated. Kurtz made him "see things." He has nursed this great man through illnesses, and accompanied him on explorations to villages. Kurtz has raided the country by getting the cooperation of the nearby tribe, who all adore him. He loses himself in ivory hunts for weeks at a time, and forgets himself. The Russian disagrees that Kurtz is mad. Even when this bright-eyed adventurer was told to leave by his mentor, he refused to go. Kurtz went down the river alone to make another ivory raid. His illness acted up, so the Russian joined him in order to take care of him. Presently, Kurtz lies in a hut surrounded by heads on stakes. Marlow is not very shocked at the sight. He takes this as an indication that Kurtz lacks restraint in the gratification of his lusts, a condition for which the wilderness is culpable. Marlow assumes that Kurtz was hollow inside and needed something to fill that. The Russian is perturbed by Marlow's attitude of skepticism. He has heard enough about the ceremonies surrounding this revered man.

Suddenly around the house appears a group of men. They convene around the stretcher that holds the dying Kurtz. He looks gaunt, and tells the natives to leave. The pilgrims carry him to another cabin, and give him his correspondence. In a raspy voice he says he is glad to meet Marlow. The Manager comes in to talk privately with Kurtz. Waiting on the boat with the Russian, Marlow spies the "apparition" of a gorgeous woman. She glitters with gold, paint, and she looks savage. She steps to the edge of the shore and eyes the steamer. She gestures violently toward the sky, turns and disappears into the thicket. The harlequin man fears her. They overhear Kurtz telling the Manager that he is interfering with plans. The Manager emerges. Taking Marlow aside, he says they have done all they can for Kurtz, and that he did more harm than good to the Company. His actions were too "vigorous" for the moment. Marlow does not agree that Kurtz's method was unsound. To him, Kurtz is a remarkable man, and a friend in some way. Marlow warns the Russian to escape before he can be hanged; he states that he will keep Kurtz's reputation safe. It was Kurtz who ordered the attack on the steamer‹he did not want to be taken away, and thought to fake his death.

While Marlow dozes, drumbeats and incantations fill the air. He looks into the cabin that holds Kurtz, and discovers he is missing. Marlow sees his trail, and goes after him. The two men face one another. Kurtz pleads that he has plans. Marlow replies that his fame in Europe is assured; he realizes that this man's soul has gone mad. He is able to bring Kurtz back to the cabin. The ship departs the next day amongst a crowd of natives. Kurtz is brought into the pilot-house of the ship. The "tide of brown" runs swiftly out of the "heart of darkness." The life of Kurtz is ebbing. Marlow is in disfavor, lumped into the same category as Kurtz. The Manager is now content. Marlow listens endlessly to Kurtz's bedside talk. He accepts a packet of papers and a photograph that his friend gives him, in order to keep them out of the Manager's hands. A few evenings later, Kurtz dies, with one phrase on his lips: "The horror!"

Marlow returns to Europe, but is plagued by the memory of his friend. He is disrespectful to all he encounters. The Manager demands the papers that Kurtz entrusted to Marlow. Marlow relinquishes the technical papers, but not the private letters and photograph. All that remains of Kurtz is his memory and that picture of his Intended. Kurtz is very much a living figure to Marlow. He goes and visits the woman in the picture. She embraces and welcomes him. She has silently mourned for the past year, and needs to profess her love and how she knew him better than anyone. Marlow perceives the room to darken when she says this. She speaks of Kurtz's amazing ability to draw people through incredibly eloquent speech. The woman says she will be unhappy for life. Marlow states that they can always remember him. She expresses a desperate need to keep his memory alive, and guilt that she was not with him when he died. When the woman asks Marlow what Kurtz's final words were, he lies and says it was her name. The woman weeps in triumph. Marlow states that to tell the truth would be too dark. Back on the Thames River ship, a tranquil waterway leads into the heart of darkness.

Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott


The novel begins in England during the reign of King Richard I, also known as Richard the Lion-Hearted (1157-1199). Scott  provides some historical background for the politics of the time and places the action somewhere near the end of Richard's reign  when he is returning from the Crusades. England's Saxon  population is under the control of Norman royalty. French has become the forced official language, a fact which both angers and demeans the Saxons, and many landowners have been forced to  give their lands to their Norman rulers. When the action of the  novel begins, the Norman King Richard I has been captured and  held for ransom in Europe. His brother John has assumed power.

Though both men are Norman rulers in Saxon populated England, Richard is more popular among the people he rules, known as both fair and courageous; John is aggressive, encouraging his men to steal or destroy everything Saxon. John is content to rule, and even hopes his brother remains imprisoned so that he can become king. Richard's loyal subjects despair of ever seeing him again, and are angry that John and his greedy nobles have been aggressive and relentless in seizing whatever Saxon land they can. A swineherd named Gurth is talking with a jester, Wamba, about the increasing hostility between the native Saxons and the Norman rulers. Both servants work for a loyal Saxon named Cedric. When a storm approaches, they head for home. On their way, they hear horsemen riding toward them.


The Norman horsemen catch up with Gurth and Wamba. One of them is a Cisterian monk dressed in fine clothes. The other is a Knight Templar. The two, attended by several others, demand to know where they will be able to stay for the night and ask where Cedric the Saxon lives. Knowing his master Cedric's hatred of Normans, Wamba, with sheer mischief, gives them wrong and confusing directions. However, they soon meet a Palmer, a holy man who has traveled to the Holy Land on a pilgrimage, who takes them safely to Cedric's mansion.


Cedric is in his home, Rotherwood, impatiently waiting for his servants to come home. He is also displeased that his ward Rowena is late for supper. His thoughts are interrupted by the blast of a horn. Then the gatekeeper announces that Prior Aymer of the Abbey of Jorvaulx, Brian de Bois-Guilbert, and a small party of men are on their way to the royal tournament at Ashby-de-la- Zouche and want to lodge at Rotherwood for the night. Cedric does not want to entertain these Normans, but his Saxon pride demands that they be offered hospitality; however, he clings to his dignity by refusing to go out to welcome them. Only when they come to him in his hall does Cedric reluctantly welcome them.

Cedric counsels Rowena against appearing before the guests. He does not trust the Knight Templar and does not want anything to interfere with his plans to marry Rowena off to the right gentleman. She, however, is keen to hear the latest news from the Holy Land from the Palmer, since she is in love with Ivanhoe, whom she thinks is still fighting in the Crusades.


When the richly dressed guests enter Cedric's hall, he receives them politely but without any warmth. He then scolds Gurth and Wamba for being late. When Rowena enters to join in the meal, Bois-Guilbert stares at her beauty. In response, she draws a veil over her face. Cedric notices the interchange and is annoyed with the Templar. The chapter ends with the announcement of a stranger at Cedric's gates.


The stranger at Cedric's gate is Isaac of York. Although he is a Jew, Cedric refuses to turn him away into the stormy night. The Norman guests protest at his being admitted and Cedric makes him sit at a separate table. Only the Palmer takes pity on the drenched and exhausted Jew.

The Palmer names five knights who have displayed great courage during the Crusades. He also mentions a sixth knight, a great competitor, whose name he cannot remember, though he is actually speaking about himself. The Templar vows to challenge this sixth and unknown Knight at the forthcoming Ashby tournament.


On his way to bed, the Palmer is asked to accompany Cedric's servants to the kitchen for more drink and gossip. A message is sent to him by Lady Rowena, demanding his presence. She wants more news of Ivanhoe since she heard the Palmer mention Ivanhoe's courageous exploits. All that the Palmer tells her is that Ivanhoe, having fought bravely, is on his way home.

Before going to bed, the Palmer warns Isaac that he has overheard Bois-Guilbert ordering his Moslem slaves to follow Isaac and rob him. Isaac is grateful to the Palmer, and before he escapes, rewards the Palmer with a favor. He sends a letter to his Jewish kinsman asking him to give the Palmer a horse and armor so that he can participate in the Ashby tournament.


These chapters are largely descriptive and do little to advance the plot of the story. The busy arena where the knights will display their skill is brilliantly described. The challengers, Bois-Guilbert, Front-de-Boeuf, Grantmesnil, Malvoisin, and Ralph de Vipoint, are introduced and described as seasoned Norman knights. Isaac's daughter Rebecca is also introduced.

A stranger, beautifully attired in steel and gold armor, arrives at the arena, challenges Bois-Guilbert, and emerges victorious; Bois- Guilbert feels disgraced. The mysterious knight also wins on the second day of the tournament and crowns Rowena as the Queen of Love and Beauty.


As soon as Ivanhoe, in the guise of the Disinherited Knight, reaches his tent on the first day of the tournament, he is presented with the rich armor, weapons, and horses of the knights he has defeated. He accepts his rewards from four of the five knights. He refuses the gifts of Bois-Guilbert, however, and sends a message that he will meet the Templar Knight again in combat on the following day.

With some of the money from his rewards, Ivanhoe sends Gurth, who is now his confidante, to Isaac to pay for the horse and armor which he so generously loaned to him for the tournament. Isaac takes the money, but Rebecca secretly sends it back, adding twenty gold coins as a tip for Gurth.


On his way back to Ashby, poor Gurth is attacked by four men who steal the money he carries, both his gold coins and that belonging to Ivanhoe. The thieves question him about where he got the money. When Gurth tells about Rebecca's kindness, the thieves
refuse to believe that any Jew would return a payment on a loan. Gurth fights with his attackers. When he shows his courage in the conflict, the robbers surprisingly give him back his money and escort him to Ashby.


After the combats of the first day at Ashby, the crowds eagerly await the events of the next day. The excitement reaches a fever pitch when the Disinherited Knight is attacked simultaneously by Athelstane, Front-de-Boeuf, and Bois-Guilbert. With the help of another mysterious character, the Black Knight, who comes to his aid, Ivanhoe overcomes his challengers, emerging the victor once again. After the victory, the Black Knight disappears. Rowena crowns the Disinherited Knight, who is now forced to raise his visor and show his face. He is revealed to all as Ivanhoe, Cedric's son. Severely wounded, he faints at Rowena's feet.


The revelation that Ivanhoe is the disguised winner of the tournament causes a great commotion and some fear in the minds of the Norman nobles. A castle once belonging to Ivanhoe that John had given to Front-de-Bouef is now the object of much speculation, for many think that Ivanhoe will demand it back.

Prince John himself is a bit worried about a confrontation until his advisor Fitzurse informs him that Ivanhoe is severely wounded and probably incapable of protest.

When Prince John receives a message that says, "Take heed to yourself, for the Devil is unchained," he turns pale. He guesses that the message means his brother Richard is free, and his own corrupt reign is nearing its end. At the same time, many of his supporters begin to falter in their support of him, and Fitzurse busies himself trying to rally them back to John.

The tournament ends with an archery contest, which introduces Robin of Locksley (Robin Hood). Locksley easily defeats Hubert. John is enraged at both Locksley's skill as an archer and his unswerving loyalty to Richard. Cedric also offends John in his surprising expression of support for Richard when he drinks to missing king's health.

Prince John has planned to marry Rowena to De Bracy, who is pleased with the idea. Now De Bracy is determined to force the marriage whether Richard has returned or not. He makes plans to ambush Cedric's party as they travel home from the tournament. He will take Rowena and make her his unwilling bride.

CHAPTERS 16 & 17

This chapter introduces Friar Tuck, the jolly priest who is one of Robin Hood's men. Earlier in the novel, King Richard proved his valor at Ashby disguised as the Black Knight. After the victory, he quickly disappeared before his identity was questioned. In this scene, he is traveling in the forest when he meets the Clerk of Copmanhurst, who is actually Friar Tuck. The two trust one another; they eat and drink in great companionship. The king and the fat priest get on so well that after supper they decide to sing together. Each chooses a song that makes fun of the other; the priest pokes fun at Crusaders and Richard mocks the priest.

CHAPTERS 18 & 19

When Cedric first sees his son wounded, his natural paternal love is revived, but not wishing to reveal this to the spectators at Ashby, he keeps quiet. Later he learns that Ivanhoe is being taken care of by Rebecca and is relieved. Discovering that his swineherd Gurth has been helping Ivanhoe, Cedric has him bound with rope as a punishment.

Cedric and Athelstane take their group to Prince John's palace where they have been invited to a banquet. On the way to Prince John's, the group encounters the dog, Fangs, howling. Cedric throws his javelin at it, wounding the dog. Saxons are a superstitious lot, and Cedric believed this howling was a sure sign of an impending danger. Gurth is upset to see the dog wounded and manages to escape his bonds.

At Prince John's, Rowena refuses to attend the banquet, which annoys Cedric. He and Athelstane discuss matters of land. Then Cedric broaches the subject of Athelstane's marriage to Rowena.

CHAPTERS 20 & 21

As they make their way through the woods, Cedric and his party come upon Isaac and Rebecca accompanying a sick man. Rebecca is crying out loudly for help. Their bodyguard has deserted them in sheer fear of the outlaws who are known to inhabit the woods.

Rebecca begs Rowena to help the sick man. The entire party is then attacked by De Bracy and his men, impersonating outlaws. They kidnap the group and take them to Front-de-Bouef at Torquilstone Castle, which once belonged to Ivanhoe until John gave it away. Except for Wamba, who escapes, they are all taken prisoners.

Wamba meets Gurth, and they go to find Locksley (Robin Hood). Gurth, Wamba, Locksley, and his men meet up with the disguised King Richard and Friar Tuck. All of them proceed to Torquilstone Castle to aid the prisoners.


Isaac of York has been thrown into a dark dungeon in Torquilstone Castle. Front-de-Boeuf demands a ransom of a thousand silver pounds, to which Isaac protests. The Normans threaten him with physical torture, so Isaac requests that his daughter Rebecca be sent with an escort to York to get the money. He is deeply upset when he learns that she has been given to Bois-Guilbert as his own personal captive. Isaac is willing to give up whatever wealth he possesses if only he can get Rebecca back. As his captors begin preparations for torture, the sound of a bugle is heard outside the castle, and Isaac is saved for the moment.


Elsewhere in Front-de-Boeuf's castle, De Bracy tries his best to persuade Rowena to marry him. He threatens that if she does not accept him, the lives of Ivanhoe and Cedric will be forfeited. In the conversation, she learns that Ivanhoe is a prisoner in the same castle and breaks down. The bugle call interrupts this scene as well.


Rebecca meets the old hag, Urfried, in the little tower where she is imprisoned. Urfried makes the most frightening forecast for Rebecca, recounting her own terrible fate at the hands of Front-de- Boeuf's father. Urfried, however, had submitted to the elder Front- de-Bouef's molestation, accepting the subsequent shame and dishonor. The brave Rebecca looks around for some escape, but finds none. Musing over her fate, she hears footsteps on the stairs.

A tall man stands at the door. She offers her jewelry to the man who takes off his cap and reveals himself as Bois-Guilbert. He makes advances at her, which she refuses. Rebecca threatens to kill herself. She would rather die than be dishonored as the old woman Urfried has been. The trumpet call also saves Rebecca, for it summons Bois-Guilbert, who promises to visit her again.


The occupants of Torquilstone receive a letter signed by Gurth and Wamba, but sent by the mysterious Black Knight and Locksley; the letter demands the release of the prisoners. Front-de-Boeuf responds to the letter by asking that a priest be sent to hear the confessions of the prisoners before they are put to death. Wamba, dressed in Friar's robes, enters the castle "to hear the confessions of the condemned". When he reaches the place where Cedric and the others are imprisoned, he and Cedric exchange their clothes and Cedric is able to leave the dungeon undetected.

Thinking Cedric to be the priest, Front-de-Boeuf gives him a message for Philip Malvoisin. Cedric rejects Front de Boeuf's payment and joins the party outside. Subsequently, Wamba's disguise and Cedric's escape are discovered. It now seems that a clash is inevitable between the Normans inside and the besiegers outside, now joined by Cedric.


Using flashback, Scott supplies the necessary information to link various events that have happened. Ivanhoe's actual whereabouts since being injured at the tournament have never been explicitly stated. But here it is revealed that Rebecca took the invalid Ivanhoe on as a charge, promising to use her powers of healing. It is made clear that the sick man she and her father were accompanying when they were kidnapped is Ivanhoe.


As the besiegers attack the Castle, Rebecca stands at the window to relate to Ivanhoe the exact sequence of events. He soon falls asleep. Rebecca, left to her own thoughts, tries to sort out her feelings for him. She realizes that she is beginning to love him.

CHAPTERS 30 & 31

The battle rages on, with both parties fighting intensely. Front-de- Boeuf is seriously wounded in the battle. As he lies dying, the old hag Urfried accuses him of all kinds of sins, the worst being the murder of his own father. Hungry for revenge for wrongs done to her by his family, she sets fire to the castle. Both she and Front-de- Boeuf die in the flames. The Black Knight saves Ivanhoe and captures De Bracy. Everyone manages to escape to freedom except Rebecca, who is carried away by Bois-Guilbert, the Knight Templar who wants to defile her. In attempting to stop Bois- Guilbert, Athelstane is hit on the head and falls down, apparently dead.


Early next morning the freed prisoners and their rescuers, the outlaws, meet in the forest. Robin of Locksley places Cedric on his left and the Black Knight on his right. The booty plundered from the castle is shared equally. Cedric refuses his share, saying that Rowena and he are grateful to Locksley for his help. He offers his share to the Black Knight, who also refuses to take any of the plunder. In gratitude to him for his help, Cedric frees his slave Gurth.

De Bracy, now a prisoner, attempts to speak to Rowena but is insulted by Cedric. Athelstane's body is carried in on a stretcher. Then Friar Tuck arrives, leading Isaac by a rope that is tied around his neck. He and the Black Knight engage in a friendly fight over Isaac. The Black Knight wins, and Isaac is set free. Two other men bring in another prisoner, the Prior of Jorvaulx.

CHAPTERS 33 & 34

Prior Aymer is frightened when he is brought in to the camp, but is mostly disturbed because his beautiful, expensive clothes are ruined. Isaac is relieved to learn Rebecca is alive and listens carefully when the Prior offers, for an appropriate price, to use his friendship with the Knight Templar to free Rebecca. The Black Knight is pleasantly surprised at the decency with which the outlaws behave.

At a banquet hall in the castle of York to which Prince John has invited his nobles, rumors are afoot that Torquilstone Castle has been attacked and captured. Word has it that Front-de-Boeuf and Bois-Guilbert, and perhaps De Bracy too, are dead. John is disturbed but listens to Fitzurse, who reassures him that his unscrupulous reign is invincible.

De Bracy dramatically enters the banquet and announces that Richard is in England, Bois-Guilbert has fled with the Jewish girl, and Front-de-Bouef is dead. John is frightened at the news and begins to drink heavily. In his drunken stupor, he realizes that many of his knights are deserting him. He quickly appoints De Bracy High Marshal to secure his loyalty. De Bracy, however, no longer trusts or believes in John. John, in turn, sets spies on De Bracy.


Isaac of York is warned by his relation Nathan that Lucas Beaumanoir, Chief of the Order of Templars, is also present at Templestowe, where Rebecca is being held prisoner. Beaumanoir is a rigid knight who is insistent on Templar principles, a cruel enemy to the Moslems, and a strong hater of the Jews.

Isaac brings a letter from Prior Aymer to Bois-Guilbert, asking for the Prior's ransom; the Jew is brought to Lucas Beaumanoir. Until Isaac shows up, Beaumanoir is completely unaware of Rebecca's presence in the castle. He is annoyed that Bois-Guilbert is guilty of sequestering Rebecca for immoral purposes, since he is a strict keeper of the Knights Templar rules of celibacy.

Isaac is oblivious to the fact that the Prior's letter nastily hints that Rebecca is a "second witch of Endor"; in it, the Prior says Rebecca has cast a spell over the Templar. Malvoisin, the preceptor of Templestowe, seizes on the notion that Rebecca is a witch and defends his friend Bois-Guilbert. In the meantime, Bois-Guilbert finds he is strongly attracted to Rebecca and continues to press her to accept him.

Beaumanoir orders a full-scale trial for Rebecca, thinking this is his only chance to save the reputation of the Knight Templar who has acted so out of keeping with the order's rules. Bois-Guilbert's attempts to help Rebecca escape the trial by marrying him are in vain.

CHAPTERS 37 & 39

The scene is set for Rebecca's trial. The Grand Master sits opposite a pile of logs, which will form the stake at which Rebecca will be burned alive if she is found guilty. The charges against Bois- Guilbert are read first, but he is excused on the grounds that Rebecca's evil magic has taken away his power of reason. Others testify to the supernatural powers of Rebecca, her healing of Ivanhoe, and her presence and influence at the attack on Torquilstone. The common people are on her side, deeply affected by her beauty and her defense; but it is not a fair trial. Bois- Guilbert tries to save Rebecca by asking for a champion to fight him on her behalf; however, he suspects no one will come to her aid against him. He then tries in vain to convince Rebecca to run away with him.


In an earlier chapter, Prince John is seen losing the loyalty of most of his knights except that of Waldemar Fitzurse, who slips out of the banqueting hall to confront King Richard before he takes back his power. On their way to Athelstane's castle of Coningsburgh to bury him, the Black Knight and Wamba are ambushed by Fitzurse and his men. Richard sounds his horn to summon Locksley and his outlaws. With their help, he overcomes and kills his attackers.

Only Fitzurse is left alive. The king banishes him forever from England and confiscates his lands.

The Black Knight then reveals himself as the rightful King of England. He and Ivanhoe proceed to Coningsburgh. Athelstane, who has only been knocked unconscious and not killed, now rises to tell his story. Ivanhoe rides on, prepared and ready to champion Rebecca's fate.


Rebecca's trial attracts a large crowd, including many of Robin Hood's men. Just as her situation seems hopeless, for no champion has offered to defend Rebecca, Ivanhoe rides into the arena. He challenges those who accuse the beautiful Jewess. Brian de Bois- Guilbert becomes an unwilling participant in the fight as a representative of the people who accuse Rebecca; Beaumanoir and the Knight Templars demand his obedience and loyalty. It is an exciting and hard-fought battle, but Bois-Guilbert is finally killed. Ivanhoe has saved Rebecca.


Richard, having intended to champion Rebecca himself, is detained by the Earl of Essex who warns him of John's evil plans. He arrives at the trial too late to fight, but brings with him a troop of soldiers and arrests Albert Malvoisin for plotting with John against him. He gives Lucas Beaumanoir the choice of exile or death, and Beaumanoir chooses exile. Richard then banishes all the traitors except John, who is sent to his mother with a warning. Athelstane gives up his claim to Rowena and retires from public life. Rowena and Ivanhoe are married. Before departing from England with her father forever, Rebecca visits Rowena to thank her.

Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H.Lawrence


      Lady Chatterley's Lover begins by introducing Connie Reid, the  female protagonist of the novel. She was raised as a cultured bohemian of  the upper-middle class, and was introduced to love affairs--intellectual and  sexual liaisons--as a teenager. In 1917, at 23, she marries Clifford  Chatterley, the scion of an aristocratic line. After a month's honeymoon, he  is sent to war, and returns paralyzed from the waist down, impotent.

      After the war, Clifford becomes a successful writer, and many  intellectuals flock to the Chatterley mansion, Wragby. Connie feels isolated;  the vaunted intellectuals prove empty and bloodless, and she resorts to a  brief and dissatisfying affair with a visiting playwright, Michaelis. Connie  longs for real human contact, and falls into despair, as all men seem scared  of true feelings and true passion. There is a growing distance between  Connie and Clifford, who has retreated into the meaningless pursuit of  success in his writing and in his obsession with coal-mining, and towards  whom Connie feels a deep physical aversion. A nurse, Mrs. Bolton, is hired  to take care of the handicapped Clifford so that Connie can be more  independent, and Clifford falls into a deep dependence on the nurse, his  manhood fading into an infantile reliance.

      Into the void of Connie's life comes Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on  Clifford's estate, newly returned from serving in the army. Mellors is aloof  and derisive, and yet Connie feels curiously drawn to him by his innate  nobility and grace, his purposeful isolation, his undercurrents of natural  sensuality. After several chance meetings in which Mellors keeps her at  arm's length, reminding her of the class distance between them, they meet  by chance at a hut in the forest, where they have sex. This happens on  several occasions, but still Connie feels a distance between them, remaining  profoundly separate from him despite their physical closeness.

      One day, Connie and Mellors meet by coincidence in the woods, and  they have sex on the forest floor. This time, they experience simultaneous  orgasms. This is a revelatory and profoundly moving experience for Connie;  she begins to adore Mellors, feeling that they have connected on some  deep sensual level. She is proud to believe that she is pregnant with  Mellors' child: he is a real, "living" man, as opposed to the emotionally-dead  intellectuals and the dehumanized industrial workers. They grow  progressively closer, connecting on a primordial physical level, as woman  and man rather than as two minds or intellects.

      Connie goes away to Venice for a vacation. While she is gone,  Mellors' old wife returns, causing a scandal. Connie returns to find that  Mellors has been fired as a result of the negative rumors spread about him  by his resentful wife, against whom he has initiated divorce proceedings.  Connie admits to Clifford that she is pregnant with Mellors' baby, but  Clifford refuses to give her a divorce. The novel ends with Mellors working  on a farm, waiting for his divorce, and Connie living with her sister, also  waiting: the hope exists that, in the end, they will be together Analysis

Valuable Commentory

      The greatness of Lady Chatterley's Lover lies in a paradox: it is  simultaneously progressive and reactionary, modern and Victorian. It looks  backwards towards a Victorian stylistic formality, and it seems to anticipate  the social morality of the late 20th century in its frank engagement with  explicit subject matter and profanity. One might say of the novel that it is  formally and thematically conservative, but methodologically radical.

      The easiest of these assertions to prove is that Lady Chatterley's  Lover is "formally conservative." By this I mean that there are few evident  differences between the form of Lady Chatterley's Lover and the form of  the high-Victorian novels written fifty years earlier: in terms of structure; in  terms of narrative voice; in terms of diction, with the exception of a very  few "profane" words. It is important to remember that Lady Chatterley's  Lover was written towards the end of the 1920s, a decade which had seen  extensive literary experimentation. The 1920s opened with the publishing of  the formally radical novel Ulysses, which set the stage for important  technical innovations in literary art: it made extensive use of the  stream-of-consciousness form; it condensed all of its action into a single  24-hour span; it employed any number of voices and narrative  perspectives. Lady Chatterley's Lover acts in many ways as if the 1920s,  and indeed the entire modernist literary movement, had never happened.  The structure of the novel is conventional, tracing a small group of  characters over an extended period of time in a single place. The rather  preachy narrator usually speaks with the familiar third-person omniscience  of the Victorian novel. And the characters tend towards flatness, towards  representing a type, rather than speaking in their own voices and developing  real three-dimensional personalities.

      But surely, if Lady Chatterley's Lover is "formally conservative," it can  hardly be called "thematically conservative"! After all, this is a novel that  raised censorious hackles across the English-speaking world. It is a novel  that liberally employs profanity, that more-or-less graphically--graphically,  that is, for the 1920s: it is important not to evaluate the novel by the  standards of profanity and graphic sexuality that have become prevalent at  the turn of the 21st century--describes sex and orgasm, and whose central  message is the idea that sexual freedom and sensuality are far more  important, more authentic and meaningful, than the intellectual life. So what  can I mean by calling Lady Chatterley's Lover, a famously controversial  novel, "thematically conservative"?

      Well, it is important to remember not only precisely what this novel  seems to advocate, but also the purpose of that advocacy. Lady  Chatterley's Lover is not propaganda for sexual license and free love. As  D.H. Lawrence himself made clear in his essay "A Propos of Lady  Chatterley's Lover," he was no advocate of sex or profanity for their own  sake. The reader should note that the ultimate goal of the novel's  protagonists, Mellors and Connie, is a quite conventional marriage, and a  sex life in which it is clear that Mellors is the aggressor and the dominant  partner, in which Connie plays the receptive part; all who would argue that  Lady Chatterley's Lover is a radical novel would do well to remember the  vilification that the novel heaps upon Mellors' first wife, a sexually  aggressive woman. Rather than mere sexual radicalism, this novel's chief  concern--although it is also concerned, to a far greater extent than most  modernist fiction, with the pitfalls of technology and the barriers of class--is  with what Lawrence understands to be the inability of the modern self to  unite the mind and the body. D.H. Lawrence believed that without a  realization of sex and the body, the mind wanders aimlessly in the wasteland  of modern industrial technology. An important recognition in Lady  Chatterley's Lover is the extent to which the modern relationship between  men and women comes to resemble the relationship between men and  machines.

      Not only do men and women require an appreciation of the sexual and  sensual in order to relate to each other properly; they require it even to live  happily in the world, as beings able to maintain human dignity and  individuality in the dehumanizing atmosphere created by modern greed and  the injustices of the class system. As the great writer Lawrence Durrell  observed in reference to Lady Chatterley's Lover, Lawrence was  "something of a puritan himself. He was out to cure, to mend; and the  weapons he selected for this act of therapy were the four-letter words  about which so long and idiotic a battle has raged." That is to say: Lady  Chatterley's Lover was intended as a wake-up call, a call away from the  hyper-intellectualism embraced by so many of the modernists, and towards  a balanced approach in which mind and body are equally valued. It is the  method the novel uses that made the wake-up call so radical--for its  time--and so effective.

      This is a novel with high purpose: it points to the degradation of modern  civilization--exemplified in the coal-mining industry and the soulless and  emasculated Clifford Chatterley--and it suggests an alternative in learning to  appreciate sensuality. And it is a novel, one must admit, which does not  quite succeed. Certainly, it is hardly the equal of D.H. Lawrence's great  novels, Women in Love and The Rainbow. It attempts a profound  comment on the decline of civilization, but it fails as a novel when its social  goal eclipses its novelistic goals, when the characters become mere  allegorical types: Mellors as the Noble Savage, Clifford as the impotent  nobleman. And the novel tends also to dip into a kind of breathless  incoherence at moments of extreme sensuality or emotional weight. It is not  a perfect novel, but it is a novel which has had a profound impact on the  way that 20th-century writers have written about sex, and about the deeper  relationships of which, thanks in part to Lawrence, sex can no longer be  ignored as a crucial element. Characters


  Lady Chatterley - The protagonist of the novel. Before her marriage, she  is simply Constance Reid, an intellectual and social progressive, the  daughter of Sir Malcolm and the sister of Hilda. When she marries Clifford  Chatterley, a minor nobleman, Constance--or, as she is known throughout  the novel, Connie--assumes his title, becoming Lady Chatterley. Lady  Chatterley's Lover chronicles Connie's maturation as a woman and as a  sensual being. She comes to despise her weak, ineffectual husband, and to  love Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on her husband's estate. In the  process of leaving her husband and conceiving a child with Mellors, Lady  Chatterley moves from the heartless, bloodless world of the intelligentsia  and aristocracy into a vital and profound connection rooted in sensuality  and sexual fulfillment.

   Oliver Mellors - The lover in the novel's title. Mellors is the gamekeeper  on Clifford Chatterley's estate, Wragby. He is aloof, sarcastic, intelligent  and noble. He was born near Wragby, and worked as a blacksmith until he  ran off to the army to escape an unhappy marriage. In the army he rose to  become a commissioned lieutenant--an unusual position for a member of  the working classes--but was forced to leave the army because of a case of  pneumonia, which left him in poor health. Disappointed by a string of  unfulfilling love affairs, Mellors lives in quiet isolation, from which he is  redeemed by his relationship with Connie: the passion unleashed by their  lovemaking forges a profound bond between them. At the end of the novel,  Mellors is fired from his job as gamekeeper and works as a laborer on a  farm, waiting for a divorce from his old wife so he can marry Connie.  Mellors is the representative in this novel of the Noble Savage: he is a man  with an innate nobility but who remains impervious to the pettiness and  emptiness of conventional society, with access to a primitive flame of  passion and sensuality.

   Clifford Chatterley - Connie's husband. Clifford Chatterley is a minor  nobleman who becomes paralyzed from the waist down during World War  I. As a result of his injury, Clifford is impotent. He retires to his familial  estate, Wragby, where he becomes first a successful writer, and then a  powerful businessman. But the gap between Connie and him grows ever  wider; obsessed with financial success and fame, he is not truly interested in  love, and she feels that he has become passionless and empty. He turns for  solace to his nurse and companion, Mrs. Bolton, who worships him as a  nobleman even as she despises him for his casual arrogance. Clifford  represents everything that this novel despises about the modern English  nobleman: he is a weak, vain man, but declares his right to rule the lower  classes, and he soullessly pursues money and fame through industry and the  meaningless manipulation of words. His impotence is symbolic of his failings  as a strong, sensual man.

   Mrs. Bolton - Ivy Bolton is Clifford's nurse and caretaker. She is a  competent, complex, still-attractive middle-aged woman. Years before the  action in this novel, her husband died in an accident in the mines owned by  Clifford's family. Even as Mrs. Bolton resents Clifford as the owner of the  mines--and, in a sense, the murderer of her husband--she still maintains a  worshipful attitude towards him as the representative of the upper class.  Her relationship with Clifford--she simultaneously adores and despises him,  while he depends and looks down on her--is probably the most fascinating  and complex relationship in the novel.

   Michaelis - A successful Irish playwright with whom Connie has an affair  early in the novel. Michaelis asks Connie to marry him, but she decides not  to, realizing that he is like all other intellectuals: a slave to success, a  purveyor of vain ideas and empty words, passionless.

   Hilda Reid - Connie's older sister by two years, the daughter of Sir  Malcolm. Hilda shared Connie's cultured upbringing and intellectual  education. She remains unliberated by the raw sensuality that changed  Connie's life. She disdains Connie's lover, Mellors, as a member of the  lower classes, but in the end she helps Connie to leave Clifford.

   Sir Malcolm Reid - The father of Connie and Hilda. He is an acclaimed  painter, an aesthete and unabashed sensualist who despises Clifford for his  weakness and impotence, and who immediately warms to Mellors.

   Tommy Dukes - One of Clifford's contemporaries, Tommy Dukes is a  brigadier general in the British Army and a clever and progressive  intellectual. Lawrence intimates, however, that Dukes is a representative of  all intellectuals: all talk and no action. Dukes speaks of the importance of  sensuality, but he himself is incapable of sensuality and uninterested in sex.

   Charles May, Hammond, Berry - Young intellectuals who visit Wragby,  and who, along with Tommy Dukes and Clifford, participate in the socially  progressive but ultimately meaningless discussions about love and sex.

   Duncan Forbes - An artist friend of Connie and Hilda. Forbes paints  abstract canvases, a form of art both Mellors and D.H. Lawrence seem to  despise. He once loved Connie, and Connie originally claims to be pregnant  with his child.

   Bertha Coutts - Although Bertha never actually appears in the novel, her  presence is felt. She is Mellors' wife, separated from him but not divorced.  Their marriage faltered because of their sexual incompatibility: she was too  rapacious, not tender enough. She returns at the end of the novel to spread  rumors about Mellors' infidelity to her, and helps get him fired from his  position as gamekeeper. As the novel concludes, Mellors is in the process  of divorcing her.

   Squire Winter - A relative of Clifford. He is a firm believer in the old  privileges of the aristocracy.

   Daniele, Giovanni - Venetian gondoliers in the service of Hilda and  Connie. Giovanni hopes that the women will pay him to sleep with them; he  is disappointed. Daniele reminds Connie of Mellors: he is attractive, a "real  man." Context




Lord of the Flies by W.Golding

William Gerald Golding was born in September of 1911 in the city of Cornwall, England. Growing up in the life of luxury, Golding soon realized that he was very talented at his school studies. He attended both the prestigious colleges of Malboro and Oxford, studying both natural science and English. Despite his father’s protests, Golding eventually decided to devote his career to literature, where he became one of the most famous English novelists ever. Soon World War II started, compelling Golding to enlist in the Navy. It was war where Golding lost the idea that men are inherently good. After witnessing the evil of war, both from men of the enemy and his own side, Golding lost the belief that humans have an innocent nature. Even children he learned are inherently evil, thus foreshadowing his future and most famous novel, Lord of the Flies. In later years, Golding received many noteworthy awards for his contribution to English and world literature. Finally in 1983, he was awarded the Nobel prize for his literary merits. Golding’s other interests include Greek literature, music and history. Yet William G. Golding will be remembered mostly for his great contributions to modern literature.

Chapter One: The Sound of the Shell:

The novel begins in the aftermath of a plane crash in the Pacific Ocean during an unnamed war in which a group of English schoolboys are isolated on what they assume to be an island under no adult supervision. The pilot died in the crash and the plane has been swept to sea by a storm. Among the survivors are a young, fair-haired boy of twelve named Ralph and a pudgy boy referred to only by the derisive nickname from school that he dislikes: Piggy. Piggy insists that he can neither run nor swim well because of his asthma. Ralph insists that his father, a commander in the Navy, will come and rescue them. Both of Piggy's parents had already died. Piggy doubts that anybody will find them, and suggests that the boys should gather together. Ralph finds a conch shell, which Piggy tells him will make a loud noise. When Ralph blows the conch, several children make their way to Ralph and Piggy. There were several small children around six years old and a party of boys marching in step, dressed in eccentric clothing: black cloaks and black caps. One of the boys, Jack Merridew, leads the group, which he addresses as his choir. Piggy suggests that everyone state their names, and Jack insists on being called Merridew, for Jack is a kid's name. Jack, a tall thin boy with an ugly, freckled complexion and flaming red hair, insists that he be the leader because he's the head boy of his choir. They decide to vote for chief: although Jack seems the most obvious leader and Piggy the most obviously intelligent, Ralph has a sense of stillness and gravity. He is elected chief, but concedes that Jack can lead his choir, who will be hunters. Ralph decides that everyone should stay there while three boys will find out whether they are on an island. Ralph chooses one of the boys, Simon, while Jack insists that he comes along. When Piggy offers to go, Jack dismisses the idea, humiliating Piggy, who is still ashamed that Ralph revealed his hated nickname. The three boys search the island, climbing up the mountain to survey it. On the way up, they push down the mountain a large rock that blocks their way. When they finally reach the top and determine that they are on an island, Ralph looks upon everything and says "this belongs to us." The three decide that they need food to eat, and find a piglet caught in a curtain of creepers. Jack draws his knife, but pauses before he has a chance to stab the pig, which frees itself and runs away. Jack could not stab the pig because of the great violence involved, but he vows that he would show no mercy next time.

Chapter Two: Fire on the Mountain:

Ralph called another meeting that night. The sunburned children had put on clothing once more, while the choir was more disheveled, having abandoned their cloaks. Ralph announces that they are on an uninhabited island, but Jack interjects and insists that they need an army to hunt the pigs. Ralph sets the rules of order for the meeting: only the person who has the conch shell may speak. Jack relishes having rules, and even more so, having punishment for breaking them. Piggy reprimands Jack. He says that nobody knows where they are and that they may be there a long time. Ralph reassures them, telling them that the island is theirs, and until the grown-ups come they will have fun. A small boy is about to cry; he wonders what they will do about a snake-thing. Ralph suggests that they build a fire on the top of the mountain, for the smoke will signal their presence. Jack summons the boys to come build a fire, leaving only Piggy and Ralph. Piggy shows disgust at their childish behavior as Ralph catches up and helps them bring piles of wood to the top.

Eventually it proves too difficult for some of the smaller boys, who lose interest and search for fruit to eat. When they gather enough wood, Ralph and Jack wonder how to start a fire. Piggy arrives, and Jack suggests that they use his glasses. Jack snatches them from Piggy, who can barely see without them. Eventually they use the glasses to reflect the rays of the sun, starting a fire. The boys are mesmerized by the fire, but it soon burns out. Ralph insists that they have rules, and Jack agrees, since they are English, and the English are the best at everything so must do the right things. Ralph says they might never be saved, and Piggy claims that he has been saying that, but nobody has listened. They get the fire going once more. While Piggy has the conch, he loses his temper, telling the other boys how they should have listened to his orders to build shelters first and how a fire is a secondary consideration. Piggy worries that they still don't know exactly how many boys there are, and mentions the snakes. Suddenly, one of the trees catches on fire, and one of the boy screams about snakes. Piggy thinks that one of the boys is missing.

Chapter Three: Huts on the Beach:

Jack scans the oppressively silent forest. A bird startles him as he progresses along the trail. He raises his spear and hurls it at a group of pigs, driving them away. He eventually comes upon Ralph near the lagoon. Ralph complains that the boys are not working hard to build the shelters. The little ones are hopeless, spending most of their time bathing or eating. Jack says that Ralph is chief, so he should just order them to do so. Ralph admits that they could call a meeting, vow to build something, whether a hut or a submarine, start building it for five minutes then quit. Ralph tells Jack that most of his hunters spent the afternoon swimming. A madness comes to Ralph's eyes as he admits that he might kill something soon. Ralph insists that they need shelters more than anything. Ralph notices that the other boys are frightened. Jack says that when he is hunting he often feels as if he is being hunted, but admits that this is irrational. Only Simon has been helping Ralph, but he leaves, presumably to have a bath. Jack and Ralph go to the bathing pool, but do not find Simon there. Simon had followed Jack and Ralph, then turned into the forest with a sense of purpose. He is a tall, skinny boy with a coarse mop of black hair. He walks through the acres of fruit trees and finds fruit that the littlest boys cannot reach. He gives the boys fruit them goes along the path into the jungle. He finds an open space and looks to see whether he is alone. This open space contains great aromatic bushes, a bowl of heat and light.

Chapter Four: Painted Faces and Long Hair:

The boys quickly become accustomed to the progression of the day on the island, including the strange point at midday when the sea would rise. Piggy discounts the midday illusions as mere mirages. The northern European tradition of work, play and food right through the day made it possible for the boys to adjust themselves to the new rhythm. The smaller boys were known by the generic title of "littluns," including Percival, the smallest boy on the island, who had stayed in a small shelter for two days and had only recently emerged, peaked, red-eyed and miserable. The littluns spend most of the day searching for fruit to eat, and since they choose it indiscriminately suffer from chronic diarrhea. They cry for their mothers less often than expected, and spend time with the older boys only during Ralph's assemblies. They build castles in the sand. One of the biggest of the littluns is Henry, a distant relative of the boy who disappeared. Two other boys, Roger and Maurice, come out of the forest for a swim and kick down the sand castles. Maurice, remembering how his mother chastised him, feels guilty when he gets sand in Percival's eye. Henry is fascinated by the small creatures on the beach. Roger picks up a stone to throw at Henry, but deliberately misses him, recalling the taboos of earlier life. Jack thinks about why he is still unsuccessful as a hunter. He thinks that the animals see him, so he wants to find some way to camouflage himself. Jack rubs his face with charcoal, and laughs with a bloodthirsty snarl when he sees himself. From behind the mask Jack seems liberated from shame and self-consciousness.

Piggy thinks about making a sundial so that they can tell time, but Ralph dismisses the idea. The idea that Piggy is an outsider is tacitly accepted. Ralph believes that he sees smoke along the horizon coming from a ship, but there is not enough smoke from the mountain to signal it. Ralph starts to run to the up the mountain, but cannot reach it in time. Their own fire is dead. Ralph screams for the ship to come back, but it passes without seeing them. Ralph finds that the hunters have found a pig, but Ralph admonishes them for letting the fire go out. Jack is overjoyed by their kill. Piggy begins to cry at their lost opportunity, and blames Jack for letting the fire go out. The two argue, and finally Jack punches Piggy in the stomach. Piggy's glasses fly off and break on the rocks. Jack eventually does apologize about the fire, but Ralph resents Jack's misbehavior. Jack considers not letting Piggy have any meat, but orders everyone to eat. Maurice pretends to be a pig, and the hunters circle around him, dancing and singing "Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her in." Ralph vows to call an assembly.

Chapter Five: Beast From Water:

Ralph goes to the beach because he needs a place to think and is overcome with astonishment. He understands the weariness of life, where everything requires improvisation. He calls a meeting near the bathing pool, realizing that he must think and must make a decision but that he lacks Piggy's ability to think. He begins the assembly seriously, telling them that they are there not for making jokes or for cleverness. He reminds them that everyone built the first shelter, which is the most sturdy, while the third one, built only by Simon and Ralph, is unstable. He admonishes them for not using the appropriate areas for the lavatory, and reminds them that the fire is the most important thing on the island, for it is their means of escape. He claims that they ought to die before they let the fire out. He directs this at the hunters, in particular. He makes the rule that the only place where they will have a fire is on the mountain. Ralph then speaks on their fear. He admits that he is frightened himself, but their fear is unfounded. Jack stands up, takes the conch, and yells at the littluns for screaming like babies and not hunting or building or helping.

Jack tells them that there is no beast on the island. Piggy does agree with Jack on that point, telling the kids that there is no beasts and there is no real fear, unless they get frightened of people. A littlun, Phil, tells how he had a nightmare and, when he awoke, how he saw something big and horrid moving among the trees. Ralph dismisses it as nothing. Simon admits that he was walking in the jungle at night. Percival speaks next, and as he gives his name he recites his address and telephone number; this reminder of home causes him to break out into tears. All of the littluns join him. Percival claims that the beast comes out of the sea, and tells them about squids. Simon says that maybe there is a beast, and the boys speak about ghosts. Piggy says he does not believe in ghosts, but Jack attempts to start a fight again. Ralph stops the fight, and asks the boys how many of them believe in ghosts. Piggy yells at the boys, asking whether they are humans or animals or savages. Jack threatens him again, and Ralph intercedes once more, complaining that they are breaking the rules. When Jack asks "who cares?" Ralph says that the rules are the only thing that they have. Jack says that they will hunt the beast down. The assembly breaks up as Jack leads them on a hunt. Only Ralph, Piggy and Simon remain. Ralph says that if he blows the conch to summon them back and they refuse, then they will become like animals and will never be rescued. He does ask Piggy whether there are ghosts or beasts, but Piggy reassures him. Piggy warns him that if Ralph steps down as chief Jack will do nothing but hunt, and they will never be rescued. The three reminisce on the majesty of adult life. The three hear Percival still sobbing his address.

Chapter Six: Beast From Air:

Ralph and Simon pick up Percival and carry him to a shelter. That night, over the horizon, there is an aerial battle. A pilot drops from a parachute, sweeping across the reef toward the mountain. The dead pilot sits on the mountain-top. Early the next morning, there are noises by a rock down the side of the mountain. The twins Sam and Eric, the two boys on duty at the fire, awake and add kindling to the fire. Just then they spot something at the top of the mountain and crouch in fear. They scramble down the mountain and wake Ralph. They claim that they saw the beast. Eric tells the boys that they saw the beast, which has teeth and claws and even followed them. Jack calls for a hunt, but Piggy says that they should stay there, for the beast may not come near them. When Piggy says that he has the right to speak because of the conch, Jack says that they don't need the conch anymore. Ralph becomes exasperated at Jack, accusing him of not wanting to be rescued, and Jack takes a swing at him. Ralph decides that he will go with the hunters to search for the beast, which may be around a rocky area of the mountain. Simon, wanting to show that he is accepted, travels with Ralph, who wishes only for solitude. Jack gets the hunters lost on the way around the mountain. They continue along a narrow wall of rocks that forms a bridge between parts of the island, reaching the open sea. As some of the boys spend time rolling rocks around the bridge, Ralph decides that it would be better to climb the mountain and rekindle the fire, but Jack wishes to stay where they can build a fort.

Chapter Seven: Shadows and Tall Trees:

Ralph notices how long his hair is and how dirty and unclean he has become. He had followed the hunters across the island. On this other side of the island, the view is utterly different. The horizon is hard, clipped blue and the sea crashes against the rocks. Simon and Ralph watch the sea, and Simon reassures him that they will leave the island eventually. Ralph is somewhat doubtful, but Simon says that it is simply his opinion. Roger calls for Ralph, telling him that they need to continue hunting. A boar appears; Jack stabs it with a spear, but the boar escapes. Jack is wounded on his left forearm, so Simon tells him he should suck the wound. The hunters go into a frenzy once more, chanting "kill the pig" again. Roger and Jack talk about their chanting, and Jack says that someone should dress up as a pig and pretend to knock him over. Robert says that Jack wants a real pig so that he can actually kill, but Jack says that he could just use a littlun. The boys start climbing up the mountain once more, but Ralph realizes that they cannot leave the littluns alone with Piggy all night. Jack mocks Ralph for his concern for Piggy. Simon says that he can go back himself. Ralph tells Jack that there isn't enough light to go hunting for pigs. Out of the new understanding that Piggy has given him, Ralph asks Jack why he hates him. Jack has no answer. The boys are tired and afraid, but Jack vows that he will go up the mountain to look for the beast. Jack mocks Ralph for not wanting to go up the mountain, claiming that he is afraid. Jack claims he saw something bulge on the mountain. Since Jack seems for the first time somewhat afraid, Ralph says that they will look for it then. The boys see a rock-like hump and something like a great ape sitting asleep with its head between its knees. At its sight, the boys run off.

Chapter Eight: Gift for the Darkness:

When Ralph tells Piggy what they saw, he is quite skeptical. Ralph tells him that the beast had teeth and big black eyes. Jack says that his hunters can defeat the beast, but Ralph dismisses them as boys with sticks. Jack tells the other boys that the beast is a hunter, and says that Ralph thinks that the boys are cowards. Jack says that Ralph isn't a proper chief, for he is a coward himself. Jack asks the boys who wants Ralph not to be chief. Nobody agrees with Jack, so he runs off in tears. He says that he is not going to be part of Ralph's lot. Jack leaves them. Piggy says that they can do without Jack, but they should stay close to the platform.

Simon suggests that they climb the mountain. Piggy says that if they climb the mountain they can start the fire again, but then suggests that they start a fire down by the beach. Piggy organizes the new fire by the beach. Ralph notices that several of the boys are missing. Piggy says that they will do well enough if they behave with common sense, and proposes a feast. They wonder where Simon has gone; he might be climbing the mountain. Simon had left to sit in the open space he had found earlier. Far off along the beach, Jack says that he will be chief of the hunters, and will forget the beast. He says that they might go later to the castle rock, but now will kill a pig and give a feast. They find a group of pigs and kill a large sow. Jack rubs the blood over Maurice's cheeks, while Roger laughs that the fatal blow against the sow was up her ass. They cut off the pig's head and leave it on a stick as a gift for the beast at the mountain-top. Simon sees the head, with flies buzzing around it. Ralph worries that the boys will die if they are not rescued soon. Ralph and Piggy realize that it is Jack who causes things to break up. The forest near them suddenly bursts into uproar. The littluns run off as Jack approaches, naked except for paint and a belt, while hunters take burning branches from the fire. Jack tells them that he and his hunters are living along the beach by a flat rock, where they hunt and feast and have fun. He invites the boys to join his tribe. When Jack leaves, Ralph says that he thought Jack was going to take the conch, which Ralph holds as a symbol of ritual and order. They reiterate that the fire is the most important thing, but Bill suggests that they go to the hunters' feast and tell them that the fire is hard on them. At the top of the mountain remains the pig's head, which Simon has dubbed the Lord of the Flies. Simon believes that the pig's head speaks to him, calling him a silly little boy. The Lord of the Flies tells Simon that he'd better run off and play with the others, who think that he is crazy. The Lord of the Flies claims that he is the Beast, and laughs at the idea that the Beast is something that could be hunted and killed. Simon falls down and loses consciousness.

Chapter Nine: A View to a Death:

Simon's fit passes into the weariness of sleep. Simon speaks aloud to himself, asking "What else is there to do?" Simon sees the Beast  the body of the soldier who parachuted onto the island  and realizes what it actually is. He staggers down the mountain to tell them what he has found. Ralph notices the clouds overhead and estimates that it will rain again. Ralph and Piggy play in the lagoon, and Piggy gets mad when Ralph squirts water on him, getting his glasses wet. They wonder where most of the other boys have gone, and remark that they are with the hunters for the fun of pretending to be a tribe and putting on war paint. They decide that they should find them to make sure that nothing happens. They find the other boys grouped together, laughing and eating. Jack sits on a great log, painted and garlanded as an idol. Jack orders the boys to give Ralph and Piggy some eat, then orders a boy to give him a drink. Jack asks all of the boys who will join his tribe, for he gave them food and his hunters will protect them. Ralph and Jack argue over who will be chief. Ralph says that he has the conch, but Jack says that it doesn't count on this side of the island. Piggy tells Ralph that they should go before there is trouble. Ralph warns them that a storm is coming and asks where there shelters are. The littluns are frightened, so Jack says that they should do their pig dance. As the storm begins, Simon rushes from the jungle, crying out about the dead body on the mountain. The boys rush after him, striking him and killing him. Meanwhile, on the mountain, the storm blows the parachute and the body attached to it into the sea. That night, Simon's body washes out to sea.

Chapter Ten: The Shell and the Glasses:

Back on the other side of the island, Ralph and Piggy discuss Simon, and Piggy reminds him that he is still chief, or at least chief over them. Piggy tries to stop Ralph from talking about Simon's murder. Piggy says that he took part in the murder because he was scared, but Ralph says that he wasn't scared. He doesn't know what came over him. They try to justify the death as an accident caused by Simon's crazy behavior. Piggy asks Ralph not to reveal to Sam and Eric that they were in on the killing. Sam and Eric return, dragging a long out of the forest. All four appear nervous as they discuss where they have been, trying to avoid the subject of Simon's murder. Roger arrives at castle rock, where Robert makes him declare himself before he can enter. The boys have set a log so they can easily cause a rock to tumble down. Roger and Robert discuss how Jack had Wilfred tied up for no apparent reason. Jack sits on a log, nearly naked with a painted face. He declares that tomorrow they will hunt again. He warns them about the beast and about intruders. Bill asks what they will use to light the fire, and Jack blushes. He finally answers that they shall take fire from the others. Piggy gives Ralph his glasses to start the fire. They wish that they could make a radio or a boat, but Ralph says that they might be captured by the Reds. Eric stops himself before he admits that it would be better than being captured by Jack's hunters. Ralph wonders about what Simon said about a dead man. The boys become tired by pulling wood for the fire, but Ralph resolves that they must keep it going. Ralph nearly forgets what their objective is for the fire, and they realize that two people are needed to keep the fire burning at all times. This would require that they each spend twelve hours a day devoted to it. They finally give up the fire for the night. Ralph reminisces about the safety of home, and he and Piggy conclude that they will go insane. They laugh at a small joke that Piggy makes. Jack and his hunters arrive and attack the shelter where Ralph, Piggy and the twins are. They fight them off, but still suffer considerable injuries. Piggy thought that they wanted the conch, but realizes that they came for something else. Instead, Jack had come for Piggy's broken glasses.

Chapter Eleven: Castle Rock:

The four boys gather around where the fire had been, bloody and wounded. Ralph calls a meeting for the boys who remain with them, and Piggy asks Ralph to tell them what could be done. Ralph says that all they need is a fire, and if they had kept the fire burning they might have been rescued already. Ralph, Sam and Eric think that they should go to the Castle Rock with spears, but Piggy refuses to take one. Piggy says that he's going to go find Jack himself. Piggy says that he will appeal to a sense of justice. A tear falls down his cheek as he speaks. Ralph says that they should make themselves look presentable, with clothes, to not look like savages. They set off along the beach, limping. When they approach the Castle Rock, Ralph blows the conch. He approaches the other boys tentatively, and Sam and Eric rush near him, leaving Piggy alone. Jack arrives from hunting, and tells Ralph to leave them alone. Ralph finally calls Jack a thief, and Jack responds by trying to stab Ralph with his spear, which Ralph deflects. They fight each other while Piggy reminds Ralph what they came to do. Ralph stops fighting and says that they have to give back Piggy's glasses and reminds them about the fire. He calls them painted fools. Jack orders the boys to grab Sam and Eric. They take the spears from the twins and Jack orders them to be tied up. Ralph screams at Jack, calling him a beast and a swine and a thief. They fight again, but Piggy asks to speak as the other boys jeer. Piggy asks them whether it is better to be a pack of painted Indians or to be sensible like Ralph, to have rules and agree or to hunt and kill. Roger leans his weight on the lever, causing a great rock to crash down on Piggy, crushing the conch and sending Piggy down a cliff, where he lands on the beach, killing him. Jack declares himself chief, and hurls his spear at Ralph, which tears the skin and flesh over his ribs, then shears off and falls into the water. Ralph turns and runs, but Sam and Eric remain. Jack orders them to join the tribe, but when they only wish to be let go he pokes them in the ribs with a spear.

Chapter Twelve: Cry of the Hunters:

Ralph hides, wondering about his wounds. He is not far from the Castle Rock. He thinks he sees Bill in the distance, but realizes that it is not actually Bill anymore, for he is now a savage and not the boy in shorts and shirt he once knew. He concludes that Jack will never leave Ralph alone. Ralph can see the Lord of the Flies, now a skull with the skin and meat eaten away. Ralph can still hear the chant "Kill the beast. Cut his throat. Spill his blood." He crawls to the lookout near Castle Rock and calls to Sam and Eric. Sam gives him a chunk of meat and tells him to leave. They tell him that Roger has sharpened a stick at both ends, but Ralph cannot attach a meaning to this. Ralph crawls away to a slope where he can safely sleep. When he awakes he can hear Jack and Roger outside the thicket where he hides. They are trying to find out where Ralph is hiding. The other boys are rolling rocks down the mountain. Ralph finally runs away, not knowing what he should do. He decides to hide again, then realizes that Jack and his boys were sitting the island on fire to smoke Ralph out, a move that would destroy whatever fruit was left on the island. Ralph rushes toward the beach, where he finds a naval officer. His ship saw the smoke and came to the island. The officer thinks that the boys have been only playing games. The other boys begin to appear from the forest. Percival tries to announce his name and address, but cannot say what was once so natural. Ralph says that he is boss, and the officer asks how many there are. He scolds them for not knowing exactly how many there are and for not being organized, as the British are supposed to be. Ralph says that they were like that at first. Ralph begins to weep for the first time on the island. He weeps for the end of innocence and the darkness of man's heart, and for the fall of Piggy. The officer turns away, embarrassed, while the other boys await the cruiser in the distance.


Middlemarch by G.Eliot

Chapter 1:

The novel begins in the upper-class Brooke household in Tipton, inhabited by Mr. Brooke and his two nieces, Dorothea and Celia. Dorothea and her sister Celia are well-connected, sensible girls from a good family; they believe in economy of dress and are rather mainstream in their beliefs and behavior. Dorothea is drawn to sacrifice and grand, intellectual things, while Celia has fewer aspirations in the world of academics and religion. Their uncle, Mr. Brooke, is careful with his money, and rather Puritan in his disposition, which Dorothea is also.

Two suitors, Sir Chettam and Mr. Casaubon, make visits to the house; Sir Chettam likes Dorothea, but Dorothea believes he is more inclined toward her sister. Celia has more sense than her sister, but Dorothea is very steadfast in her Puritan ways.

Chapter 2:

Sir James and Casaubon are over for supper, with Sir James trying to appeal to Dorothea, while Dorothea begins to admire Casaubon. Dorothea hopes that Sir James will try to appeal to her sister Celia, rather than to herself, and Dorothea continues her perverse fascination with Casaubon.

Chapter 3:

Dorothea continues to admire Casaubon, especially admiring his vast studies and knowledge. She understands that Casaubon has some regard for her, and feels honored, despite Casaubon's complete inability to show emotion. She is blind to the fact that he wants to marry her to fulfill his needs, and is taking advantage of her naivete in this decision. Casaubon actually tries to show consideration for her in the things he chooses to speak to her about, and in the way he regards her. Still, Dorothea's refusal to see Casaubon as anything other than a beacon of knowledge and good, and Sir James as an annoyance who is useful for carrying out her plans, shows how her stubbornness blinds her in judging people's characters, and in making important decisions as well.

Chapter 4:

Sir James has acted on Dorothea's plan, and made new, more pleasant cottages for his poor tenants; Dorothea is still determined not to think highly of him, though Celia is rather fond of Sir James. Dorothea admits to her sister that she does not like Sir James, although he plainly likes her; Celia cannot believe that Dorothea could so easily dismiss a man who loves her. When Dorothea gets back, her uncle tells her that he went to visit Casaubon, and Casaubon inquired about marrying Dorothea. Mr. Brooke is against it, because of Casaubon's tendency to mope about and live in books; but, when Dorothea says that she would accept Casaubon over Sir Chettam, Mr. Brooke speaks diplomatically, while laying out before her the realities of marriage. Though Dorothea listens, she does not seem to absorb all the important things he says. Mr. Brooke has brought back a letter of proposal to Dorothea, and she is determined to accept.

Chapter 5:

Dorothea reads Casaubon's letter, and is touched by it; she immediately writes out an acceptance, taking the letter to mean that he feels the same about her as she does about him. Celia has no idea what has happened until Casaubon joins them all for dinner, and she, at least, knows that her sister has made a serious mistake, and perhaps can be swayed from it. Dorothea, however, is convinced that she has made the right choice; Casaubon expresses happiness at their engagement, and Dorothea completely overlooks his lack of passion.

Chapter 6:

Mrs. Cadwallader is finally introduced, a shrewd, somewhat manipulative, and meddling woman whom Mr. Brooke has little affection for. Mrs. Casaubon and Mr. Brooke talk politics for a little while, which Mr. Brooke does not want to do; finally, Celia tells Mrs. Cadwallader that Dorothea is going to marry Casaubon, which displeases Mrs. Cadwallader, a great advocate for Sir James, greatly. Sir James finds out, and is greatly displeased; but Mrs. Cadwallader tells him that Celia admires him greatly, and won't give him as much trouble. Mrs. Cadwallader is the archetype of the country woman, with her narrow interests, her meddling ways, and her great concern in anything involving people she knows. Sir James is able to conquer his disappointment, and realizes that courting Celia is what he should begin to do.

Chapter 7:

Casaubon has exhausted his meager reserves of passion already, and looks forward to married life, which he expects will be more pleasant and fulfilled. Not once does he stop and consider his duties for Dorothea, showing himself to be an unsuitable partner who will be hard-pressed to make her happy. Dorothea is eager to begin learning, out of her own desire to be able to understand and know things. Mr. Brooke cautions Casaubon that Dorothea, as a woman, might not be capable of such learning; Dorothea resents such talk, and tries to ignore it.

Chapter 8:

Sir James, in spite of Dorothea's engagement, begins to like visiting the Grange, her home, once again; he is stung by her rejection, and cannot understand her attraction to Casaubon at all. He goes to speak to Mr. Cadwallader, a great friend, to clear his mind about this issue. Sir James cannot help his great pride, but at least he is very civil to Dorothea, and does not let his distaste for her marriage interfere with his plans to make the cottages she proposed.

Chapter 9:

Dorothea gets her new home, Lowick, ready for her impending residence there. The house is rather big, but not particularly cheery; in fact, it rather resembles Casaubon in its looks. Dorothea, however, finds it agreeable, as she finds Casaubon also; but, chances are, she will soon find that she is mistaken, as the newness and novelty of this entire situation wears off. Celia herself dislikes anything that Dorothea accepts, and as such, dislikes Lowick and Casaubon equally.

Casaubon introduces the party to Will Ladislaw, his cousin; he dislikes Dorothea immediately, because of the way she speaks poorly of herself before others, and because she is marrying his sour, humorless cousin. Will is young, rather handsome, and an artist as well; he seems much better suited to Dorothea, though a better match than Casaubon is certainly not hard to find. Ladislaw is without occupation, so Casaubon is, reluctantly, providing for him; but Casaubon and his cousin seem not to get along at all.

Chapter 10:

Ladislaw leaves suddenly for Europe; he has a view of life and work completely opposed to Casaubon's, and is much more impulsive and full of passion than his dull cousin. Casaubon, to his credit, does try to be more joyful about his marriage, and to understand his young bride better; but, he is fundamentally unsuited to this relationship, and cannot make himself more amenable to it. They decide to go to Rome on their honeymoon, a decision partially motivated by Casaubon's single-minded pursuit of information, to the detriment of his fragile relationship with Dorothea.

Casaubon and Dorothea attend a local dinner party, where many of the prominent citizens of the town are discussing their displeasure at Casaubon and Dorothea's marriage, and the arrival of the new doctor, Lydgate. Many of the townspeople prove completely pedestrian in their opinions, liking decorative, weak-willed women, and disapproving of any experimentation, especially relating to medicine. These are people who like routine and tradition, and will be hard-pressed to accept any progress or any outsiders in their community.

Chapter 11:

Lydgate, the new doctor, is already enamoured of Rosamond Vincy, the mayor's daughter. She is attractive and affable, but he is not economically set for marriage yet. Lydgate believes that women should be quiet, obedient, and beautiful; he is not looking for a partner, but rather an adornment, for a wife. Rosamond seems determined to escape from the tangled web of Middlemarch marriages, in which case Lydgate seems suited to her. Rosamond's brother, Fred Vincy, is an aimless young man who failed to get his degree at college, and seems to do very little besides hang about the house and bother his sister.

Fred and Rosamond travel to Stone Court, the house of their wealthy uncle, Mr. Featherstone. Mrs. Waule, Mr. Featherstone's sister, is there; and though she is also well off, she tries to get even more money from her brother. Mary Garth is Mr. Featherstone's servant, and Fred admires her very much. Mrs. Waule's visit is to lobby for more money in Mr. Featherstone's will, and she tries to discredit Fred, of whom Mr. Featherstone is very fond, by alluding to rumors about Fred's gambling debts. Mr. Featherstone bothers Fred on this subject, and Fred insists he has done nothing of the sort; Mr. Featherstone continues to shame and embarrass Fred, and finally insist that he get proof in writing from Bulstrode, who started this rumor, that it is indeed false.

Mary Garth is plain and amiable, and very honest and kind. Rosamond continues to be supremely interested in Lydgate, whom Mary has met and does not think terribly highly of. Lydgate and Rosamond finally meet, and it seems like their romance has already been destined to occur.

Chapter 13:

Mr. Vincy goes to see Mr. Bulstrode at the bank on his son Fred's behalf; Lydgate is already there with Bulstrode, talking about the construction of a new hospital in town. Bulstrode likes Lydgate, and expects that he will make reforms and improve medical care in the town, but both are aware of the professional jealousy that will arise from Lydgate's new position, if he is indeed elected as head of the hospital. Bulstrode, for some reason, wants a man named Mr. Tyke to be chaplain of the new hospital, in place of another man named Mr. Farebrother.

Mr. Vincy enters, and broaches the subject of Fred and his need for Bulstrode's reassurances; Mr. Bulstrode does not want to be involved. Bulstrode criticizes Fred's upbringing and personal qualities, making the matter more personal than it needs to be. This matter is complicated by the fact that Bulstrode and Vincy are brothers-in-law, and Vincy believes it is Bulstrode's family obligation to comply, though Bulstrode does not.

Chapter 14:

Bulstrode writes out a letter to the effect that Fred has not borrowed money on his inheritance from Featherstone, because his wife Harriet, Fred's aunt, wishes him to do so. In fact, Fred is in debt, and is given some money by Featherstone on the spot, though it is not enough to unburden him. Fred is grateful, but not as grateful as he could be; Featherstone takes pleasure in the fact that the young man depends on him for funds, and uses this to threaten Fred as well. Fred tries to talk to Mary Garth, whom he has feelings for, about his living and his feelings for her as well. Mary is realistic about his prospects, and knows that he cannot marry until he finds a living and a stable income.

Chapter 15:

Eliot begins the chapter with a bit of narration about the scope of the book, and then begins to delve into Lydgate's background. Lydgate was very intelligent as a young man, and fell in love with anatomy at a young age. He is a hard worker, driven to succeed in his field and make innovations, and to help people get better rather than make money, which seems to be the focus of many doctors of the time.

Chapter 16:

Mr. Bulstrode's power becomes plain; as a banker, he has some control over those he lends money to, and he defends people in return for certain expected favors. There is a debate going on whether Bulstrode's choice of Mr. Tyke for the chaplain's position at the hospital is indeed correct; Lydgate, Mr. Vincy, Mr. Chichely, and Dr. Sprague debate this question, with Mr. Vincy firmly supporting Farebrother. Lydgate is soon able to sneak away and talk with Rosamond, whom he finds very refined and beautiful. He meets Farebrother, whom he also finds agreeable. Lydgate is in no hurry to marry, since he has no money yet; but he will certainly keep Rosamond in mind in the meantime. Rosamond, however, is sure that Lydgate is in love with her; and, with little else to think about, she sets her mind on marrying Lydgate.

Chapter 17:

Lydgate goes to see Farebrother at home, and observes his domestic situation. Farebrother's mother engages Lydgate in a debate about changes in religion, which Farebrother and Lydgate seem to espouse. Farebrother is a man of science, like Lydgate; they get along well, which makes Lydgate question Bulstrode's championing of Mr. Tyke even more. However, Farebrother is knowledgeable about Middlemarch politics, and knows that Lydgate must vote with Bulstrode if he wants to get ahead; Lydgate listens to this advice, but wants to vote with his conscience instead.

Chapter 18:

Lydgate is compelled to vote for Farebrother, at the expense of any help from Bulstrode; he debates this with himself, and the outcomes of either decision. Lydgate wants to secure Farebrother the much needed money, but also wants to keep in Bulstrode's good graces, and knows that Tyke might be better suited to the position. The voting meeting begins, with Lydgate still waffling; people have their various reasons for voting for Farebrother or for Lydgate, and they all vary widely. Lydgate finally decides upon Mr. Tyke.

Chapter 19:

Dorothea is at last in Rome on her honeymoon, and Will Ladislaw is there too, spotting her but not daring to approach. Will's friend, Naumann, is there too, is taken with her beauty and wants to paint her picture; Will is still under the influence of his negative first impression of her, and does not want to see her at the risk of finding her as unpleasant as he suspects.

Chapter 20:

Dorothea is in shock by the combination of lately having become a wife, being in a place so foreign to her as Rome, and being completely alone, with the absence of her husband due to his study. Dorothea appeals to her husband to let her help, so that he may get his work finished and published; in her desperation for some emotional response, she sobs, which immediately makes Casaubon even more remote. Casaubon wants her support and affection, which she is giving him, but not in the way he wishes. They have a fundamental communication block, which upsets both of them, especially since it is their honeymoon. Casaubon continues his studies, and nothing is resolved.

Chapter 21:

Just as Dorothea is beginning to despair again, Will Ladislaw comes to visit her. Will is surprised to find that she is nice, friendly, and far better than his dried-up old cousin could ever deserve; Will's bad first impression is proven completely wrong. They discuss art, which Dorothea can't understand; Will admits that he has not found his calling in art, and Dorothea is bewildered by his ability to be at leisure all the time. Will also realizes that Dorothea holds Casaubon in unnaturally high regard; he resents this, and wants to get her to realize how she is mistaken. Casaubon returns home, and is not pleased by his cousin's presence. Nevertheless, he invites Will back, and Dorothea senses that she has found a valuable friend.

Chapter 22:

Will impresses Dorothea with the way he is able to listen to Casaubon and make him feel at ease; Will is also able to engage Dorothea in the conversation, and draw some statements out of her that make Casaubon proud of his well-spoken wife. Will gets Casaubon to agree to bring Dorothea to the studio; once there, Naumann gets Casaubon to sit as a model for Thomas Aquinas, which allows Naumann to also paint Dorothea without Casaubon feeling slighted. Will goes to visit Dorothea later, when Casaubon is not at home; they speak, and Will tells her plainly that she will not be happy with Casaubon, and that her piety is completely unnatural.

Chapter 23:

Fred still has a debt to pay, and the money he got from Featherstone will not cover the balance; even worse, his dear Mary's brother, Caleb, co-signed on Fred's debt and will be held responsible if he defaults. Fred decides to make money to pay his debt by speculating on horses; unfortunately, he buys a horse that lames itself in a stable accident, and has even less money with which to pay his debt. Fred is a fool to risk all that he has on such an uncertain plan; but the boy is slow to learn, and cannot help himself.

Chapter 24:

Fred finally feels very sorry about his debt, and the fact that he has only fifty pounds and five days to pay up. Fred is most sorry because Mary's father is going to have to pay, and he feels this will jeopardize his chances with Mary. Fred goes to the Garth household to tell Caleb Garth, whose wife is very fond of Fred, but probably will not be after he tells her. Mrs. Garth is teaching her children their lessons in the kitchen, and Fred sits down and tells her and Mr. Garth the news. Mrs. Garth will have to give up the money she was saving to send her son to school; Fred feels terrible, as he should, knowing that his irresponsibility is costing them so much. Mr. Garth knows then that he was a fool to trust Fred, and they believe that there is little chance Mary will regard him so highly when she finds out.

Chapter 25:

Fred goes to Stone Court to tell Mary the news; he is not as repentant as he should be, and wants comforting words from Mary about his irresponsibility. He still doesn't see the entire magnitude of what he did; he tries to rationalize things with his good intentions, and by claiming that he is not so bad, compared to what other people do. Mary is upset, and says that she cannot trust him, and that he should be more sorry for what he did. Caleb comes later, to ask for whatever she has saved up; Mary gives it gladly. Caleb Garth is worried that his daughter has some feelings for

Chapter 26:

Fred is foolish enough to go back in search of his old horse, and ends up with an even worse one. He soon becomes ill, and after their regular doctor tries to help and fails, Lydgate is brought in and says he has scarlet fever. Mr. and Mrs. Vincy get angry at their regular doctor, Mr. Wrench, for failing to catch such a serious illness; Mr. Wrench is in turn angry at Lydgate for interfering, and very uncivil to the new doctor. Rumors spread about the confrontation between Mr. Wrench and the Vincys, and between Mr. Wrench and Lydgate. Various opinions and stories surface about the alleged scuffles, leaving everyone worse off as subjects of untrue gossip.

Chapter 27:

Mrs. Vincy becomes completely consumed by Fred and his illness, to an unhealthy extent; Lydgate is around the house frequently, and sees a good bit of Rosamond as well. Lydgate's attentions to Rosamond are causing some resentment in the neighborhood, as rivals for her affection become jealous of him; Rosamond continues to believe that Lydgate is in love with her and intends marriage, while Lydgate merely enjoys her pleasant company. At the end of the chapter, Lydgate receives a summons from Sir James Chettam, who he has not attended to before.

Chapter 28:

Dorothea arrives at Lowick with her husband in January, after their honeymoon. Dorothea, who had been so dejected during their honeymoon, feels revived by being home, in familiar surroundings. However, she is still haunted by the knowledge that her vision of marriage is yet unfulfilled, and the depressing atmosphere of Lowick. Her sister Celia finally arrives, brightening up the place with her presence; Celia tells Dorothea of her engagement to Sir James, and Dorothea is very happy for her sister.

Chapter 29:

Mr. Casaubon's beliefs about marriage are reiterated; he wanted to marry someone young and impressionable, so that she would be pleasant and able to help him with his work and be taught by him. He also believed that marriage would make him happy for the first time; but marriage could never instantly change his disposition, and his hopes for his union were too high, as were Dorothea's. Casaubon and Dorothea have a bit of a tiff, as Casaubon tells her that he does not want Ladislaw to visit, and Dorothea resents the condescending and mean-natured tone he takes with her. Casaubon is weakened, and Dorothea strengthened by this altercation; it seems like this relationship is going to make her stronger, though it will definitely not work out.

Chapter 30:

Lydgate comes to check on Casaubon, and cannot find anything immediately wrong; he asks that Casaubon give up his studies for the time being, and focus on leisurely pursuits. Dorothea is informed as to the details of whatever ails Casaubon; Lydgate says that he must be kept from any stresses, or else his condition might be aggravated, and his life cut short. Dorothea is sad, but not sure exactly what to think; Ladislaw is supposed to be arriving there in a few days, and she asks Mr. Brooke to write Ladislaw a letter saying that Casaubon is ill, and not to visit. Mr. Brooke does write a letter, but the contents are nothing like Dorothea intends; Mr. Brooke invites Ladislaw, and also proposes that he might work for Mr. Brooke's newspaper, since Mr. Brooke has been favorably impressed with what he has heard.

Chapter 31:

Lydgate and Rosamond become closer, as Lydgate is about to be sucked into a relationship which he is unprepared for because of the nature of Middlemarch society. Mrs. Bulstrode and Mrs. Plymdale gossip about Rosamond's pride, and how Lydgate might suit her; Mrs. Plymdale thinks that the match would be unwise for Lydgate, since Rosamond has expensive habits, and Mrs. Bulstrode goes to speak to Rosamond out of concern. When Mrs. Bulstrode sees Rosamond and her fine garments, she knows that Mrs. Plymdale was at least right about that one point. Mrs. Bulstrode speaks to her, telling her that if she marries Lydgate, she will not be able to keep her expensive habits; Rosamond admits that he has made no offer of marriage to her, and seems intent on ignoring her aunt's good advice. Then, Mrs. Bulstrode approaches Lydgate, and tells him that he should not press his advantages as a romantic-seeming outsider with the Middlemarch girls; Lydgate sees that others believe him to be engaged to Rosamond, and wants to avoid marriage at all costs.

However, Lydgate ends up going by the house after an absence of two weeks, to deliver bad news about Mr. Featherstone's health; Rosamond cries when she sees him again, and this display of affection touches him enough to abandon his plans and reasonable thinking, and propose to her. Rosamond accepts, and they are engaged.

Chapter 32:

Mr. Featherstone's relatives begin to pop out and appear, and all expect that he will die soon, and will leave them some bit of money, since he is their rich relation. They all expect that he should do something for them, that he owes them money because they are relatives; they do not consider that they have done nothing for him, but are like vultures circling, waiting to pick up his money once he dies.

Mr. Featherstone wants to see none of the greedy, crowding relatives; Mary Garth has to try and turn them away, but doesn't have the heart for the task. Mrs. Vincy hovers around, sure that Fred will receive most of the property and money anyway, as Featherstone regards and treats them so much better than his other relatives. Trumbull, an auctioneer and assistant to Featherstone in business matters, is the other person who Featherstone shows any regard for; on the basis of behavior alone, it would seem that these people would receive most from Featherstone's will. Mary Garth must put up with the various visitors and their varying degrees of rudeness, but manages to stay calm and make the constant crush of daytime visitors as comfortable as she can.

Chapter 33:

Mary Garth is sitting with Mr. Featherstone at night, as she usually does, reflecting on the events of the day, and sitting in silence, for the most part. She figures that the issue of Featherstone's will shall disappoint everyone involved. Mr. Featherstone suddenly tells her to open the chest with his will in it, and burn one of them; Mary refuses, even when she is offered a sizeable amount of money to do so. Mary is scared of his sudden energy, and does not think that he is in his right mind; Mr. Featherstone drifts off to sleep, and by the morning he is dead.

Chapter 34:

Mr. Featherstone is finally buried, with many relatives whom he did not like there; the occasion is a rather expensive one, for although Featherstone was miserly in many respects, he liked to show off his money when it could impress many people. Dorothea and Celia, along with Sir James, watch the proceedings from their house, as he is being buried at the church that is on Casaubon's land. Will Ladislaw appears again, and Mr. Brooke reveals that Will is his guest, and has brought the picture that Casaubon sat for in Rome. Casaubon is shocked and upset, and Mr. Brooke explains that he wrote to Ladislaw when Casaubon was ill, not Dorothea; Mr. Brooke continues to speak of his fondness for Will, as Casaubon tries to hide his displeasure, and Dorothea becomes alarmed.

Chapter 35:

The funeral is over, and people are waiting anxiously for the will to be read and the sums they are to receive to be announced. There is a stranger among them, though, who makes them nervous; his name is Rig, he is in his early 30's, and no one is quite sure of who he is or where he comes from. A lawyer is there, named Standout, who went through the will with two witnesses; he reads through the two wills that Featherstone left, regarding the last one as the most correct. Mary Garth is nervous, and somewhat excited, since her refusal to burn one of the documents has led to this outcome. The first leaves Fred a good bit of money, and gives something to most of the relatives; the second, which is considered the correct one, gives everything to Mr. Rig, who doesn't seem surprised.

Upon hearing this, many of the relatives start complaining about the expense of traveling to the funeral, and how they should not have come if they were to get nothing. Mrs. Vincy cries, and Fred seems upset as well, to have a large bequest announced, and then taken back. No one seems very fond of Mr. Rig, who takes the name Featherstone as requested in the will. But, it seems that all the greedy relatives, and the expectant Vincys, have all rotten their just desserts; the Garths could have been better served, but overall, people do get exactly what they deserve.

Chapter 36:

Fred is sorely disappointed with not getting any money; he expected that he would get a large amount, and would not have to work. Now, he will likely have to join the clergy, or find some form of work; he will finally have to stop being idle, as his father will tolerate his idleness no longer. Mr. Vincy also says that Rosamond will have to postpone her marriage, until the family are in a better position to pay for it; Mrs. Vincy, Fred, and Rosamond are all spendthrifts, expecting that the money they need will somehow drop into their laps. Rosamond takes the issue up with her father, and he caves in; Mr. Vincy doesn't have the heart to stand up to his daughter, though she clearly needs some reasonable advice on the subject of her marriage.

It seems that only Mrs. Bulstrode knows better on the subject of Rosamond and Lydgate's engagement; she knows how difficult it will be for Rosamond to live on little money, and how extravagant she is, and how ill prepared Lydgate is to live with a flighty girl like her. However, no one will listen to her; her advice, though it will prove correct, is unheeded.

Rosamond tells Lydgate that her father wishes their marriage to be postponed; Rosamond says that she refused, not so much out of love for Lydgate, but out of stubbornness. Lydgate urges her that they be married soon; Rosamond agrees to six weeks, and manages to convince her father. Lydgate soon starts buying new things for the house, though he has little money to do so; already, he is spending beyond his means, a dangerous habit. They will go to his uncle's estate for their honeymoon; he is a baronet, and wealthy, which boosts Lydgate's hopes for a better position.

Chapter 37:

Middlemarch politics assert themselves once again, in the rivalry of the two papers of the region. It is revealed that Mr. Brooke has bought one of the papers, The Pioneer, and has inserted his unorthodox political views into it. Will Ladislaw has been hired to head the paper, and Mr. Brooke is very pleased with his work, and his coverage of the Middlemarch political situation. Casaubon continues to resent Will, and Will grows more angry that Casaubon married someone as young and naive as Dorothea, dragging her down into Casaubon's dull, dry world of academia. Will's affection for Dorothea continues to grow, and Dorothea becomes more and more fond of Will in return.

Will goes to Lowick to sketch; luckily for him, it begins to rain, and when he takes refuge in the house, he finds only Dorothea at home. They begin to speak as they did in Rome, very happy to be alone in each other's company; Dorothea becomes more aware of her husband's failings, but also learns of his generosity toward Will's family. Will tells Dorothea that he has a job at Mr. Brooke's paper, if he wants it; Dorothea says she would like him to stay in the neighbourhood very much, but then realises that Casaubon would disagree with her.

Dorothea tells Casaubon, who of course is not in the least supportive. Casaubon writes Will a letter, telling him he should not take the position, nor should he call at the house any longer. Casaubon's letter seems to be motivated not out of embarrassment for having a relative of lower status nearby, but out of some jealousy perhaps for his friendship with Dorothea. Dorothea becomes consumed by the case of Will's grandmother, and her unfair disinheritance when she married; she believes that Will is owed a good part of what Casaubon has because his family was impoverished unfairly, and wants to bring that up to Casaubon, though it will upset him.

Casaubon is not suspicious that Dorothea is being influenced by Will, but he thinks that it might happen; his insecurity and jealousy lead him to contrive secret hindrances for Will. He dislikes his cousin more than ever, because he imagines that Dorothea would like Will more than she likes him.

Chapter 38:

Mr. Brooke is making enemies through his advocacy for the Whig party, when Middlemarch is a predominantly conservative, Tory area. Bulstrode is allied with Brooke politically, but many of the neighbors disapprove, including Sir James. Sir James, Mrs. Cadwallader, and others are gossiping about Brooke and Will Ladislaw, Brooke's need to take care of his parish, and other subjects. Brooke comes by, in the middle of being discussed; they inquire about the state of his tenants, attacks that have been made on him, etc.

Brooke, however, does not wish to enter into any arguments, or listen to see if they do have any valid points to make amid the rumors they are discussing. Brooke runs out quickly, and the others wish that maybe he could see if he was doing something wrong, and act on that.

Chapter 39:

Sir James becomes more judicious in his appraisal of Brooke's situation, and decides that Brooke needs to invest in improvements for his tenants if he wants to evade the scathing criticisms of the other Middlemarch paper, The Trumpet. Dorothea is the key to convincing him, figures Sir James, since she is a great advocate for improvements. Dorothea goes to visit her uncle, and Will Ladislaw turns out to be there; she tells her uncle that Sir James told her that Tipton was to be managed by Caleb Garth, and improvements made. Dorothea is very passionate that this should be done; however, her uncle will not commit. She and Will find a moment alone, to explain a bit more of themselves; Will seems to be falling in love with her, as their relationship becomes stronger.

Mr. Brooke goes to visit a tenant whose son has been poaching on Brooke's land, and is chastised by the tenant. Brooke, who liked to fancy himself a favorite of his tenants, is shocked; also, the house looks worse now that Dorothea has made her criticisms. It looks like Mr. Brooke will give in, and turn the management of the estate over to Mr. Garth after all.

Chapter 40:

Focus moves to the Garths, who are gathered at the table, reading letters. Mary is looking for another position, and has decided to take a place at a school in York, though it does not please her, or her parents, too well. However, Mr. Garth reads a letter from Sir James that asks him whether Mr. Garth would start managing Freshitt, and mentions that Mr. Brooke might want his services again as well. This would double the Garths' income, and means that Mary can stay at home; but Mr. Garth will need an assistant, and none of his sons are in the position to do so. The whole family is happy, Caleb Garth most of all because he will be able to do good work to help even more people.

Mr. Farebrother comes to visit; he has some interest in Mary Garth, and also likes to visit and spend time with the family. He has been talking to Fred Vincy, and informs them of Fred's situation, telling them Fred is going back to study, and still cannot pay off his debt to them.

Chapter 41:

It is not long since Mr. Rigg Featherstone has gained the estate of Stone Court, and already there is word that he wishes to sell the place to Mr. Bulstrode. It is revealed that Mr. Rigg is Featherstone's illegitimate child, who was brought up far away from Middlemarch, with very little money. Someone named John Raffles is there, his mother's new husband; he wants money to start a tobacco shop from Mr. Rigg's new-found fortune. Rigg refuses, because Raffles, he alleges, was very cruel to him as a child, took money from his mother, and left them poor and miserable. He says that he will continue to send his mother an allowance, but will give Mr. Raffles nothing. Rigg gives him money to get back home, and some liquor, but not before Mr. Raffles makes use of an important paper, signed by Mr. Bulstrode, to keep his flask from falling apart.

Chapter 42:

Lydgate is at least back from his honeymoon with Rosamond, and is immediately called to Casaubon, whose health seems to be getting worse. He is also haunted by the idea that he has never been given credit for his studies, and that the Key to All Mythologies will never be finished; he is starting to admit that he has failed in his life-long project. Casaubon is disappointed also with Dorothea; she does all her duties as a wife, but he suspects that she is critical of him secretly, and this disturbs him a great deal.

Casaubon's vitriol against Will, and against Dorothea's suspected affection for Will, takes him over; he concedes to write a passage into his will "protecting" Dorothea from marrying eager, potentially deceptive suitors like Will. Lydgate finally arrives, and Casaubon asks that he be told exactly what his condition is. Lydgate tells him that he has a heart ailment, but cannot be sure that it will cut his life short, or have any immediate effect. Lydgate goes once Casaubon has heard enough, and Dorothea comes out to fetch him; he withdraws from her, and soon she becomes angry at him for treating her so. Dorothea realizes that she has reduced herself in order to try and please him, but he seems to be satisfied with nothing; she is tired of not being herself, and resents him greatly. However, when he says that he needs her help, she forgets her anger, and goes to join him.

Chapter 43:

Dorothea decides to seek out Lydgate, and ask him if there has been a serious change in her husband's condition, or else why he has been so troubled since Lydgate's visit. She goes to his house, and finds Rosamond there; but Will is also there, which makes Dorothea panic, and she immediately leaves to find Lydgate at his hospital. Will fears that Dorothea will think badly of him because she has found him in the company of another woman, and not totally devoted to her; but she acted the way she did because she likes him, and knows that her husband doesn't approve of the friendship, and that it is some kind of betrayal as well.

Rosamond begins to get ideas about perhaps attracting other admirers, in order to appease her vanity, and allay her fears about Lydgate's fondness for her growing weaker. It seems like she might try to win Mr. Ladislaw's affections, and seems a little jealous that he likes Dorothea rather than her. She also seems to suspect that maybe her husband has a soft spot for Dorothea, and that might have been part of the reason she was searching for Lydgate.

Chapter 44:

Dorothea finally talks to Lydgate, and Lydgate tells her that Casaubon now knows about his condition, and he is probably upset by it. Lydgate turns her attention to the new hospital; Bulstrode has been one of the few supporting it, and so many are against the hospital because they do not like Bulstrode. Dorothea says that she would like to do something for such a good cause, and pledges money from her yearly allowance; she is happier that she is able to make a significant contribution, but still her husband's illness and behavior bother her.

Chapter 45:

Lydgate's practice seems to be at the mercy of rumor, hearsay, and general sentiment; people go to him because they have heard about "miracle cures" that he has done, or stay away because they have heard he is newfangled, and they like their present practitioner just fine. The backward Middlemarch way of doing and deciding has helped Lydgate's reputation and practice to spread, but opinion could turn against him just as rapidly, and dry up his practice. Lydgate is unlucky enough to come into Middlemarch at a time when old ways are becoming contested in other regions, and reforms have started to creep into Middlemarch as well; a few believe that maybe his way is best, but others have been roused to defend the old, and are more militant about this point than usual. Lydgate is also disliked because he has taken on cases from other doctors, given a different diagnosis, and been able to cure them; this wounds the vanity of the old-guard doctors, and increases their personal dislike for Lydgate.

Mr. Bulstrode is on the side of progress, with Lydgate; this means that many prominent, wealthy citizens, who dislike both Bulstrode and innovation, refuse to donate to the new hospital. Lydgate is becoming too closely tied to the widely disliked Bulstrode that his reputation is beginning to suffer; Farebrother tells him so, and hopefully Lydgate will distance himself some. Farebrother also warns Lydgate against having too many debts.

Lydgate thinks that he might be among the great innovators of medicine, and this necessitates making enemies, and having opinion turn against you; in this, he is a little conceited, since there is no way he can claim an advance as great as those of his hero, Vesalius. It is fine for Lydgate to try and change the outdated medical practice around him; but his egotism and his visions of greatness could easily hamper his progress, and get him into even more trouble with his peers and patients.

Chapter 46:

An issue of reform is coming before Parliament, which Will supports, and Brooke decides to as well. Will seems to have a good deal of insight into British national politics, as he can make sense of issues and candidates, and make a convincing case for his opinion. Mr. Brooke, however, doesn't seem to be able to put his thoughts in a convincing argument; he is rather flippant in setting out his opinion, and is easily swayed by Ladislaw's better-formed opinions. Will is not winning any fans because of his unconventional behavior and views, as most people dislike his speeches and his writing because they are different.

Will wants Mr. Brooke to be elected to Parliament; however, with the uncomplimentary way in which Mr. Brooke is regarded in much of the neighborhood, this is unlikely. Will is perhaps a bit idealistic in believing that Mr. Brooke could actually win; he might assume that the citizens of Middlemarch are more sensible than they really are, in which case his plans would fail. Lydgate makes some points about area politics that perhaps he should take into account regarding his own situation; the two argue for a bit about these political issues, then Ladislaw leaves after they have tried to patch things up.

Chapter 47:

Will, who cares little what people think, stops to consider how his employment with Mr. Brooke, and his involvement with Mr. Brooke's politics, might be hindering him and making him look foolish. Even more important is whether he really is a fool for following along with Brooke; Will does think that the relation has cost him some of his dignity and individuality. All the same, he wants to stay in Middlemarch, at that position, in order to be near Dorothea; but he considers whether he is a fool with her too, and his hopeless devotion will amount to nothing if he gains no proof that she shares his affection.

Will has also become aware of what his cousin Casaubon thinks of him being friends with Dorothea; he knows that Casaubon might think that Will means dishonor in his interest in her, but Will really does not. Will decides to go to Lowick church to see her, aware that Casaubon will be upset. However, his doubt is only reinforced; Dorothea shows no happiness to see him, instead seeming pained; Will is saddened by the whole affair, and seems close to calling it quits on the whole affair.

Chapter 48:

Dorothea is actually happy that Will showed up at church, and wishes for his company, since she is often alone at home. Dorothea is not allowing her husband's disapproval to stifle her feelings for Will, though it will be difficult for her to see him. Casaubon is, all of a sudden, requesting Dorothea's help with his studies, and being kinder to her; perhaps this is a result of his talk with Lydgate, and he wants to get his work in order finally, and be on better terms with his wife, in case he dies suddenly. However, Casaubon next asks her if she will follow his wishes for her after he dies, whenever that is; Dorothea has to consider, since she is reluctant to promise to do something, when she does not know what it is. She secretly suspects that it may have something to do with Will, but consciously considers that it has to do with finishing Casaubon's work, which she does not want to devote years to.

However, before she can make an answer, Casaubon dies. Dorothea is at first in denial, and tells Lydgate everything, and to tell her husband that she has an answer. It might be a good thing for her that she does not have to hold herself to any answer she made; but she still does not know what Casaubon's wish was.

Chapter 49:

Sir James and Mr. Brooke are supposedly discussing Casaubon's last wish; they decide that whatever was in the will should be hidden from Dorothea until she is strong enough to hear of it, and until then she should be with her sister and her new baby. Sir James wants Will sent out of the country, which means that he had something to do with Casaubon's last wish; Mr. Brooke refuses to act so hastily, since Will has done very good work for him. They reveal that Casaubon added a codicil to his will, saying that if Dorothea marries Will, she will forfeit the land and money that Casaubon has left to her. The whole thing looks very bad, as if there was something sordid going on between Will and Dorothea. Sir James and Mr. Brooke come to the conclusion that if they sent Will away, it would make the situation look worse, and that they could not make him go unless he wanted to. Sir James is bent upon protecting Dorothea now however, as he could not do with her first marriage; she will be sent to Freshitt to live with Sir James and her sister for a while, and then more will be decided later.

Chapter 50:

Dorothea is at Freshitt, but not a week has passed before she is interested in the will, and what she will do with Lowick. She insists on going to Lowick, to look after the papers; after Mr. Brooke tells her she cannot, Celia finally tells her about the codicil, and tries to soothe her. Dorothea realizes how her life is changing, and wants to be with Will even more.

Dorothea still has the problem of what to do with Lowick, and the vacant position at the church; she thinks of giving it to Mr. Tyke, but Lydgate recommends Farebrother, and says to ask Will about his character. Dorothea decides to give him a try, and wonders how Will is faring through all of this.

Chapter 51:

Will is upset, because Mr. Brooke is no longer inviting him to the Grange, and he feels that maybe he is being avoided out of concern for Dorothea. Still, he has heard nothing about the will yet. Will believes that he and Dorothea are divided forever; still, he cannot leave Middlemarch, because he needs to help Mr. Brooke get ready for the coming election. Mr. Brooke is running for the Independent party, and needs Will's help if he is able to have a chance.

However, Mr. Brooke's main speech goes terribly; he is mocked and egged, hung in effigy, and is disgusted so much by the whole thing that he quits the election. He also decides to quit the paper too, and urges Will to do the same. However, Will has been thinking on his future; he will become a political writer, raise himself up, if he knows that Dorothea would marry him after he achieved these things. He decides to seek some sign from her, and in the meantime, stay at the paper. He has some idea that Mr. Brooke and others are trying to get rid of him for Dorothea's sake, but will not go unless she doesn't care for him.

Chapter 52:

Farebrother finds out that Dorothea has given him the living at Lowick; he is glad since this will increase his income, and give him more freedom in his living. His sister will now be allowed to marry, as they can afford a dowry, and Farebrother too can afford to have a wife. However, the only woman he wants to marry is Mary Garth; and Fred in newly back from finishing college, and wants nothing more than for Mary to love him. Farebrother, as Fred's confidant in this situation, does a very good job of being impartial, giving fair advice without the prejudice of his own heart. However, it pains Farebrother that the only woman he would like to marry is marked for someone else, who is less stable and responsible than he.

Fred thinks that he might have to go into the clergy, since he can think of no other profession to join. However, he knows that Mary is against this; so, he recruits Farebrother to go and speak to her about all of this, so that he might know what he should do. Farebrother does, and speaks to her plainly, and fairly; Mary says that it would be wrong of Fred to be in the clergy, but she would marry him if he found another stable profession. Mary says that she will remain single for Fred, and loves only him; Farebrother's hopes are finally dashed, of which Mary is sorry, though she has told the truth of her heart.

Chapter 53:

Stone Court has finally been transferred to Bulstrode, Rigg having relieved himself of the estate and grounds. Bulstrode is not pleased that Farebrother, rather than Tyke, is the new preacher at Lowick, but can do nothing about it. Rigg's fate is not at Middlemarch, and so he departs with little ceremony. Raffles comes to Stone Court, looking for Bulstrode, an old acquaintance; he found out that Bulstrode took his stepson Rigg's place at Stone court by the crumpled paper he took, and so has sought Bulstrode out there. Bulstrode is displeased to see Raffles, and doesn't want anyone to know that he is there, or the real purpose why.

It seems that Bulstrode and Raffles had some shady dealings a while back, that Bulstrode does not want discovered. Bulstrode's family connections are questionable as well, as Raffles knows; Raffles takes advantage and asks Bulstrode for money, on threat of exposing him to general knowledge. Bulstrode pays him off, and Raffles remembers that Bulstrode is related to someone named Ladislaw whom he has not seen in years‹but Raffles does not know who Will is, and also does not tell Bulstrode.

Chapter 54:

Dorothea is tired of staying at her sister's, having nothing to do but stare at Celia's baby, whom Celia worships, but Dorothea couldn't be more indifferent to. She longs to get back to Lowick and set things in order; her sister and Sir James do not believe she should go, but she is determined to, because she can stand Celia's no longer. Others also wish that Dorothea go to live with someone, so she should not be lonely, but she refuses. She also refuses to finish Casaubon's work, since her interest in it has been obliterated by his death, and before that his behavior toward her.

Will finally does visit her, to see if she does have some affection to encourage him with. Their meeting is heated, however, with both of them being frustrated by not being able to admit their affection, and then their pride clashing on the subject of their division from each other. Will leaves, with Dorothea trying to show little emotion, especially because Sir James is there, and disapproves of the whole relationship.

Chapter 55:

Dorothea seems more grieved at Will's departure than she was at her husband's death‹and rightly so, for she loved Will more than she ever loved her husband. She goes to Celia, where the company brings up the subject of marriage; it is openly suggested that Dorothea marry again, though that is the last thing Dorothea wishes. Dorothea decides to turn her attention toward public projects again, and will ask Caleb Garth's help in achieving her goals.

Chapter 56:

Mr. Garth and Dorothea prove to be natural allies on the subject of improvements and social projects; Mr. Garth is very impressed With Dorothea's determination and her great mind, though Mrs. Garth is more concerned with her feminine virtues. Railroads are being built across England, and this becomes a topic in Middlemarch as the trains grow closer. Mr. Garth and Dorothea have nothing against them, and decide to sell an outer part of Dorothea's land to the railroads for a good price. Some men attack Caleb Garth and his assistant as they are doing some surveying for the railroad; they are as afraid of the unknown as anybody, but Caleb teaches them better.

Fred enjoys helping Caleb after his assistant is hurt; he asks Mr. Garth if perhaps he would be able to learn his business, though Caleb Garth believes that Fred is going to enter the clergy. Fred confides in him about his trepidation about entering the clergy, and his love for Mary and wishes to please her. Mr. Garth bears Fred no ill will about the debt he owes them, nor is he upset at Fred being in love with Mary; he decides to consult his wife about Fred becoming his helper, and about a possible match between Fred and Mary. Caleb decides to bring Fred into the business, and if he succeeds, then he is worthy of Mary as well. Fred tells his parents, who are disappointed at Fred's waste of education. They also lament Rosamond's marriage, which is seeming less attractive as Lydgate gets into more and more debt.

Chapter 57:

Fred has gone to the Garths, to consult them about his change in situation, and also to see if his wishes that Mary marry him are accepted by the family, and Mary as well. However, Mrs. Garth is still not assured of Fred's worth, and his character; yes, he means well, but he has never held a stable job or proven himself to be responsible. Mrs. Garth is still angry at Fred for the issue of his debt; but she cannot tell him directly, so she admonishes him for being unfeeling of others, and of having no regard for Farebrother's feelings for Mary too. Fred then thinks that it is very possible that Mary prefers Farebrother to him, and that Mary will become engaged to him; when Fred tells Mary this, Mary gets very upset at him. Mary thinks the allegation unfair, and scolds Fred for his jealousy; but, as many unpleasing qualities as Fred has, she cannot help but love him, and still plans to be married to Fred.

Chapter 58:

She and Lydgate get a visit from his cousin, Captain Lydgate, which thrills Rosamond; Lydgate thinks his cousin foppish and stupid, and would rather him leave. Rosamond gets a little upset with Lydgate on this issue, though Lydgate insists he is not the only one who dislikes his cousin. Rosamond's baby is born premature because of an accident on a horse, and dies soon after; she would not have been riding if she had listened to her husband's advice, but stubbornly refused to listen to him. Lydgate is also troubled by his growing debt, especially since it was incurred buying things which he, though perhaps not Rosamond, could have done without.

Lydgate finally has to put up the furniture of the house as security against his debt; he tries to speak to Rosamond about keeping expenses down and buying less expensive things, but he is too soft-hearted to really tell her anything. Rosamond proves to be very silly and naive, and even thinks to herself that she would not have married Lydgate if she knew he was to have little money, and that she could not have lived as she was used to. Rosamond decides to go and ask her father for money, against Lydgate's wishes; Lydgate is saddened that this issue will come up again and again, and he will have to struggle to keep Rosamond from wasting too much money.

Chapter 59:

Gossip has gone around the neighborhood about the codicil in Casaubon's will; Fred finds out about it from the Farebrothers, and then proceeds to tell his sister. Rosamond is profoundly silly, and decides, unwisely, to tease Will about knowing something he doesn't, then make a joke of it all. Will grasps what she means to say, and gets the truth out of her; Rosamond still tries to spin the whole thing in lighthearted way, but Will is very upset, and perhaps understands more about Dorothea's behavior.

Chapter 60:

Mr. Larcher, one of the wealthiest people in Middlemarch, is auctioning off some furniture he does not need before he moves into a new, bigger, furnished home. The event is like a carnival, with everyone in Middlemarch in attendance; there is plenty of food and drink, drink especially so that people might make higher bids for things. Not everybody buys things, but everyone is there for this social, outdoor occasion anyway. Will is asked by Mr. Bulstrode to go and acquire a particular painting for him; Will goes, though he is determined to leave the town soon. Still, Will does not want to leave without seeing Dorothea again, so his departure will have to wait on that.

A good many things are sold before the particular painting comes up; Will bids for the painting, and gets it for the Bulstrodes for a decent bit of money. Mr. Raffles turns up there, having found Will Ladislaw by inquiring somehow; Will is a bit put-off by him, and Mr. Raffles starts speaking of Will's family. Will cannot tell what Raffles' intentions are, so he gets away, and tries to forget about him; but it seems that Raffles has some less-than-desirable stories to tell about Will's family, which gives Will even more of a reason to leave, before stories like those could besmirch his name even more.

Chapter 61:

Sure enough, Raffles has been back to Bulstrode's home, and refuses to go away until Bulstrode sees him. Raffles finds Bulstrode at the bank, as he tells his wife; but he is afraid to tell his wife much, lest she lose her confidence in him. It is revealed that Bulstrode married Will's maternal grandmother, after hiding from her that her daughter, Will's mother, was alive and had a son that the grandmother's riches were supposed to go to. However, Bulstrode prevented this from happening, for his own sake; and when the woman died, Bulstrode was left with the entire fortune, and Will and his mother with none. Bulstrode was also involved in various questionable trades, and these are the things that could destroy his reputation in Middlemarch. Bulstrode decides that he must do something to satisfy fate, and slow his own demise; he decides to speak to Will Ladislaw, and perhaps set things straight with him.

Will, however, is still unsettled by being approached by Raffles. He is shocked to discover the tenuous relation between Bulstrode and himself, and even more shocked when Bulstrode goes on to claim that he wants to be generous toward Will. Bulstrode tries to make it sound as if he is doing something out of generosity and his natural goodness, though it is more out of guilt and the thought that this good deed might save him. However, Will knows that Bulstrode made his money in a dishonest way, and is too proud to accept money from him, especially since that money is tainted by Bulstrode's wrongs. Bulstrode is saddened by the judgment on him, but is aware that Will won't tell anyone.

Chapter 62:

Will sends a letter to Dorothea, saying that he cannot leave Middlemarch until he has seen her again. He already declared that he was leaving two months before, which is a point of suspicion with Sir James, who guards Dorothea jealously. Dorothea, however, is out when the letter comes, preparing for Mr. Brooke to come back to the Grange. She goes to Freshitt, to speak to her sister and Sir James, and Sir James tries to take the opportunity to dissuade Dorothea from seeing Will again. He and Mrs. Cadwallader make a few unkind remarks about Will, which makes Dorothea angry, and she goes home to find Will there, looking for some sketches he had left.

Will tells Dorothea that he knows about Casaubon's will, and Dorothea tries to reassure him that it had nothing to do with her wishes. Will gets angry at her about the whole thing, and says that everything prevents him from being with her. Dorothea realizes that he has acted honorably in every possible way, and is glad for this; but still, she is unable to show any signs that she loves Will, and he goes without this assurance.

Chapter 63:

Farebrother notices some talk of Lydgate's practice declining, how his expenses much be more than he can really afford, and how he shouldn't have married a girl of such fine tastes. Farebrother really makes nothing of this talk, until he sees Lydgate again, and notices how nervous and strange his friend is acting. All are invited to a dinner party at the Vincys, and there seems to be some strain in Lydgate and Rosamond's marriage; she tries her best to ignore him, and they are not speaking at all. Even Rosamond's father is avoiding Lydgate. Farebrother, Fred, and Mary are all there, which means that Fred is worried about Mary liking Farebrother; Mrs. Vincy hopes that Farebrother and Mary will become engaged, because she doesn't want such a plain girl as a daughter-in-law.

Chapter 64:

Lydgate's money situation is certainly not getting any better, and Rosamond is very sour and inconsiderate whenever he mentions cutting down household expenses. He begins to resent the fact that she will not learn that they only have a limited amount of money, and cannot spend any more; she pouts like a sullen child, and acts like he has all the money in the world, he is only too mean to spend it on her. He decides that they should sell the house and the furniture, and move somewhere cheaper to live; Rosamond, of course, takes badly to this suggestion. Ned Plymdale is to be married, and Ned's mother rubs in that Ned has a lot more money than Lydgate, meaning that Rosamond was wrong to turn him down.

Rosamond decides to handle matters herself; she makes sure that the house cannot be sold to Ned Plymdale as her husband wishes, and writes his relatives for money without telling him. She tells her husband that she stopped the sale of the house, but not about the letters; Lydgate realizes that she will be unhappy if they move, and dreads that. He decides to apply to his rich uncle for money, not knowing that his wife has already done so.

Chapter 65:

Lydgate finds out, from a letter written by his uncle Godwin, that Rosamond wrote him for money behind his back. Lydgate is enraged that Rosamond would do such a thing, and also because he was about to go to see his uncle, and may have gotten some money, rather than a complete denial. However, when Lydgate gets angry at her for deceiving him and playing him false, she does what she always does‹look pretty, shed a tear, and act with composure. Lydgate is weakened by this, meaning that he will always be in debt, and will allow his wife to be selfish, stupid, and vain, even if it means their financial ruin. Rosamond hits new lows of shallowness when she proclaims that she would rather have died in childbirth than have to give up her house and furniture.

Chapter 66:

Lydgate, out of desperation for money and foolish hope that some will come to him, begins to gamble. Usually this is something which he treats with contempt, but in the situation he is in, he decides to go to the Green Dragon and play billiards. He is very good at first, winning a good bit of money; Fred Vincy and a friend come in, and Fred is surprised, and displeased, to find his brother-in-law there. Fred has been working hard for six months and spending little, and figures he has a little bit to spare at gambling; but when he sees Lydgate there, he thinks better of it. Lydgate's luck changes and he begins to lose, and Fred is good enough to draw him away, and suggest that they see Farebrother, who is right downstairs.

Farebrother is there to speak to Fred rather than Lydgate; he tells Fred not to slip back into his old ways, lest he lose Mary and his position with Mr. Garth. He says that he, too, loves Mary, and that if Fred messes things up this time, he is not sure to win Mary back. Farebrother does not mean that he will steal Mary, he is simply warning Fred that he should try to deserve her, and make her happy too. Fred takes the point, and hopefully will try to be more careful and more devoted to her.

Chapter 67:

Luckily, after losing at the Green Dragon, Lydgate feels no more desire to gamble. But, he is still in danger of losing his furniture because of his debt, and decides that he must apply to Bulstrode for money. Lydgate delays; and soon, Bulstrode has called on him to see to some health concerns of his. Bulstrode is feeling unwell probably because of the Raffles situation; but he also wants to speak of Lydgate about withdrawing his support from the hospital and moving away. Mrs. Casaubon, he says, would take his place as major supporter, though it would be best to merge the old Infirmary with the new hospital. Lydgate objects, because he knows that the people who run the Infirmary dislike him. Then, he takes the plunge, and tells Bulstrode that he needs a thousand pounds to discharge his debts and keep himself going; Bulstrode says that it would be better to declare bankruptcy, which Lydgate resents. Lydgate is still left with no way out, and his debt to the town tradespeople is very nearly due.

Chapter 68:

Raffles comes again to Bulstrode's, and Bulstrode must let him stay at the house for fear that he might go into the town and tell people about Bulstrode's story. Bulstrode tries his best to conceal who the man is and what he is doing there from his wife, but he still causes alarm throughout the household; his wife may not know exactly who Raffles is, but surely she has some idea that he is a friend from Bulstrode's less honest past. Bulstrode tells Raffles that he may get money from Bulstrode as long as he does not come back to Middlemarch; he takes Raffles to a nearby town, gives him money, and tells him to leave. He knows this might not be a permanent solution, but it is the best that Bulstrode can come up with at this given time.

Bulstrode tries to dispose of all his businesses and such, including the bank; he also gives Caleb Garth the management of Stone Court in his absence. Caleb, in turn, sees that it could be a good opportunity for Fred to learn more about the business, and gain his own experience; Mrs. Garth is a bit wary, but Caleb is decided. Fred is also allowed to live at Stone Court while he manages it, and hopefully will be able to afford to wed Mary sometime soon.

Chapter 69:

Mr. Garth comes to Bulstrode, to tell him that he found Raffles, very ill, near Stone Court; Raffles asks for a doctor, but also told Mr. Garth some things about Bulstrode. On account of these things, Caleb Garth says that he can no longer manage any of Bulstrode's property, and must give up the appointment to manage Stone Court as well. However, Caleb says, he will not spread around anything that he heard. Bulstrode then believes that all has happened with the aid of providence, and that Raffles might die, and leave him in peace.

Lydgate sees Raffles, and determines that though the case is grave, yet Raffles will probably survive. He decides that it must be a case of an alcohol-caused disease, and that Raffles must be an odd charity case for Bulstrode. There seems to be no escape from ruin for Lydgate; the furniture is about to be taken for his debts, and his relationship with Rosamond is in shreds because of it. Lydgate cannot stand Rosamond's repeated crying, and blaming him for her unhappiness. Now, he wishes he had married a woman of a like mind and spirit, so that their union might have survived this setback; instead, he is chained to Rosamond, when the union can no longer make either of them happy.

Chapter 70:

Bulstrode is with Raffles, tending to him according to Lydgate's orders, though wishing at the same time that Raffles would just die and leave him in peace. Bulstrode still thinks that fate is on his side, that Raffles will die and he will be free; he is not sorry for anything he has done, but is more intent on getting away with everything. Bulstrode decides that maybe another "good" deed will save him; he decides to give Lydgate the money he needs, thinking that this action will clear his conscience, and in case Raffles says something unpalatable, Lydgate will be obligated not to repeat it.

Raffles dies only a few days after coming to Bulstrode; Lydgate is there when he dies, and does not think to say that perhaps neglect led somehow to the man's death. Lydgate knows he is obligated to Bulstrode, and he is uneasy about this fact, because of Bulstrode's visitor and his demise. However, there is nothing else that he can do, since to renounce Bulstrode's help would mean ruin. Farebrother senses that Lydgate is still in a desperate condition, though his money woes are over. Lydgate admits as much, though he is now in a better position to continue his career and marriage.

Chapter 71:

It seems that Bulstrode has not effectively thwarted ruin; for Bambridge has heard how Bulstrode gained his fortune, and is ready to tell the lot of men at the Green Dragon. The story begins at this point to spread around Middlemarch, with mention of Will Ladislaw's family and how they were robbed by him too. When Bambridge mentions that the man's name was Raffles, someone present remembers that the funeral of Raffles was only the other day, that he died at Stone Court while Bulstrode was there. This looks very bad for Bulstrode; Caleb Garth confesses that he ceased all business with Bulstrode last week, which is taken as another proof of Bulstrode's wrong behavior. Also, gossip about Lydgate suddenly being able to pay his debt, but without aid from Rosamond's family, becomes public knowledge. When it is found out that he was attending on Raffles while he died, and that the money came from Bulstrode, it appears that Lydgate took a bribe so that he wouldn't tell of any foul play that happened.

All of Middlemarch is buzzing with the gossip, and people wonder whether Bulstrode can be legally stripped of his money for gaining it through illegal and immoral means. People guess that Lydgate poisoned Raffles, with the money as a bribe; all kinds of things are flying around, and have been spread all through Middlemarch before Lydgate and Bulstrode are even aware of it. Bulstrode is accused at a medical meeting, and again tries to defend himself through his services to the town. But Middlemarch opinion is against him, and believes Lydgate to be an accomplice. However, Dorothea would not see Lydgate slandered if such things proved untrue, and is determined to get the truth about the whole thing.

Chapter 72:

Dorothea is set on proving Lydgate innocent, though this may prove difficult. Farebrother would certainly like to help, but he knows from the alteration and desperation in Lydgate's character of late, that is it completely likely that Lydgate did take the bribe, to save himself. Farebrother does not blame Lydgate, but at the same time knows how good people may be tempted, and fail. Sir James is definitely against Dorothea having anything to do with this issue; but Dorothea is still determined to do a good turn for Lydgate, especially after he helped her so much when her husband died. Dorothea is not the sort of person to allow a friend to be wronged, unless he is really guilty of what he is accused of.

Chapter 73:

Lydgate is now faced with the heavy task of exonerating himself, for he stands accused among everyone in Middlemarch. He wants to be able to stand up and say that he did not take a bribe from Bulstrode, and had no complicity in Raffles' death. However, his conscience troubles him, since he wonders if he would have acted differently in the situation had Bulstrode not given him the money. Lydgate determines not to run from the town's opinion, but to bear it with all possible strength; nothing he can do can clear his name now that public opinion is set against him, so he will have to weather it as best he can.

Chapter 74:

Now that Bulstrode and Lydgate have already been judged and condemned, it is the time for the wives of Middlemarch to assess and judge how Mrs. Bulstrode and Rosamond might be to blame as well. Mrs. Bulstrode is acquitted of her husband's wrongdoing, because she is a good person, and all wrongs were done before they were even married. Rosamond is also pardoned for the most part, because she is also one of the Vincys, and has married an "interloper," as the townswomen say.

It takes Mrs. Bulstrode a while to find out what has happened with regard to her husband; she knows that he came home ill from the meeting, and seems much disturbed, but Lydgate will certainly not tell her why. Only through visiting her friends does she find out what has happened; her brother tells her everything, and she goes home, troubled at the knowledge. But though a light has been shed on her husband's character, she finds that there is no way for her to forsake him. She determines to try and live with him, and eventually to forgive him, though it will certainly be a long and painful time.

Chapter 75:

It seems that Rosamond refuses to learn any lessons from her situation; to appease her vanity, she starts to think of Will Ladislaw, and imagines that he must love her instead of Dorothea, because she is so beautiful and charming. She continues to blame her husband for her unhappiness, not her rabid materialism; everything is someone else's fault, and she is still a creature who is perfectly innocent of blame. She gets a letter from Will, saying that he will be paying a visit sometime soon; Rosamond is cheered up by this, and decides to send out invitations for a dinner party. Of course, all invitations are denied, and Rosamond is still ignorant as to the reason why; she goes to visit her parents, and they tell her the terrible news. When she goes home, she tells her husband that she has heard about everything; she then reiterates that they must go to London, to lessen her suffering. He cannot stand to hear this, and storms out, without taking the time to correct her or explain anything.

Chapter 76:

Dorothea wrote a letter to Lydgate, bidding him to come and visit her. Against Mr. Brooke and Sir James' advice, she has decided to try and clear Lydgate, if she can, and also to continue and support the hospital as well. Lydgate begins to tell her the whole truth‹they are good friends, and often feel that they can confide in each other. He tells her everything about the situation with Bulstrode, the money, and his continuing reservations about having taken it. Dorothea and Lydgate also speak of his troubles in his marriage; Dorothea senses that there is much difficulty communicating in their union, and decides to see Rosamond, and try to reassure her about her husband's worth, if she can. Dorothea would like Lydgate to stay until the negative opinion of him in the town diminishes; she would also like to see the hospital continue, under his able leadership. Lydgate determines to leave, since he has little faith that he would be able to do good at the hospital. But, Dorothea is determined to have him stay and give him aid; she decides to give him a thousand pounds to work at the hospital, and to see Rosamond the next day.

Chapter 77:

Rosamond has written a letter to Will, trying to make his visit come more quickly; she is still very unhappy with everything, and Lydgate has tried to avoid her, lest he upset her in some way. Dorothea has been thinking about Will a lot lately, as well; she still cannot help but think that he might be in love with her, though she also defends his honor fervently. Sir James and Mr. Brooke have tried to get her to see that Will is lowly, and the fact that his grandparents were Jewish pawnbrokers, though they were wealthy, means that his character is base. Dorothea, of course, will hear nothing of this; although she is not sure what Will's feelings toward her are, she is resolved to think the best of him.

However, when Dorothea gets to Rosamond's, she enters to find Rosamond crying, and Will clasping her hands. This scene upsets Dorothea, and seems to be proof that Will loves Rosamond, and not her. She rushes out, intent on attending to other errands, but still very upset and bothered by what has happened.

Chapter 78:

Will and Rosamond are shocked at being found, and in a way that would look bad to Dorothea. Will realizes suddenly what Rosamond was trying to do; Rosamond wanted it to look like Will loved her, and kept him around in order to create this impression. He blows up at her, especially when she tries her methods that usually work on Lydgate. But her ways of quietly manipulating fail with Will; he gets very angry when she intimates that Will loves her, and says that the only woman he loves, or could think of loving, was Dorothea. Rosamond is very hurt, and her illusions and vanity are finally shattered. Will was a bit harsh toward her, but this was a lesson that she desperately needed, and hopefully it will do her good.

Chapter 79:

Lydgate puts Rosamond to bed, still not totally aware of what has caused her distress. Will comes over, but Rosamond has not mentioned Will's visit earlier in the day; Will makes no mention of it to Lydgate either. Lydgate tells Will a bit of what has been going on, and that his name has also been mixed up in the proceedings. Will is not surprised, and almost does not care, because he thinks that Dorothea has already given up on him. When Lydgate mentions Dorothea's name, he notices that Will has a very peculiar reaction; he suspects that there is something between the two, and in this, he is correct.

Chapter 80:

Dorothea goes over to the Farebrothers' house, which she does very often; her visits keep her from being lonely, and also keep her from criticisms that she needs a companion. But, when Will comes up, she suddenly feels that she must leave; that evening, she finally realizes that she loved Will, although she fears that this love has been lost. By the morning, she has put aside all the remorse and anger of the previous evening; she also begins to wear new clothes, symbolic of lesser mourning, since it has been a year since Casaubon died. She resolves to go and see Rosamond again, and to offer help as she meant to do the day before.

Chapter 81:

Dorothea finds Lydgate at home, and Lydgate thanks her for giving him the money with which to pay his debt to Bulstrode. Dorothea is only too happy to have been of service; she asks him in Rosamond is in, and finds Lydgate completely unaware of what went on the previous day. Rosamond is wary at the visit, but receives her anyway, and finds her quite different from the day before, though perhaps troubled. Dorothea reassures her that her husband is a good person, and is still welcomed in Middlemarch by people of character and influence, like herself, Sir James, Mr. Brooke, and Mr. Farebrother.

Dorothea then proceeds to speak about marriage, trying to address Rosamond and Lydgate's marriage in the process. Dorothea hits on some of her own sadness though, and her anguish at the whole debacle with Will becomes apparent. Dorothea convinces Rosamond that Lydgate loves her very much, and that she needs to give the marriage a chance, because she still has his love; this cheers Rosamond up a bit, though her mind is still dazed from the previous day. Rosamond feels that she should clarify the situation with Will, so Rosamond tells her that Will was only there to explain that he loved someone other than Rosamond, and always would. Rosamond tells her this to try and exonerate herself somewhat, although Dorothea takes this statement as an expression of sympathy and goodness on Rosamond's part. Then, Lydgate enters, and the two part; neither can hold anything against the other anymore, and both their minds have been eased.

Chapter 82:

Will debates with himself whether he should leave Middlemarch altogether after the events of the previous day; in the end, he decides he cannot leave after making some amends to Rosamond after her shock. He is sorry that he got so angry at her, but at the same time, does not want to come straight out and apologize‹especially since this would mean that he would have to explain what happened to Lydgate, which is undesirable. Will does end up going, and is as affable as he can be to Rosamond, without betraying what went on before. Rosamond gives Will a note, saying that Dorothea has been told the truth about what happened; Will is somewhat relieved, but is worried about what might have transpired between Rosamond and Dorothea.

Chapter 83:

Dorothea is too agitated to set herself at any one task; she tries to memorize places on a map, before Miss Noble comes in, to greet her. Miss Noble tells her that Will is there, waiting outside, to greet her; Dorothea decides that she cannot turn him away, and has him sent into her. Dorothea is a little formal in her greeting to Will; he still cannot fathom whether she loves him or not. Will speaks to her carefully, hoping that she was not offended by the gossip attaching him to Bulstrode; Dorothea, however, knows that he has acted correctly in all things, and brightens up with affection. Will tries to say goodbye, but then is affected by passion; he says they cannot be together, yet it is a cruel thing. Dorothea decides that she cannot let him go again; she would rather give up the wealth that Casaubon has left her and go with Will, with the aid of her own fortune to support them.

Chapter 84:

Mr. Brooke, Sir James, Celia, and the Cadwalladers are all assembled at Sir James' home. Mr. Brooke has news to tell them of Dorothea and Will, and their impending marriage. Sir James is very angry, and objects strongly; he wants to try and protect Dorothea as he should have protected her from her marriage with Casaubon, though this time she does not need help. The others only consider Will's reputation and his money situation in evaluating the worth of the union; everyone still has a great deal of prejudice against Will, and much concern for Dorothea. Sir James sends Celia to go and talk her, but Dorothea is steadfast in her decision. Celia hopes for the best, though still, no one is very positive about the marriage.

Chapter 85:

Bulstrode is getting ready to leave Middlemarch, since he cannot bear the scorn and shame of being there any longer. His wife has been constant, but at the same time, she has been worn down by grief and remorse in the past few months. She would like to do something nice for her family before she goes away; they decide to give the management of Stone Court to Fred, and a decent income, so that he may be able to save some money.

Chapter 86:

Caleb Garth tells Mary that the Bulstrodes want Fred to manage Stone court; Mary is very happy, though Mr. Garth is still not sure if Fred will make her a good husband. He questions his daughter, about her love for Fred, and whether she truly thinks she can spend her life with him; she does not want to see his daughter make a huge mistake in marriage, if he can help prevent it. But Mary knows what is right to do, and has a good deal of sense; she will marry Fred, and they will probably be happy. She tells Fred about the management of Stone Court, and he is very happy; they will have to be engaged for a while so he can save money, but yet they are content with their engagement.


Mary and Fred did live happily ever after, with both of them prospering and becoming very happy in their marriage. Fred buys Stone Court, and they have three boys, two of whom resemble Fred, much to his mother's relief. Lydgate and Rosamond kept on going, but were not exceptionally happy. Lydgate was able to make a successful practice, but was not happy because he never did make any of his beloved scientific advances. Dorothea and Will were very happy together; Will goes into politics, and becomes a member of Parliament. They have a boy, who becomes the heir to Mr. Brooke's estate; the disastrous effects of disinheritance are for once avoided. Sir James allows Celia to see her sister, and Will and Dorothea make visits twice a year to Mr. Brooke's house. Dorothea is not able to make the big, sweeping impact she desired; however, she was able to spread happiness and have a wonderful family, and a very contented life.


Oliver Twist by Ch.Dickens


Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812. When Dickens was twelve years old, his father, mother, and siblings were sent to debtors' prison. Dickens did not join them; instead, he worked at the Warren Blacking Factory.

The horrific conditions in the factory haunted Dickens for the rest of his life. In 1836, he married Catherine Hogarth, but after twenty years of marriage and ten children, Dickens fell in love with Ellen Ternan, an actress. Soon after, Dickens and his wife separated, ending a long stream of marital difficulties. Dickens, always a prolific writer, continued to work long hours in his later years. He died of a stroke in 1870.

Dickens worked as a newspaper reporter as well as a professional fiction writer. Many of his works were published in serialized magazine installments. Throughout his life, Dickens combined his work in journalism and literature with a liberal helping of editorial work. He often worked on several books at the same time. Some people have accused Dickens of writing so much simply because he was paid by the word. However, it seems more likely that he had an insatiable passion for writing.

Dickens's childhood experiences with the draconian English legal system made him a life-long champion of the poor. His novels are filled with downtrodden figures like abused, impoverished orphans. He had a profound sympathy for childhood suffering that touches his work at almost every level.

These themes heavily influence Oliver Twist. The title character, a poor orphan child, wanders through Victorian society as the child of fortune or misery depending on the disposition of those he meets. He faces the malice of State institutions as well as the malice of violent criminals. His story reflects the experience of poverty in the England of his era. While the novel is often fanciful and humorous, it also has recognisably bitter undertones.

Perhaps those undertones echo the voice of the humiliated and resentful twelve-year-old Dickens who had laboured in the atrocious conditions of the Warren Blacking Factory.


Barney  is one of Fagin's criminal associates. Like Fagin, he is also Jewish.

Charley Bates  Charley Bates is one of Fagin's pickpockets. He is ready to laugh at anything. After Sekisui’s murder of Nancy, he changes his criminal ways and leads an honest life.

Mrs. Edwin  Mr. Brownlow's kind-hearted housekeeper. She is unwilling to believe Mr. Bumble's negative report of Oliver's character.

Bet  Bet is one of Fagin's former child pickpockets.

Mr. Brittles  a sort of handyman for Mrs. Maylie's estate. He has worked for Mrs. Maylie since he was a small boy.

Mr. Brownlow  Oliver's first benefactor. He owns a portrait of Oliver's mother, and was a close friend of Oliver's father. When Oliver disappears on an errand, he offers a reward of five guineas for anyone who has information about his history or his whereabouts.

Mr. Bumble  the pompous, self-important "beadle" (a minor church official) for the workhouse where Oliver is born. He delivers a bad report of Oliver to Mr. Brownlow. He marries Mrs. Corney because he hopes to gain financially as her husband. He becomes the workhouse master, giving up his office as parish beadle. He regrets both marrying Mrs. Corney and becoming the workhouse master. He and his wife accept a bribe from Monks to conceal Oliver's identity. Grimwig and Brownlow ensure that he never holds public office again after his role in Monks' schemes comes to light. As a result, he lives the rest of his life in poverty.

Bulls-Eye  Bill Sikes' dog. As brutal and vicious as his master, he functions as Sikes' alter-ego. He leaves bloody footprints in the room where Sikes murders Nancy. Sikes tries to drown him after the murder because he is afraid the dog, who follows him everywhere, will give him away to the legal authorities.

Charlotte  the Sowerberrys' maid. She becomes romantically involved with Noah Claypole, Mr. Sowerberry's charity-boy apprentice. She mistreats Oliver when Oliver is also an apprentice to the undertaker. She runs away with Noah to London after they rob the Sowerberrys. After Fagin's hanging, she helps Noah live as a con man.

Noah Claypole  Mr. Sowerberry's charity boy apprentice. He is an over-grown, cowardly bully. He mistreats Oliver when Oliver is Sowerberry's apprentice. He runs away to London with Charlotte after robbing the Sowerberrys. He joins Fagin's band as a thief. After Fagin's execution, he lives as a con man.

Mrs. Corney  the matron of the workhouse where Oliver is born. She is hypocritical and callous. She marries Mr. Bumble but soon regrets it. She accepts a bribe from Monks to conceal Oliver's identity. As a result, Grimwig and Brownlow ensure that she never holds public office again. She ends by living in poverty with her husband.

Toby Crackit  He is one of Fagin and Sikes' associates. He participates in the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.

Jack Dawkins (a.k.a. The Artful Dodger) f Jack Dawkins, The Artful Dodger, the Artful Dodger, Dodger, the Dodger g  The Dodger is one of Fagin's pickpockets. He is an intelligent, humorous little thief. He introduces Oliver to Fagin.

Du_ and Blathers  Du_ and Blathers are the two bumbling police Officers who investigate the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.

Fagin  a conniving career criminal. He gathers homeless boys under his wing and teaches them to pick pockets for him. He also serves as a fence for other people's stolen goods. He rarely commits crimes himself because he employs others to commit them for him. He schemes with Monks to keep Oliver's identity a secret. Dickens portrays Fagin using extremely negative anti-Semitic stereotypes.

Mr. Fang  the harsh, judgmental, power-hungry magistrate who presides over Oliver's trial for pickpocketing.

Agnes Fleming  She is Oliver's mother, who gave birth to Oliver out of wedlock. To save her father and her sister from the shame of her condition, she ran away during her pregnancy. She died immediately after giving birth to Oliver in a workhouse.

Mr. Gamfeld  Mr. Gamfeld is a brutal chimney-sweep. Oliver almost becomes his apprentice.

Mr. Giles   Mrs. Maylie's butler. He shoots Oliver during the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.

Mr. Grimwig  Brownlow's pessimistic, curmudgeonly friend. He tells Brownlow that Oliver is probably a boy of immoral and idle habits.

Mr. Leeford  Oliver and Monks' father. His first marriage was forced on him by his family for economic reasons. He separated from his wife and had a love affair with Agnes Fleming, Oliver's mother.

Mr. Losberne  He is Mrs. Maylie's family physician. He conceals Oliver's role in the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home from the legal authorities.

Mrs. Mann  She superintends the juvenile workhouse where Oliver spends the first nine years of his life. She steals from the stipend meant for the care of the children living in her establishment. She physically abuses and half-starves the children in her care.

Mrs. Maylie  She is a kind, generous woman. She takes pity on Rose when she finds her as a nameless, penniless orphan child. She welcomes Oliver in after he shows up on her doorstep, half-dead from the gunshot wound he suffered during the attempted burglary of her home. Her son, Harry, marries Rose.

Harry Maylie  He is Mrs. Maylie's son. He gives up his political ambitions in order to marry Rose.

Rose Maylie  She is Agnes Fleming's sister. Agnes and her father died when she was very young. Mrs. Maylie took her in and raised her as her own. She is kind and forgiving. She marries Harry Maylie.

Mr. Monks  He is Leeford's first son, and Oliver's brother. He schemes to conceal Oliver's identity because he wants his father's wealth all to himself.

Nancy  She is one of Fagin's former child pickpockets. She tries to save Oliver from being corrupted by Fagin's lifestyle. She is also Bill Sikes's lover. Sikes murders her after he learns of her contact with Brownlow and Rose.

Old Sally  She is the nurse who attends Oliver's birth. She steals Agnes' gold locket, the only clue to Oliver's identity.

Bill Sikes  He is a professional burglar. He is also a brutal alcoholic. He attempts to rob Mrs. Maylie's home. He leaves Oliver lying in a ditch after he is wounded in the burglary. He murders Nancy in a _t of rage after Fagin tells him that she has contacted Brownlow and Rose.

Mr. Slout  He is the workhouse master before Mr. Bumble assumes the office.

Mr. Sowerberry  He is the undertaker for the parish where Oliver is born. He tries to be kind to Oliver when Oliver is his apprentice, but he succumbs to his wife's pressure to beat Oliver for his physical confrontation with Noah.

Mrs. Sowerberry  She is a mean, judgmental woman. She mistreats and underfeeds Oliver when he is Mr. Sowerberry's apprentice. She pressures her husband to beat Oliver for his physical confrontation with Noah.

Oliver Twist  He is the protagonist of the novel. He is born a poor, nameless orphan in a workhouse. He represents the misery of poverty in 1830's England. His identity is the central mystery of the novel. He is the illegitimate son of Mr. Leeford, a wealthy Englishman. His evil brother, Monks, schemes to deprive him of his share of their father's wealth.


Overall Summary

Oliver Twist provides insight into the experience of the poor in 1830s England. Beneath the novels raucous humor and flights of fancy runs an undertone of bitter criticism of the Victorian middle class's attitudes toward the poor. Dickens's scathing satire remains the hypocrisy and venality of the legal system, workhouses, and middle class moral values and marriage practices of 1830s England.

As a child, Dickens endured the harsh conditions of poverty. His family was imprisoned for debt, and Dickens was forced to work in a factory at age twelve. These experiences haunted him for the rest of his life. The misery of impoverished childhood is a recurrent theme in his novels. Oliver Twist epitomizes the unfortunate situation of the orphaned pauper child. Oliver suffers the cruelty of hypocritical workhouse officials, prejudiced judges, and hardened criminals. Throughout the novel, his virtuous nature survives the unbelievable misery of his situation.

Oliver's experiences demonstrate the legal silence and invisibility of the poor. In 1830s England, wealth determined voting rights. Therefore, paupers had no say in the laws that governed their lives, and the Poor Laws strictly regulated the ability to seek relief. Since begging was illegal, workhouses were the only sources of relief. The workhouses were made to be deliberately unpleasant in order to discourage paupers from seeking their relief. The Victorian middle class assumed that the poor were impoverished due to lassitude and immorality. Since the poor had no voting rights, the State chose to recognize their existence only when they commited crimes, died, or entered the workhouses.

Dickens' Oliver Twist is one sympathetic portrayal among dozens of vicious, stereotypical portrayals of the poor. However, Dickens himself exhibits middle class prejudice. He reproduces the worst anti-Semitic stereotypes in Fagin, the "villainous old Jew." The portrayal of Noah Claypole, the dirty charity boy, reveals some of the stereotypes of the poor that Dickens criticizes. Monks, Oliver's evil half-brother, is "bad from birth," although Dickens clearly satirizes the middle class's belief that the poor are born criminals.

These inconsistencies weaken the larger impact of Dickens' crusade against the abuses levelled against the poor.

Oliver Twist is not considered one of Dickens's best novels. The plot is convoluted and often ridiculous. However, it merits study for its scathing critique of Victorian middle class attitudes towards poverty.

Chapters 1-4


Oliver Twist is born a sickly infant in a workhouse. His birth is attended by the parish surgeon and a drunken nurse. His mother kisses his forehead and dies, and the nurse announces that Oliver's mother was found lying in the streets the night before. The surgeon notices that she is not wearing a wedding ring.

Oliver remains at the workhouse for about nine months, until the authorities hear of his "hungry and destitute situation." They send him to a branch-workhouse for juvenile offenders against the poor laws. The overseer, Mrs. Mann, receives an adequate sum for each child's upkeep, but she keeps most of the money and lets the children go hungry. Since she receives advance warning of upcoming inspections, her establishment always appears neat and clean for the inspectors.

On Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle (a minor church official), informs Mrs. Mann that Oliver is too old to stay at her establishment. Since no one has been able to locate his father or discover his mother's identity, it has been decided that he must return to the workhouse.

Mrs. Mann asks how the boy came to have any name at all. Mr. Bumble tells her that he keeps a list of names in alphabetical order, naming the orphans from the list as they are born. Mrs. Mann fetches Oliver. When Mr. Bumble is not looking, she glowers and shakes her fist at Oliver. He stays silent about the miserable conditions at her establishment. Before he departs, Mrs. Mann gives him some bread and butter so that he will not seem too hungry at the work house.

The workhouse offers the poor the opportunity to starve slowly as opposed to starving quickly on the streets. The undertaker's bill is a major budget item due to the large number of deaths. Oliver and his young companions suffer the "tortures of slow starvation." After lots are cast, it falls to Oliver to ask for more food at supper. His request so shocks the authorities that they offer five pounds reward to anyone who will take Oliver o_ the hands of the parish. They lock him in a dark room, taking him out only to wash and eat, and ogging him all the while as a public example.

Mr. Gamfield, a brutish chimney sweep, offers to take Oliver as an apprentice. Because several boys have died under his supervision, the board considers five pounds too large a reward. After acrimonious negotiation, they settle on just over three pounds. Mr. Bumble, Mr. Gamfield, and Oliver appear before a magistrate to seal the bargain. At the last minute, the magistrate notices Oliver's pale, alarmed face. He asks the boy why he looks so terrified. Oliver falls on his knees and begs that he be locked in a room, beaten, killed, or anything besides being apprenticed to Mr. Gamfield. The magistrate refuses to approve the apprenticeship, and the workhouse authorities again advertise Oliver's availability.

The workhouse board considers sending Oliver out to sea as a cabin boy, expected that he would die quickly in such miserable conditions. However, Mr. Sowerberry, the parish undertaker, takes Oliver on as his apprentice.

Mr. Bumble informs Oliver that he will suffer dire consequences if he ever complains about his situation. Mrs. Sowerberry remarks that Oliver is rather small. Mr. Bumble assures her that he will grow, but she grumbles that he will grow by eating their food. She serves Oliver the left-overs that the dog has declined to eat. Oliver devours the food as though it were a great feast.

After he finishes, Mrs. Sowerberry leads him to his bed, worrying that his appetite seems so large.

Chapters 5-8


In the morning, Noah Claypole, Mr. Sowerberry's charity-boy apprentice, awakens Oliver. He and Charlotte, the maid, taunt Oliver during breakfast.

Oliver accompanies Sowerberry to a pauper's burial. The husband of the deceased delivers a tearful tirade against his wife's death by starvation. He says that he once tried to beg for her, but the authorities sent him to prison for the offense. The deceased's mother begs for some bread and a cloak to wear for the funeral.

At the graveyard before the funeral, some ragged boys play hide and seek among the gravestones and jump back and forth over the coffin to amuse themselves. Mr. Bumble beats a few of the boys to keep up appearances.

The clergyman performs the service in four minutes. Mr. Bumble ushers the grieving family out of the cemetery, and Mr. Sowerberry takes the cloak away from the dead woman's mother. Oliver decides that he is not at all fond of the undertaking business.

A measles epidemic arrives, and Oliver gains extensive experience in undertaking. His master dresses him well so that he can march in the processions. Oliver notes that the relatives of deceased wealthy elderly people quickly overcome their grief after the funeral. Their fortitude in the face of loss impresses him.

Noah becomes increasingly jealous of Oliver's speedy advancement. One day, he insults Oliver's dead mother. Oliver attacks him in a _t of rage.

Charlotte and Mrs. Sowerberry rush to Noah's aid, and the three of them beat Oliver and lock him in the cellar. Noah rushes to fetch Mr. Bumble, sobbing and convulsing so that his injuries appear much worse than they are.

Mr. Bumble informs Mrs. Sowerberry that feeding meat to Oliver gives him more spirit than is appropriate to his station in life. Still enraged, Oliver kicks at the cellar door. Sowerberry returns home and gives Oliver a sound thrashing and locks him up again. Oliver's rage dissipates, and he dissolves into tears. Early the next morning, he runs away.

Oliver decides to walk the seventy miles to London. Hunger, cold, and fatigue weaken him over the next seven days. Apart from an old woman and a kind turnpike man, many people are cruel to him during his journey.

In one village, signs warn against begging under the penalty of jail. Oliver limps into a small town where he collapses in a doorway. He notices a boy his age staring at him.

The boy, named Jack Dawkins, wears a man's clothing and acts much older than his age. He purchases a large lunch for Oliver and informs him that he knows a "gentleman" in London who will lodge him for free. Oliver learns that Jack's nickname is "The Artful Dodger." He guesses from the Dodger's appearance that his way of life is immoral. He plans to ingratiate himself with the gentleman in London and then end all association with the Dodger.

That night, Jack takes Oliver to a squalid London neighborhood. At a dilapidated house, Jack calls out a password, and a man allows them to enter.

Jack conducts Oliver into a filthy, black back-room where a "shrivelled old Jew" named Fagin and some boys are having supper. Silk handkerchiefs hang everywhere. The boys smoke pipes and drink liquor although none appear older than the Dodger. Oliver takes a share of the dinner and sinks into a deep sleep.

Chapters 9-12


The next morning, Fagin takes out a box full of jewelry and watches. He notices Oliver observing him. Grabbing a bread knife, he asks Oliver if he had been awake an hour before. Oliver denies it, and Fagin instantly regains his kindly demeanor.

The Artful Dodger returns with another boy, named Charley Bates, with rolls and hams for breakfast. Fagin asks if they worked hard that morning.

The Dodger produces two pocket-books, and Charley pulls out four handkerchiefs. Fagin replies that they will have to teach Oliver how to pick out the marks with a needle. Oliver does not know that he has joined a band of pick-pockets, so he believes their sarcastic jokes about teaching him how to make handkerchiefs and pocket-books.

Dodger and Charley practice picking Fagin's pockets. Two young women, Bet and Nancy, drop in for drinks. Fagin gives the all of them some money and sends them out. Fagin lets Oliver practice taking a handkerchief out of his pocket and gives him a shilling for a job well done. He begins teaching him to remove marks from the handkerchiefs.

For days, Fagin keeps Oliver indoors practicing the art of pickpocketting and removing the marks from handkerchiefs. He notices that Fagin punishes the Dodger and Charley if they return home empty-handed. Finally, Fagin sends him out to "work."

After some time, the Dodger notices a wealthy gentleman absorbed in reading at a bookstall. Oliver watches with horror as they sneak up behind the man and steal his handkerchief. In a rush, he understands what Fagin's idea of "work" means.

The gentleman turns just in time to see Oliver running away. Thinking that Oliver is the thief, he raises a cry. The Dodger and Charley see Oliver running past them, so they join in the cries of, "Stop thief!" A large crowd joins the pursuit. A man punches Oliver, knocking him to the pavement.

The gentleman arrives, giving that man a look of disgust. A police officer arrives and grabs Oliver's collar, ignoring the boy's protests of his innocence.

The gentleman asks him not to hurt Oliver and follows the officer as he drags Oliver down the street. The officer locks Oliver in a jail cell to await his appearance before Mr. Fang, the district magistrate. Mr. Brownlow, the gentleman, protests that he does not want to press charges. He thinks he recognizes something in Oliver's face, but cannot put his finger on it. Oliver faints in the courtroom, and Mr. Fang sentences him to three months of hard labour. The owner of the bookstall rushes in and tells Mr. Fang that two other boys committed the crime. Oliver is cleared of all charges. Pitying the poor, sickly child, Brownlow takes Oliver into a coach with him and drives away.

Oliver lies in a delirious fever for days. When he awakes, Brownlow's kindly housekeeper, Mrs. Bedwin is watching over him. He says that he feels as if his mother had come to sit by him. The story of Oliver's pitiful orphanhood brings tears to her eyes. Once he is strong enough to sit in an easy-chair, Mrs. Bedwin carries him downstairs to her room. A portrait of a young woman catches Oliver's eye. It seems to affect him so much, that Mrs. Bedwin fears the emotion will wear him out. She turns the chair away from the picture.

Mr. Brownlow drops in to see how Oliver was faring. Tears come to his eyes when Oliver tries to stand, but collapses from weakness. Oliver thanks him for his kindness. Brownlow exclaims with astonishment that Oliver so closely resembles the portrait of the young lady. Brownlow's exclamation startles Oliver so much that he faints.

Chapters 13-15


Fagin erupts into a rage when the Dodger and Charley return without Oliver. He tosses a pot of beer at Charley, but hits Bill Sikes instead. Sikes is a rough and cruel man who makes his living by robbing houses. They resolve to find Oliver before he snitches on their entire operation. They persuade Nancy to go to the police station to find out what happened to him.

Nancy dresses respectably and presents herself at the station as Oliver's distraught "sister." She learns that the gentleman from whom the hankerchief was stolen took Oliver home with him to the neighborhood of Pentonville because the boy had fallen ill during the proceedings. Fagin sends Charley, the Dodger, and Nancy to Pentonville to find Oliver. He decides to shut down his operation and relocate. He fills his pockets with the watches and jewelry from the hidden box after they leave.

When Oliver next enters the housekeeper's room he notices that the portrait is gone. Mrs. Bedwin states that Brownlow removed it because it seemed to "worry" him. Oliver asks no more questions. One day, Brownlow sends for Oliver to meet him in his study. Thinking that Brownlow means to send him away, Oliver begs to remain as a servant. Brownlow assures him that he means to be his friend. He asks Oliver to tell him his history. Before Oliver can begin, Brownlow's friend, Mr. Grimwig, arrives to visit.

Grimwig, a crusty old curmudgeon, hints that Oliver might be a boy of bad habits and idle ways. Brownlow bears his friend's eccentric irascibility with good humor. Mrs. Bedwin brings in a parcel of books delivered by the bookstall keeper's boy. Brownlow tells her to stop the boy because he wishes to send his payment and some returns back with him. However, the boy has disappeared from sight. Grimwig suggests that he send Oliver, but hints that he might steal the payment and the books. Wishing to prove Grimwig wrong, Brownlow sends Oliver on the errand. It grows dark and Oliver does not return.

Oliver takes a wrong turn on the way to the bookstall. Suddenly Nancy jumps out of nowhere. She tells everyone on the street that Oliver is her runaway brother. She announces that he joined a band of thieves and that she is taking him back home to their parents. Everyone ignores Olive's protests. Bill Sikes runs out of a beer shop and they drag him through the dark, narrow backstreets.

Nancy and Sikes take Oliver to a dilapidated house in a squalid neighborhood. Fagin, the Dodger, and Charley laugh hysterically at his clothing.

He tries to escape, calling for help. Sikes threatens to set his vicious dog, Bulls-Eye, on him. Nancy leaps to Oliver's defense, saying that they have ruined all his good prospects. She has worked for Fagin since she was a small child, and she knows that cold, dank streets and a life of bad repute lay in wait for Oliver. Fagin tries to beat Oliver for his escape attempt, and Nancy fles at Fagin in a rage. Sikes catches her by the wrists, and she faints. They strip Oliver of his clothing, Brownlow's money, and the books. Fagin returns his old clothing to him and sends him to bed. Oliver had given the clothing to Mrs. Bedwin to sell to a Jew; the Jew then delivered the clothing to Fagin, thus giving him his first clue to Oliver's whereabouts.

Chapters 16-22


Mr. Brownlow publishes an advertisement offering a reward of five guineas for information about Oliver's whereabouts or his past. Mr. Bumble notices it in the paper while traveling to London. He quickly goes to Brownlow's home. Mr. Bumble states that, since birth, Oliver had displayed nothing but "treachery, ingratitude, and malice." Brownlow decides Oliver is nothing but an impostor, but Mrs. Bedwin refuses to believe it.

Fagin leaves Oliver locked up in the house for days. From morning until midnight, Oliver has no human company. Dodger and Charley ask him why he does not just give himself over to Fagin since the money comes quickly and easily. Fagin gradually allows Oliver to spend more time in the other boys' company. Sometimes, Fagin himself regales his crew with funny stories of robberies he committed in his youth. Oliver often laughs at the stories despite himself. Fagin's plan has been to isolate Oliver until he comes to desire any human contact, even Fagin's. He begins to win Oliver over to his lifestyle.

Sikes plans to rob a house, but he needs a small boy for the job. Fagin offers Oliver for the work. Sikes warns that he will kill Oliver if he betrays any signs of hesitation during the robbery. Fagin assures him that he has won Oliver over in spirit, but he wants Oliver to take part in a serious crime in order to firmly seal the boy in his power. Sikes arranges to have Nancy deliver Oliver to the scene. Fagin watches Nancy for any signs of hesitation.

She once railed against trapping Oliver into a life of crime, but she seems to betray no further misgivings about doing her part to include Oliver in the robbery.

Fagin informs Oliver that he will be taken to Sikes' residence that night. He gives Oliver a book to read. Oliver waits, shivering in horror at the book's bloody tales of famous criminals and murderers. Nancy arrives to take him away. Oliver considers calling for help on the streets. Reading his thoughts on his face, Nancy warns him that he could get both of them into deep trouble. They arrive at Sikes' residence, and Sikes shows Oliver a pistol. He warns Oliver that if he causes any trouble, he will kill him. At five in the morning, they prepare to leave for the job.

Sikes takes Oliver on a long journey to the town of Shepperton. They arrive after dark. Sikes leads him to a decayed, ruinous house where his partners-in- crime, Toby Crackit and Barney, are waiting. At half past one, Sikes and Crackit set out with Oliver. They arrive at the targeted house and climb over the wall surrounding it. Oliver begs Sikes to let him go. Sikes curses and prepares to shoot him, but Crackit knocks the pistol away, saying that gunfire will draw attention.

Crackit clasps his hand over Oliver's mouth while Sikes pries open a tiny window. Sikes instructs Oliver to take a lantern and open the street door to let them inside, reminding him that he is within shooting range all the while. Oliver plans to dash for the stairs and warn the family. Sikes lowers him through the window. However, the residents of the house awake and one shoots Oliver. Sikes pulls him back through the window. He and Crackit flee with Oliver.

Chapters 23-28

At the workhouse, Mr. Bumble visits Mrs. Corney, the matron of the establishment, to deliver some wine for the infirmary. She invites him tea. They flirt while he slowly moves his chair closer to hers, and he plants a kiss on her lips. An old pauper woman interrupts them to report that Old Sally is close to death. She wishes to tell Mrs. Corney something before she dies.

Irritated at the interruption, Mrs. Corney leaves Bumble alone in her room. Mrs. Corney enters Old Sally's room. The dying woman awakes and asks that her two elderly bedside companions be sent away. Once alone, she confesses that she once robbed a woman in her care. The woman had been found on the road close to childbirth. She had a gold locket that she gave to Old Sally for safe keeping. She said that if her child lived, the locket might lead to some people who would care for it. The child's name was Oliver.

Sally shudders and dies, and Mrs. Corney steps out of the room. She tells the nurses who attended Sally that she had nothing to say, after all. Crackit arrives at Fagin's. Fagin has learned from the newspapers that the robbery has failed. Crackit informs Fagin that Oliver was shot during the attempted break-in. He reports that the entire population in the area surrounding the targeted house then chased after them. He and Sikes fled, leaving Oliver lying in a ditch.

Fagin rushes out to a bar to look for a man named Monks. Not finding him, he hurries to Sikes' residence, where Nancy is in a drunken stupor. She says that Sikes is hiding. He relates the news of Oliver's misfortune, and Nancy cries that she wishes that Oliver is dead because living in Fagin's style is worse. Fagin replies that Oliver is worth hundreds of pounds to him. He returns to his house to find Monks waiting for him. Monks asks why he sent Oliver out on such a mission rather than making the boy into a simple pickpocket. Fagin replies that Oliver was not easily enticed into the profession, so he needed a crime with which to frighten him. Apparently Monks had been searching for Oliver when he spotted him on Oliver's fateful first day out with the Artful Dodger and Charley.

Mrs. Corney returns to her room in a ustered state, and she and Mr. Bumble drink spiked peppermint together. They flirt and kiss. Bumble mentions that Mr. Slout, the master of the workhouse, is on his deathbed. He hints that he could fill the vacancy and marry her. She blushes and consents to his proposal. Bumble travels to inform Sowerberry that his services will be needed for Old Sally. He happens upon Charlotte feeding Noah Claypole oysters in the kitchen. When Noah tells Charlotte he wants to kiss her, Bumble thunders in to preach against their immoral ways.

The night after the failed robbery, Oliver awakes in a delirium. He happens upon the very same house Sikes tried to rob. Inside, Mr. Giles and Mr. Brittles, two of the servants, regale the other servants with the details of the night's events. They present themselves as intrepid heroes although they had been terrified. Oliver's feeble knock at the door frightens everyone. They gather around in breathless fear as Brittles opens the door to find Oliver lying there. They exclaim that Oliver is one of the thieves and drag him inside. The niece of the wealthy mistress of the mansion calls downstairs to ask if the poor creature is badly wounded. She sends Brittles to fetch a doctor and constable while Giles gently carries Oliver upstairs.

Chapters 29-32

Mrs. Maylie, the mistress of the house at which Oliver had been shot, is a kindly old-fashioned elderly woman. Her niece, Miss Rose, is an angelic beauty of seventeen years of age. Mr. Losberne, the eccentric bachelor surgeon, arrives in a uster, stating his wonderment at the fact that neither woman is dead of fright at having a burglar in their house. He attends to Oliver for a long while before asking the women if they have actually seen the thief. Giles has enjoyed the commendations for his bravery, so he does not want to tell them that the one he shot is such a small boy. The ladies accompany the surgeon to see the culprit for the first time.

Upon seeing Oliver, Miss Rose exclaims that he cannot possibly be a burglar unless he was forced into the trade by older, evil men. She begs her aunt not to send the child to prison. Mrs. Maylie replies that she intends no such thing. They wait all day for Oliver to awake in order to determine whether he is a "bad one" or not. Oliver relates his life history to them that evening, bringing tears to the eyes of his audience. Mr. Losberne hurries downstairs and asks if Giles and Brittles can swear before the constable that Oliver is the same boy they saw in the house the night before. Meanwhile, the Bow Street Officers, summoned by Brittles that morning, arrive to assess the situation.

Du_ and Blathers, the Officers, examine the crime scene while the surgeon and the women try to think of a way to conceal Oliver's part in the crime. The Officers determine that two men and a boy were involved judging from the footprints and the size of the window. Mr. Losberne tells them that Giles merely mistook Oliver for the guilty party. He tells them that Oliver was wounded accidentally by a spring-gun while trespassing on a neighbor's property. Giles and Brittles state that they cannot swear that he is the boy they saw that night. The Officers depart and the matter is settled without incident.

Over a period of weeks, Oliver slowly begins to recover. He begs for some way to repay his benefactors kindness. They tell him he can do so after he recovers his health. He laments not being able to tell Brownlow and Mrs. Bedwin what has happened to him. Mr. Losberne takes Oliver to London to see them. To Oliver's bitter disappointment, he and Losberne discover that Brownlow, Mrs. Bedwin, and Mr. Grimwig have moved to the West Indies. Mrs. Maylie and Miss Rose take him to the country where his health improves vastly, as do his reading and writing. He and the ladies become greatly attached to each other over the three months they spend there.

Chapters 33-37

Without warning, Miss Rose falls ill with a serious fever. Mrs. Maylie sends Oliver to take a letter requesting Losberne's assistance to an inn where it can be dispatched immediately. Oliver runs the whole four miles to the inn. On his return journey, he stumbles against a tall man wrapped in a cloak. The man curses Oliver, asks what he is doing there, and then falls violently to the ground, "writhing and foaming." Oliver secures help for man before he returns home and forgets the incident entirely. Miss Rose worsens rapidly.

Losberne arrives and examines her. He states there is little hope for her recovery. However, Miss Rose draws back from the brink of death. Giles and Harry Maylie, Mrs. Maylie's son, arrive to see Miss Rose. Harry is angry that his mother has not written him sooner. Mrs. Maylie replies that Miss Rose needs long-lasting love, not the whims of a youthful suitor.

She states that an ambitious man can marry a woman "on whose name there is a stain" fully believing he loves her, but that when the "cold and sordid people" approach his family, he may regret his decision and thus cause his wife pain. Harry declares that his love for Miss Rose is solid and lasting. While Rose recovers, Oliver and Harry collect flowers for her room. One day Oliver falls asleep reading by a window. He has a nightmare that Fagin and a man are pointing at him and whispering. Fagin says, "It is he, sure enough!" Oliver awakes to see Fagin and the man from the inn-yard peering through the window at him. They disappear rapidly as Oliver calls for help.

Harry and Giles rush to Oliver's aid. Upon hearing about Fagin and the man, they search the fields around the house, but they find no trace of them. They circulate a description of Fagin around the surrounding neighborhoods, but find no clues to his whereabouts. Harry declares his love to Rose. Although she returns his love, she says she cannot marry him owing to the circumstances of her birth. His station is much higher than hers, and she does not want to weight down his ambitions. Harry states that he will return to press his suit once more, but that, if she holds to her resolution, he will not mention it again.

Before he and Losberne depart, Harry asks that Oliver secretly write him a letter every two weeks. He asks that Oliver tell him everything he and the ladies do and say to one another. Crying with grief and sorrow, Rose watches the coach with Harry and Losberne inside until it is out of sight.

Mr. Bumble has married Mrs. Corney and become the master of the workhouse. He regrets giving up his position as beadle, and he regrets giving up his situation as a single man even more. After a morning of humiliating bickering with his wife, he stops in a bar for a drink. A man in a dark cape is sitting there, and he recognizes Mr. Bumble as the former beadle. He bribes Mr. Bumble for information leading to Old Sally, the woman who nursed Oliver's mother the night she gave birth. Mr. Bumble informs him that Old Sally is dead, but he mentions that he knows a woman who attended the old woman's deathbed ramblings. The man asks that Mr. Bumble bring this woman to see him at his address the following evening. He gives his name as Monks.

Chapters 38-41

One night, during a storm, Mr. Bumble and his wife travel to a sordid section of town near a swollen river to meet Mr. Monks in a much decayed building.

While Mr. Bumble shivers in fear, Mrs. Bumble coolly bargains with Monks for the price of her information . They settle on a price of twenty-five gold pounds. Mrs. Bumble relates the information of Old Sally's robbery of Oliver's mother. Mrs. Bumble had discovered a ragged, dirty pawnbroker's receipt in Sally's clutching, dead hands, and had redeemed the receipt for the gold locket. She hands the locket to Monks. Inside, he finds a wedding ring and two locks of hair. The name "Agnes" is engraved on the ring along with a blank for the surname. A date that is less than a year before Oliver's birth follows it. Monks ties the locket to a lead weight and drops it into the swirling river.

Bill Sikes is ill with a terrible fever. Nancy nurses him anxiously despite his abuse and surly attitude. Fagin and his crew drop in to deliver some wine and food. Sikes demands that Fagin give him some money. Nancy and Fagin travel to Fagin's haunt where Fagin is about to delve into his store of cash when Monks arrives and asks to speak to Fagin alone. Fagin takes his visitor to a secluded room, but Nancy follows them and eavesdrops.

After Monks departs, Fagin gives Nancy the money. Nancy, perturbed by what she has heard, dashes into the streets in the opposite direction of Sikes' residence. Thinking better of it, she returns to deliver the money to Sikes.

Sikes does not notice her changed, nervous attitude until a few days pass. Sensing something in the air, he demands that Nancy sit with him. After he sinks into sleep, Nancy hastens to a hotel in a wealthy section of town. She begs the servants to allow her to speak to Miss Maylie, who is staying there.

They conduct her upstairs. Nancy confesses that she was the one who kidnapped Oliver on his errand for Mr. Brownlow. She relates that she overheard Monks tell Fagin that he is Oliver's older brother. Monks wants Oliver's identity to remain unknown forever so that he has unchallenged claim to his share of their inheritance. He would kill Oliver if he could do so without endangering himself. He has also promised to pay a sum to Fagin should Oliver ever be recovered. Miss Rose begs Nancy to accept her help in leaving her life of crime behind. Nancy replies that she cannot because she is drawn back to Sikes despite his abusive ways. She refuses to accept any money. Before leaving, Nancy informs Miss Rose that she can be found on London Bridge between eleven and twelve every Sunday night in case Miss Rose should need her testimony again.

Oliver rushes in to tell Miss Rose that he saw Mr. Brownlow going into a house. He and Mr. Giles have ascertained that Brownlow lives there, so Miss Rose immediately takes Oliver to see his old benefactor. She meets Mr. Brownlow in his parlor while Mr. Grimwig is visiting. Miss Rose tells him that Oliver has wanted to see him and thank him for his kind help two years past. Once they are alone, she relates Nancy's strange story.

Oliver is brought in to see Brownlow and Mrs. Bedwin. After their happy reunion, Brownlow and Miss Rose relay Nancy's information to Mrs. Maylie and Losberne. Brownlow asks if he can include Grimwig in the matter. Losberne agrees on the condition that they include Harry. They agree to keep everything a secret from Oliver and decide to contact Nancy the following Sunday on London Bridge.

Chapters 42-48

Noah Claypole and Charlotte flee to London after robbing Mr. Sowerberry. They take a room in an inn, where they meet Fagin and Barney. Fagin invites Noah to join in the thieving trade. He gives him the assignment of robbing children who are running errands for their mothers. After meeting Fagin at his home, Noah learns that Fagin's best pick-pocket, the Artful Dodger, has been arrested for stealing a handkerchief. Noah's first job is to go to the police station to watch the Dodger's appearance before the magistrate. The Dodger, joking and bantering all the while, is convicted of the crime. Noah hurries back to tell Fagin the news.

Fagin and Sikes are talking when Nancy tries to leave at eleven on Sunday to go to London Bridge. Out of pure obstinacy, Sikes refuses to let her go. He drags her into another room and restrains her struggles for an hour. When he departs, Fagin asks that Nancy light his way downstairs with a candle. He whispers to her that he will help her leave the brute Sikes if she wants.

Fagin imagines that Nancy had wanted to meet a new lover that night. He hopes to bring her new love into the fold with her help, but he also hopes to persuade Nancy to poison Sikes to death. In such a way, he can re-establish his control over her and bring her back into the business. He plans to watch her in order to discover the identity of her new love because he hopes to blackmail Nancy into re-joining his crew with this information.

Fagin tells Noah he will pay him a pound to follow Nancy around and find out where she goes and to whom she speaks. He waits until the following Sunday to take Noah to Sikes' residence. At eleven, Nancy leaves the room she shares with Sikes because he is out on a job that night. Noah follows her down the street at a discreet distance.

Nancy meets Mr. Brownlow and Miss Rose and draws them into a dark, secluded spot. Noah listens to Nancy beg them to ensure that none of her associates get into trouble because of her choice to help Oliver. They agree, and Nancy tells them when they will most likely see Monks visiting Fagin.

They hope to catch Monks and force the truth of Oliver's history from him. Nancy's description of Monks startles them. Miss Rose realizes that Monks is the same man who, with Fagin, had startled Oliver awake by watching him through the window at the country cottage. Brownlow begs Nancy to accept their help, but she refuses, saying that she is chained to her life. They leave Nancy alone and speed away. After Nancy makes her way home, Noah runs as fast as he can to Fagin's house.

When Sikes delivers some stolen goods to Fagin that night, Fagin and Noah relate the details of Nancy's trip to London bridge. In a rage, Sikes rushes home and beats Nancy to death while she begs for mercy. In the morning, he flees London, thinking that everyone looks at him suspiciously. He stops at an inn to eat and drink. Seeing a blood-stain on Sikes's hat, but not recognizing it for what it is, a salesman grabs it to demonstrate the quality of his stain-remover. Sikes grabs it and flees the inn. He overhears some men talking about a murdered woman in London at the post-office. He wanders the road, hallucinating that Nancy's ghost is following him. Sikes finally decides to return to London and hide. However, he knows that his dog, Bulls-Eye, will give him away because everyone knows it follows him everywhere. He tries to drown the animal, but it escapes.

Chapters 49-53

Meanwhile, Mr. Brownlow has captured Monks, whose real name is Edward Leeford. Brownlow was a good friend of his father, Mr. Leeford, who was a young man when his family forced him to marry a woman ten years older than he. The couple eventually separated, and Monks and his mother went to Paris. Leeford fell in love with a military man's daughter who became pregnant with Oliver. The relative who had benefited most from Leeford's forced marriage repented and left him a fortune. Leeford left a portrait of his beloved in Brownlow's care while he went to take possession of his inheritance.

His wife, hearing of his good fortune, travelled with Monks to meet him there. However, Leeford took ill and died without a will, so his newfound fortune fell to his wife and son. Brownlow reports that he knows that Monks's mother Leeford had no will because his wife had actually burned. Leeford's wife and son then lived in the West Indies on their ill-gotten fortune which is where Brownlow went to find Monks after Oliver was kidnapped, Oliver's startling resemblance to the woman in the portrait, his mother, having bothered his conscience too much. Meanwhile, the search for Sikes continues.

Crackit flees to Jacob's Island to hide after Fagin and Noah are captured. They find Sikes' dog waiting for them in the house that serves as their hiding place. Sikes follows soon thereafter. Charley Bates arrives and attacks the murderer, calling for the others to help him. The search party and an angry mob arrive demanding justice. Sikes climbs onto the roof with a rope with the hopes of lowering himself to escape in the midst of the confusion. However, he loses his balance when he imagines that Nancy's ghost is after him. The rope catches around his neck, and he falls to his death with his head in an accidental noose.

Oliver and his friends travel to the town of his birth, with Monks in tow, to meet Mr. Grimwig. There, Monks reveals that he and his mother found a letter and a will after his father's death, both of which they destroyed. The letter was addressed to Agnes Fleming, Oliver's mother, and it contained a confession from Leeford about his marriage. The will stated that if his illegitimate child was born a girl, it was to inherit the estate unconditionally.

If it was born a boy, it was to inherit the estate only if it committed no illegal or guilty act. Otherwise, Monks and his mother were to receive the fortune. Upon learning of his daughter's shame, Agnes' father fled and changed his family's name. Agnes left to save her family the shame of her condition, and her father died soon thereafter of a broken heart. His other small daughter was taken in by a poor couple who died in their own time. Mrs. Maylie took pity on the little girl and raised her as her niece. That child is Miss Rose. Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Bumble (the former Mrs. Corney) are forced to confess their part in concealing Oliver's history, and Mr. Grimwig takes measure to ensure they never hold public office again. Harry gives up his political ambitions and becomes a clergyman. He persuades Rose to marry him.

Fagin is sentenced to death by hanging for being an accomplice to murder. Noah receives a pardon for his testimony against Fagin. Charley eventually turns to an honest life. Brownlow arranges for the remains of Monks' property to be sold and the proceeds divided between Monks and Oliver. Monks travels to the New World where he squanders his share and turns to a life of vice for which he is arrested. He dies in a prison. Brownlow adopts Oliver as his son. He, Losberne, and Grimwig t take up residence near Harry's church.

The Poor Laws

Oliver Twist opens with a bitter invective directed at the nineteenth-century English poor laws. The laws were a distorted manifestation of the Victorian middle class emphasis on the virtues of "work." England in the 1830's was rapidly undergoing a transformation from an agricultural, rural economy to an urban, industrial nation. The growing middle class had achieved an economic influence equal to, if not greater than, the British aristocracy.

Class consciousness reached a peak for the middle class in the 1830's. It was in this decade that the middle class clamored for a share in political power with the landed gentry, bringing about a re-structuring of the voting system. Parliament passed a Reform Act that granted the right to vote to previously disenfranchised middle class citizens. The middle class was eager to gain social legitimacy. This desire gave rise to the Puritan Evangelical

religious movement and inspired sweeping economic and political change.

The ideal social class belonged to the "gentleman," an aristocrat who could afford not to work for his living. The middle class were stigmatized for having to work for a living. One way to alleviate the stigma attached to middle class wealth was to establish work as a moral virtue. Between the moral value attached to work and the insecurity of the middle class about its own social legitimacy, the poor were subject to hatred and cruelty. The middle class Puritan moral value system transformed earned wealth into a sign of moral virtue. Victorian society interpreted economic success as a sign that God favored the honest, moral virtue of the successful individual's efforts. Thus, they interpreted the condition of poverty as a sign of the weakness of the poor individual.

The sentiment behind the Poor Law of the 1830's reflected these beliefs. The law allowed the poor to receive public assistance only through established workhouses. Begging carried the punishment of imprisonment. Debtors were sent to prison, often with their entire families, which virtually ensured that they could not re-pay their debts. Workhouses were deliberately made to be as miserable as possible in order to deter the poor from relying on public assistance. The philosophy was that the miserable conditions would prevent able-bodied paupers from being lazy and idle bums.

Anyone who could not support himself or herself was considered an immoral, evil person. Therefore, such individuals should enjoy no comforts or luxuries in their reliance on public assistance. In order to create the misery needed to deter such immoral idleness, families were split apart upon entering the workhouse. Husbands were permitted no contact with their wives, lest they should breed more paupers. Mothers were separated from children, lest they impart their immoral ways to their children. Brothers were separated from their sisters because the middle class patrons of workhouses feared the lower class's "natural" inclination towards incest. In short, the State undertook to become the surrogate "parents" of workhouse children, whether or not they were orphans. Moreover, meals served to workhouse residents were deliberately inadequate so as to encourage the residents to find work and support themselves.

Because of the great stigma attached to workhouse relief, many poor people chose to die in the streets rather than seek public "aid." The workhouse was supposed to demonstrate the virtue of gainful employment to the poor.

In order to receive public assistance, they had to pay in suffering and misery. Puritan values stressed the moral virtue of suffering and privation, and the workhouse residents were made to experience these "virtues" many times over.

Rather that improving the "questionable morals" of the able-bodied poor, the Poor Laws punished the most defenseless and helpless members of the lower class. The old, the sick, and the very young suffered more than the able-bodied benefited from these laws. Dickens meant to demonstrate this with the figure of Oliver Twist, an orphan born and raised in a workhouse for the first ten years of his life. He represents the hypocrisy of the petty middle class bureaucrats, who treat a small child cruelly while voicing their belief in the Christian virtue of giving charity to the less fortunate.

What does the phrase "justice is blind" normally mean?

The phrase "justice is blind" normally means that the law treats all individuals equally. It means that the law is not biased. The phrase is ironic because the legal system portrayed in Oliver Twist is heavily biased in favor f individuals who belong to the middle and upper classes. Oliver enters he courtroom twice in the novel. The magistrate who presides over Gamfeld's petition to take Oliver on as an apprentice is half-blind. He asks the workhouse officials if Oliver wants to be a chimney sweep, and they assure him that he does. The law essentially does not recognize any legal right for Oliver to speak for himself. The magistrate deigns to ask for his opinion only after he notices Oliver's terrified expression. Oliver is saved from Gamfield's brutal treatment, but only by a stroke of luck. Hence, the phrase "justice is blind" is ironic when applied to the hearing.

The magistrate's half-blindness serves as a metaphor for the half-blindness of middle class Victorians and their institutions. Although there are glimmers of hope for mercy and kindness towards the poor, there are still huge obstacles to change because the law is biased against the poor. Oliver's trial for stealing a handkerchief highlights the precarious position of the poor in the eyes of the law. In 1830's England, the right to vote was based on wealth. Therefore, the law was designed to protect the interests of people wealthy enough to own property.

Hence, the penalties for stealing were unbelievably harsh. Mr. Fang, the presiding magistrate, is an aptly named representative of the English legal system. The law has fangs ready to devour any unfortunate pauper brought to face "justice." Without hard evidence, without witnesses, and even despite Brownlow's testimony that Oliver is not the thief, Mr. Fang convicts Oliver and sentences him to three months hard labour. Mr. Fang is biased against Oliver from the moment he steps into the courtroom. He does not view Oliver as an individual, but as the representative of the "criminal poor." Therefore he views Oliver through the vicious prejudices of the Victorian middle class.

Again, the phrase "justice is blind" is ironic when applied to Oliver Twist. The magistrate is blinded by biased stereo types, and the legal system he represents is biased against the poor. How is Fagin an anti-Semitic stereotype? How does Dickens's anti-Semitism manifest itself ? Consider Dickens's habit of referring to Fagin as "the Jew" or "the old Jew." Consider Fagin's obsession with gold.

Victorians stereotyped the Jews as naturally avaricious beings who worship gold for its own sake. Fagin's eyes "glisten" as he takes out a "magnificent gold watch, sparkling with jewels." True to the anti-Semitic stereotype, his wealth his obtained through thievery. Furthermore, Fagin's psychological warfare on Oliver's basically virtuous nature reflects the anti-Semitic stereotype of Jews as conniving, cunning conspirators. Dickens characterizes Fagin's manipulation of Oliver as a slow poison meant to corrupt Oliver's sense of right and wrong. Unlike an ordinary villain, the Jewish villain is far worse. He presents a face of kindness over his true nature as twisted brain-washer. When Oliver sees Fagin and Monks staring at him through Mrs. Maylie's window, he cries, "The Jew! The Jew!" He does not shout Fagin's name, so he does not consider Fagin's villainy as an individual quality particular to Fagin. He names it as a Jewish quality. Clearly, Dickens does not portray Fagin as a villain who happens to be Jewish. He portrays Fagin as a villain because he's Jewish. The continual habit of referring to Fagin as "the Jew" makes him an abstraction of anti-Semitic stereotypes, not an individual.

The Victorian middle class's stereotypes of the poor.

Throughout Oliver Twist, Dickens levels a strident criticism at the Victorian middle class's representation of the poor as hereditary criminals. Dickens goes to great lengths to criticize the attitude that the poor are inherently immoral from birth. However, he portrays Monks in the very same light.

Brownlow tells Monks, "You . . . from your cradle were gall and bitterness to your own father's heart, and . . . all evil passions, vice, and profligacy, festered [in you]." Basically, Monks was a b ad one from the cradle. Why should the unfortunate child of an unhappy, forced marriage be the very paragon of evil?



A Passage to India by E.M.Forster

Part One: Mosque

Chapter One:

Forster begins A Passage to India with a short description of Chandrapore, a city along that Ganges that is not notable except for the nearby Marabar caves. Chandrapore is a city of gardens with few fine houses from the imperial period of Upper India; it is primarily a "forest sparsely scattered with huts."

Chapter Two:

Dr. Aziz arrives by bicycle at the house of Hamidullah, where Hamidullah and Mr. Mahmoud Ali are smoking hookah and arguing about whether it is possible to be friends with an Englishman. Hamidullah, educated at Cambridge, claims that it is possibly only in England, and the three gossip about English elites in India. Hamidullah Begum, a distant aunt of Aziz, asks him when he will be married, but he responds that once is enough. A servant arrives, bearing a note from the Civil Surgeon; Callendar wishes to see Aziz at his bungalow about a medical case. Aziz leaves, traveling down the various streets named after victorious English generals, to reach Major Callendar's compound. The servant at the compound snubs Aziz, telling him the major has no message. Two English ladies, Mrs. Callendar and Mrs. Lesley, take Aziz's tonga (carriage), thinking that his ride is their own. Aziz then leaves to go to the nearly mosque paved with broken slabs. The Islamic temple awakens Aziz's sense of beauty; for Aziz, Islam is more than a mere Faith, but an attitude towards life. Suddenly, an elderly Englishwoman arrives at the mosque. He reprimands her, telling her that she has no right to be there and that she should have taken off her shoes, but she tells him that she did remember to take them off. Aziz then apologizes for assuming that she would have forgotten. She introduces herself as Mrs. Moore, and tells Aziz that she is newly arrived in India and has come from the club. He warns her about walking alone at night, because of poisonous snakes and insects. Mrs. Moore is visiting her son, Mr. Heaslop, who is the City Magistrate. They find that they have much in common: both were married twice and have two sons and a daughter. He escorts Mrs. Moore back to the club, but tells her that Indians are not allowed into the Chandrapore Club, even as guests.

Chapter Three:

Mrs. Moore returns to the Chandrapore Club, where she meets Adela Quested, her companion from England who may marry her son Ronny Heaslop; Adela wishes to see "the real India." She complains that they have seen nothing of India, but rather a replica of England. After the play at the Club ends, the orchestra plays the anthem of the Army of Occupation, a reminder of every club member that he or she is a British in exile. Fielding, the schoolmaster of Government College, suggests that if they want to see India they should actually see Indians. Mrs. Callendar says that the kindest thing one can do to a native is to let him die. The Collector suggests that they have a Bridge Party (a party to bridge the gulf between east and west). When Mrs. Moore tells Ronny about her trip to the mosque, he scolds her for speaking to a Mohammedan and suspects the worst, but Mrs. Moore defends Dr. Aziz. Ronny worries that Aziz does not tolerate the English (the "brutal conqueror, the sun-dried bureaucrat" as he describes them). When she tells him that Aziz dislikes the Callendars, Ronny decides that he must pass that information on to them and tells her that Aziz abused them in order to impress her. When she tells Ronny that he never judged people in this way at home, Ronny rudely replies that India is not home. Finally Ronny agrees not to say anything to Major Callendar.

Chapter Four:

Mr. Turton, the Collector, issues invitations to numerous Indian gentlemen in the neighborhood for the Bridge Party. While he argues with Mr. Ram Chand and the elderly and distinguished Nawab Bahadur, Mahmoud Ali claims that the Bridge Party is due to actions from the Lieutenant Governor, for Turton would never do this unless compelled. The Nawab Bahadur is a large proprietor and philanthropist; his decision to attend the Bridge party carries great weight. Mr. Graysford and Mr. Sorley, the missionaries who live nearby, argue that no one should be turned away by God, but cannot decide whether divine hospitality should end at monkeys or jackals or wasps or even bacteria. They conclude that someone must be excluded or they shall be left with nothing.

Chapter Five:

Neither Mrs. Moore nor Adela Quested consider the Bridge Party to be a success. The Indians for the most part adopt European costume, and the conversations are uncomfortable. Mrs. Moore speaks to Mrs. Bhattacharya and asks if she may call on her some day, but becomes distressed when she believes that Mrs. Bhattacharya will postpone a trip to Calcutta for her. During the party, Mr. Turton and Mr. Fielding are the only officials who behave well toward the Indian guests. Mr. Fielding comes to respect Mrs. Moore and Adela. Mr. Fielding suggests that Adela meet Dr. Aziz. Ronny and Mrs. Moore discuss his behavior in India, and he tells her that he is not there to be pleasant, for he has more important things to do there. Mrs. Moore believes that Ronny reminds her of his public school days when he talked like an intelligent and embittered boy. Mrs. Moore reminds him that God put us on earth to love our neighbors, even in India. She feels it is a mistake to mention God, but as she has aged she found him increasingly difficult to avoid.

Chapter Six:

Aziz did not go to the Bridge Party, but instead he dealt with several surgical cases. It was the anniversary of his wife's death; they married before they had met and he did not love her at first, but that changed after the birth of their first child. He feels that he will never get over the death of his first wife. Dr. Panna Lal returns from the Bridge Party to see Aziz and offers a paltry excuse for why he did not attend. Aziz worries that he offended the Collector by absenting himself from the party. When Aziz returns home he finds an invitation from Mr. Fielding to tea, which revives his spirits.

Chapter Seven:

Mr. Fielding arrived in India late in his life, when he had already passed forty, and was by that time a hard-bitten, good-tempered fellow with a great enthusiasm for education. He has no racial feelings, because he had matured in a different atmosphere where the herd instinct did not flourish. The wives of the English officers dislike Fielding for his liberal racial views, and Fielding discovers that it is possible to keep company with both Indians and Englishmen, but to keep company with English women he must drop Indians. Aziz arrives at Fielding's house for tea as Fielding is dressing after a bath; since Fielding cannot see him, Aziz makes Fielding guess what he looks like. Aziz offers Fielding his collar stud, for he has lost his. When Fielding asks why people wear collars at all, Aziz responds that he wears them to pass the Police, who take little notice of Indians in English dress. Fielding tells Aziz that they will meet with Mrs. Moore and Adela, as well as Professor Narayan Godbole, the Deccani Brahman. Mrs. Moore tells Mr. Fielding that Mrs. Bhattacharya was to send a carriage for her this morning, but did not, and worries that she offended her. Fielding, Aziz, Mrs. Moore and Adela discuss mysteries. Mrs. Moore claims she likes mysteries but hates muddles, but Mr. Fielding claims that a mystery is a muddle, and that India itself is a muddle. Godbole arrives, a polite and enigmatic yet eloquent man, elderly and wizened. His whole appearance suggests harmony, as if he has reconciled the products of East and West, mental as well as physical. They discuss how one can get mangoes in England now, and Fielding remarks that India can be made in England just as England is now made in India. They discuss the Marabar Caves, and Fielding takes Mrs. Moore to see the college. Ronny arrives, annoyed to see Adela with Aziz and Godbole. Ronny tells Fielding that he doesn't like to see an English girl left smoking with two Indians, but he reminds him that Adela made the decision herself.

Chapter Eight:

For Adela, Ronny's self-complacency and lack of subtlety grow more vivid in India than in England. Adela tells Ronny that Fielding, Aziz and Godbole are planning a picnic at the Marabar Caves for her and Mrs. Moore. Ronny mocks Aziz for missing his collar stud, claiming that it is typical of the Indian inattention to detail. Adela decides that she will not marry Ronny, who is hurt by the news but tells her that they were never bound to marry in the first place. She feels ashamed at his decency, and they decide that they shall remain friends. Ronny suggests a car trip to see Chandrapore, and the Nawab Bahadur offers to take them. There is a slight accident, as the car swerves into a tree near an embankment. Adela thinks that they ran into an animal, perhaps a hyena or a buffalo. When Miss Derek finds them, she offers to drive all of them back into town except for Mr. Harris, the Eurasian chauffeur. The Nawab Bahadur scolds Miss Derek for her behavior. Adela tells Ronny that she takes back what she told him about marriage. Ronny apologizes to his mother for his behavior at Mr. Fielding's house. Mrs. Moore is now tired of India and wishes only for her passage back to England. Ronny reminds her that she has dealt with three sets of Indians today, and all three have let her down, but Mrs. Moore claims that she likes Aziz. The Nawab Bahadur thinks that the accident was caused by a ghost, for several years before he was in a car accident in which he killed a drunken man.

Chapter Nine:

Aziz falls ill with fever, and Hamidullah discusses his illness with Syed Mohammed, the assistant engineer, and Mr. Haq, a police inspector. Rafi, the engineer's nephew, suggests that something suspicious occurred, for Godbole also fell sick after Fielding's party, but Hamidullah dismisses the idea. Mr. Fielding visits Aziz. They discuss Indian education, and Aziz asks if it is fair that an Englishman holds a teaching position when qualified Indians are available. Fielding cannot answer "England holds India for her own good," the only answer to a conversation of this type. Fielding instead says that he is delighted to be in India, and that is his only excuse for working there. He suggests chucking out any Englishman who does not appreciate being in India.

Chapter Ten:

Opposite Aziz's bungalow stands a large unfinished house belonging to two brothers. A squirrel hangs on it, seeming to be the only occupant of the house. More noises come from nearby animals. These animals make up the majority of the living creatures of India, yet do not care how India is governed.

Chapter Eleven:

Aziz shows Fielding a picture of his wife, a custom uncommon in Islamic tradition. Aziz tells him that he believes in the purdah, but would have told his wife that Fielding is his brother and thus she would have seen him, just as Hamidullah and a small number of others had. Fielding wonders what kindness he offered to Aziz to have such kindness offered back to him. Aziz asks Fielding if he has any children, which he does not, and asks why he does not marry Miss Quested. He claims that she is a prig, a pathetic product of Western education who prattles on as if she were at a lecture. He tells him that Adela is engaged to the City Magistrate. Aziz then makes a derogatory comment about Miss Quested's small breasts. Aziz discovers that Fielding was warm-hearted and unconventional, but not wise, yet they are friends and brothers.

Part Two: Caves

Chapter Twelve:

This chapter is devoted solely to a description of the Marabar Caves. Each of the caves include a tunnel about eight feet long, five feet high, three feet wide that leads to a circular chamber about twenty feet in diameter. Having seen one cave, one has essentially seen all of them. A visitor who sees them returns to Chandrapore uncertain whether he has had an interesting experience, a dull one, or even an experience at all. In one of the caves there is rumored to be a boulder that swings on the summit of the highest of the hills; this boulder sits on a pedestal known as the Kawa Dol.

Chapter Thirteen:

Adela Quested mentions the trip to the Marabar Caves to Miss Derek, but she mentions that she is unsure whether the trip will occur because Indians seem forgetful. A servant overhears them, and passes on the information to Mahmoud Ali. Aziz therefore decides to push the matter through, securing Fielding and Godbole for the trip and asking Fielding to approach Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore. Aziz considers all aspects of the trip, including food and alcohol, and worries about the cultural differences. Mrs. Moore and Adela travel to the caves in a purdah carriage. Aziz finds that Antony, the servant that the women are bringing, is not to be trusted, so he suggests that he is unnecessary, but Antony insists that Ronny wants him to go. Mohammed Latif bribes Antony not to go on the trip with them. Ten minutes before the train is to leave, Fielding and Godbole are not yet at the station. The train starts just as Fielding and Godbole arrive; Godbole had miscalculated the length of his morning prayer. When the two men miss the train, Aziz blames himself. Aziz feels that this trip is a chance for him to demonstrate that Indians are capable of responsibility.

Chapter Fourteen:

For the past two weeks in which they had been in India, Mrs. Moore and Miss Quested had felt nothing, living inside cocoons; Mrs. Moore accepts her apathy, but Adela resents hers. It is Adela's faith that the whole stream of events is important and interesting, and if she grows bored she blames herself severely. This is her only major insincerity. Mrs. Moore feels increasingly that people are important, but relationships between them are not and that in particular too much fuss has been made over marriage. The train reaches its destination and they ride elephants to reach the caves. None of the guests particularly want to see the caves. Aziz overrates hospitality, mistaking it for intimacy and not seeing that it is tainted with a sense of possession. It is only when Mrs. Moore and Fielding are near that he knows that it is more blessed to receive than to give. Miss Quested admits that it is inevitable that she will become an Anglo-Indian, but Aziz protests. She hopes that she will not become like Mrs. Turton and Mrs. Callendar, but admits that she does not have a special force of character to stop that tendency. In one of the caves there is a distinct echo, which alarms Mrs. Moore, who decides she must leave the cave. Aziz appreciates the frankness with which Mrs. Moore treats him. Mrs. Moore begins to write a letter to her son and daughter, but cannot because she remains disturbed and frightened by the echo in the cave. She is terrified because the universe no longer offers repose to her soul. She has lost all interest, even in Aziz, and the affectionate and sincere words that she had spoken seem foreign to her.

Chapter Fifteen:

Adela and Aziz and a guide continue along the tedious expedition. They encounter several isolated caves which the guide persuades them to visit, but there is really nothing for them to see. Aziz has little to say to Miss Quested, for he likes her less than he does Mrs. Moore and greatly dislikes that she is marrying a British official, while Adela has little to say to Aziz. Adela realizes that she does not love Ronny, but is not sure whether that is reason enough to break off her engagement. She asks Aziz if he is married, and he tells her that he is, feeling that it is more artistic to have his wife alive for a moment. She asks him if he has one wife or more than one, a question which shocks him very much, but Adela is unaware that she had said the wrong thing.

Chapter Sixteen:

Aziz waits in the cave, smoking, and when he returns he finds the guide alone with his head on one side. The guide does not know exactly which cave Miss Quested entered, and Aziz worries that she is lost. On his way down the path to the car that had arrived from Chandrapore, Aziz finds Miss Quested's field glasses lying at the verge of a cave and puts them in his pocket. He sees Fielding, who arrived in Miss Derek's car, but neither he nor anyone else knows where Adela has gone. The expedition ends, and the train arrives to bring them back into Chandrapore. As they arrive in town, Mr. Haq arrests Dr. Aziz, but he is under instructions not to say the charge. Aziz refuses to go, but Fielding talks him into cooperating. Mr. Turton leads Fielding off so that Aziz goes to prison alone.

Chapter Seventeen:

Fielding speaks to the Collector, who tells him that Miss Quested has been insulted in one of the Marabar Caves and that he would not allow Fielding to accompany Aziz to preserve him from scandal. Fielding thinks that Adela is mad, a remark that Mr. Turton demands that he withdraw. Fielding explains that he cannot believe that Aziz is guilty. Mr. Turton tells Fielding that he has been in the country for twenty-five years, and in that time he has never known anything but disaster whenever Indians and the English interact socially. He tells Fielding that there will be an informal meeting at the club that evening to discuss the situation. Fielding keeps his head during the discussion; he does not rally to the banner of race. The Collector goes to the platform, where he can see the confusion about him. He takes in the situation with a glance, and his sense of justice functions although he is insane with rage. When he sees coolies asleep in the ditches or the shopkeepers rising to salute him, he says to himself "I know what you're like at last; you shall pay for this, you shall squeal."

Chapter Eighteen:

Mr. McBryde, the District Superintendent of Police, is the most reflective and best educated of the Chandrapore officials. He receives Aziz with courtesy, but is shocked at his downfall. McBryde has a theory about climatic zones: all unfortunate natives are criminals at heart, for the simple reason that they live south of latitude 30. They are thus not to blame, for they have not a dog's chance. McBryde, however, admits that he seems to contradict this theory himself. The charge against Aziz is that he followed her into the cave and made insulting advances; she hit him with her field glasses, but he pulled at them and the strap broke, and that is how she got away. They find that Aziz has the glasses. Fielding asks if he may see Adela, but the request is denied. McBryde admits to Fielding that she is in no state to see anyone, but Fielding believes that she's under a hideous delusion and Aziz is innocent. Fielding explains that, if Aziz were guilty, he would not have kept the field glasses. McBryde tells him that the Indian criminal psychology is different, and shows Fielding the contents of Aziz's pocket case, including a letter from a friend who keeps a brothel. The police also find pictures of women in Aziz's bungalow, but Fielding says that the picture is of Aziz's wife.

Chapter Nineteen:

Hamidullah waits outside the Superintendent's office; Fielding tells him that evidence for Aziz's innocence will come. Hamidullah is convinced that Aziz is innocent and throws his lot with the Indians, realizing the profundity of the gulf that separates them. Hamidullah wants Aziz to have Armitrao, a Hindu who is notoriously anti-British, as his lawyer. Fielding feels this is too extreme. Fielding tells Hamidullah that he is on the side of Aziz, but immediately regrets taking sides, for he wishes to slink through India unlabelled. Fielding has a talk with Godbole, who is entirely unaffected by Aziz's plight. He tells Fielding that he is leaving Chandrapore to return to his birthplace in Central India to take charge of education there. He wants to start a High School on sound English lines. Godbole cannot say whether or not he thinks that Aziz is guilty; he says that nothing can be performed in isolation, for when one performs a good action, all do, and when an evil action is performed, all perform it. He claims that good and evil are both aspects of the Lord. Fielding goes to see Aziz, but finds him unapproachable through misery. Fielding wonders why Miss Quested, such a dry, sensible girl without malice, would falsely accuse an Indian.

Chapter Twenty:

Miss Quested's plight had brought her great support among the English in India; she came out from her ennobled in sorrow. At the meeting at the club, Fielding asks whether there is an official bulletin about Adela's health, or whether the grave reports are due to gossip. Fielding makes an error by speaking her name; others refer to both Adela and Aziz in vague and impersonal terms. Each person feels that all he loved best was at stake in the matter. The Collector tells them to assume that every Indian is an angel. The event had made Ronny Heaslop a martyr, the recipient of all the evil intended against them by the country they had tried to serve. As he watches Fielding, the Collector says that responsibility is a very awful thing, but he has no use for the man who shirks it. He claims that he is against any show of force. Fielding addresses the meeting, telling them that he believes that Aziz is innocent; if Aziz is found guilty, Fielding vows to reign and leave India, but now he resigns from the club. When Ronny enters, Fielding does not stand. The Collector insists that he apologize to Ronny, but then orders Fielding to leave immediately.

Chapter Twenty-One:

Fielding spends the rest of the evening with the Nawab Bahadur, Hamidullah, Mahmoud Ali, and others of the confederacy. Fielding has an inclination to tell Professor Godbole of the tactical and moral error he had made in being rude to Ronny Heaslop, but Godbole had already gone to bed.

Chapter Twenty-Two:

Adela lay for several days in the McBryde's bungalow; others are over-kind to her, the men too respectful and the women too sympathetic. The one visitor she wants, Mrs. Moore, kept away. She tells that she went into a detestable cave, remembers scratching the wall with her finger nail, and then there was a shadow down the entrance tunnel, bottling her up. She hit him with her glasses, he pulled her round the cave by the strap, it broke, and she escaped. He never actually touched her. She refuses to cry, a degradation worse than what occurred in the Marabar and a negation of her advanced outlook. Adela feels that only Mrs. Moore can drive back the evil that happened to her. Ronny tells her that she must appear in court, and Adela asks if his mother can be there. He tells her that the case will come before Mr. Das, the brother of Mrs. Bhattacharya and Ronny's assistant. Ronny tells Adela that Fielding wrote her a letter (which he opened). He tells her that the defense had got hold of Fielding, who has done the community a great disservice. Adela worries that Mrs. Moore is ill, but Ronny says that she is merely irritable at the moment. When she sees her, Adela thinks that she repels Mrs. Moore, who has no inclination to be helpful; Mrs. Moore appears slightly resentful, without her Christian tenderness. Mrs. Moore refuses to be at all involved in the trial. She tells that she will attend their marriage but not their trial. She vows to go to England. Ronny tells her that she appears to want to be left out of everything. She says that the human race would have become a single person centuries ago if marriage were any use. Adela wonders whether she made a mistake, and tells Ronny that he is innocent. She feels that Mrs. Moore has told her that Aziz is innocent. Ronny tells her not to say such things, because every servant he has is a spy. Mrs. Moore tells Adela that of course Aziz is innocent. Mrs. Moore thinks that she is a bad woman, but she will not help Ronny torture a man for what he never did. She claims that there are different ways of evil, and she prefers her own to his. Ronny thinks that Mrs. Moore must leave India, for she was doing no good to herself or anyone else.

Chapter Twenty-Three:

Lady Mellanby, wife of the Lieutenant-Governor, had been gratified by the appeal addressed to her by the ladies of Chandrapore, but she could do nothing; she does agree to help Mrs. Moore get passage out of India in her own cabin. Mrs. Moore got what she desired: she escaped the trial, the marriage and the hot weather, and will return to England in comfort. Mrs. Moore, however, has come to that state where the horror and the smallness of the universe are visible. The echo in the cave was a revelation to Mrs. Moore, insignificant though it may be. Mrs. Moore departs from Chandrapore alone, for Ronny cannot leave the town.

Chapter Twenty-Four:

The heat accelerates after Mrs. Moore's departure until it seems a punishment. Adela resumes her morning kneel to Christianity, imploring God for a favorable verdict. Adela worries that she will break down during the trial, but the Collector tells her that she is bound to win, but does not tell her that Nawab Bahadur had financed the defense and would surely appeal. The case is called, and the first person Adela notices in the Court is the man who pulls the punkah; to Adela, this nearly naked man stands out as divine as he pulls the rope. Mr. McBryde behaves casually, as if he knows that Aziz will be found guilty. He remarks that the darker races are physically attracted to the fairer, but not vice verse, and a voice is heard from the crowd asking "even when the lady is so much uglier than the man?" Mahmoud Ali claims that Mrs. Moore was sent away because she would have testified that Aziz is innocent. The audience begins chanting Mrs. Moore until her name seems to be Esmiss Esmoor, as if a Hindu goddess. The magistrate scolds Armitrao and McBryde for presuming Mrs. Moore's presence as a witness. Adela is the next to testify; a new sensation protects her like a magnificent armor. When McBryde asks her whether Aziz followed her, she say that she cannot be sure. Finally, she admits that she made a mistake and Dr. Aziz never followed her. The Major attempts to stop the proceedings on medical grounds, but Adela withdraws the charge. The Nawab Bahadur declares in court that this is a scandal. Mr. Das rises and releases the prisoner, as the man who pulls the punkah continues as if nothing had occurred.

Chapter Twenty-Five:

Miss Quested renounces his own people and is drawn into a mass of Indians and carried toward the public exit of the court. Fielding finds her, and tells her that she cannot walk alone in Chandrapore, for there will be a riot. She wonders if she should join the other English persons, but Fielding puts her in his carriage. One of Fielding's students finds him and gives him a garland of jasmine, but Fielding has wearied of his students' adoration. The student vows to pull Fielding and Miss Quested in a procession. Mahmoud Ali shouts "down with the Collector, down with the Superintendent of Police," but the Nawab Bahadur reprimands him as unwise. A riot nearly occurs, but Dr. Panna Lal calms the situation. Although Dr. Lal was going to testify for the prosecution, he makes a public apology to Aziz and secures the release of Nureddin, for there are rumors that he was being tortured by the police.

Chapter Twenty-Six:

Fielding and Miss Quested remain isolated at the college and have the first of several curious conversations. He asks her why she would make a charge if she were to withdraw it, but she cannot give a definitive answer. She tells him that she has been unwell since the caves and perhaps before that, and wonders what gave her the hallucination. He offers four explanations, but only gives three: Aziz is guilty, as her friends think; she invented the charge out of malice, which is what Fielding's friends think; or, she had a hallucination. He tells her that he believes that she broke the strap of the field glasses and was alone in the cave the whole time. She tells him that she first felt out of sorts at the party with Aziz and Godbole, and tells him that she had a hallucination of a marriage proposal when there was none. Fielding believes that McBryde exorcised her: as soon as he asked a straightforward question, she gave a straightforward answer and broke down. She asks what Aziz thinks of her, and Fielding tells Adela that Aziz is not capable of thought in his misery, but is naturally very bitter. An underlying feeling with Aziz is that he had been accused by an ugly woman; Aziz is a sexual snob. Fielding offers the fourth explanation: that it was the guide who assaulted Adela, but that option is inconclusive. Hamidullah joins them, and alternately praises and reprimands Adela. Fielding and Hamidullah are unsure where Adela could go, because no place seems safe for her. Fielding has a new sympathy for Adela, who has become a real person to him. Adela thinks that she must go to the Turtons, for the Collector would take her in, if not his wife. Ronny arrives and tells them that Mrs. Moore died at sea from the heat. Fielding tells him that Adela will stay at the college but he will not be responsible for her safety.

Chapter Twenty-Seven:

After the Victory Banquet at Mr. Zulfiqar's mansion, Aziz and Fielding discuss the future. Aziz knows that Fielding wants him to not sue Adela, for it will show him to be a gentleman, but Aziz says that he has become anti-British and ought to have become so sooner. Aziz says that he will not let Miss Quested off easily to make a better reputation for himself and Indians generally, for it will be put down to weakness and the attempt to gain promotion. Aziz decides that he will have nothing more to do with British India and will seek service in some Moslem State. Fielding tells Aziz that Adela is a prig, but perfectly genuine and very brave. He tells Aziz what a momentous move she made. Fielding offers to be an intermediary for an apology from Adela, and Aziz asks for an apology in which Adela admits that she is an awful hag. Aziz finally agrees to consult Mrs. Moore. However, when Fielding blurts out that she is dead, Aziz does not believe him.

Chapter Twenty-Eight:

The death of Mrs. Moore assumes more subtle and lasting shapes in Chandrapore than in England. A legend sprang up that Ronny killed her for trying to save Aziz's life, and there was sufficient truth in that legend to trouble authorities. Ronny reminds himself that Mrs. Moore left India of her own volition, but his conscience is not clear, for he behaved badly to her. Adela will leave India and not marry Ronny, for that would mean the end of his career.

Chapter Twenty-Nine:

Sir Gilbert, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, visits Chandrapore. Fielding finds himself drawn more and more into Miss Quested's affairs, and appreciates her fine loyal character and humility. Victory had made the Indians aggressive, attempting to discover new grievances and wrongs. Fielding uses Mrs. Moore as an attempt to persuade Aziz to let Adela off paying. Adela admits to Fielding that she was thinking of Ronny when she first entered the cave, and now she no longer wants love. Adela leaves India. On her travel out of India, Antony tries to blackmail her by claiming that she had an affair with Fielding, but she turns him away. When Adela arrives in England, she vows to look up Ralph and Stella and to return to her profession.

Chapter Thirty:

Another local consequence of the trial is a Hindu-Moslem entente. Mr. Das visits Aziz, seeking favors; he asks Aziz to write poetry for the magazine he publishes. Aziz accommodates him, but asks why he should fulfill these when Mr. Das tried to send him to prison. Aziz thinks that the magazine for which Mr. Das asks him to write is for Hindus only, but Mr. Das tells him that it is for Indians in general. When Aziz says there is no category of "Indian" (only Hindu and Moslem), Das says that after the trial there may be. Hamidullah gossips with Aziz, telling him that Fielding may have had an affair with Adela, but this does not faze Aziz, for he claims that he has no friends and all are traitors, even his own children.

Chapter Thirty-One:

The sequence of the events had decided Aziz's emotions and his friendship with Fielding began to cool. He assumes that the rumor about Fielding and Adela is true and resents it. Aziz speaks to Fielding about it, but Fielding tells him not to speak so melodramatically about "dismay and anxiety." Aziz speaks about enemies, but Fielding seems to dismiss the idea that either of them have great enemies. Fielding becomes angry that Aziz thinks that he and Adela had an affair during such a difficult time, but the two clear up the misunderstanding. Aziz and Fielding discuss their future plans. Fielding is conscious of something hostile against him. He leaves Chandrapore, with Aziz convinced that he will marry Miss Quested.

Chapter Thirty-Two:

Fielding leaves India for travels in other exotic parts of the world. Fielding found Egypt charming, as well as Crete and Venice. He felt that everything in Venice and Crete was right where everything in India was wrong, such as the idol temples and lumpy hills. Elsewhere there is form that India lacks.

Part Three: Temple

Chapter Thirty-Three:

Hundreds of miles west of the Marabar Hills, Professor Godbole stands "in the presence of God" during a Hindu birth ceremony. Godbole prays at the famous shrine at the palace at Mau. Godbole is now the Minister of Education at Mau. He sings not to the god who confronts him during the ritual, but to a saint. The ritual does not one thing that the non-Hindu would consider dramatically correct. By chance, while thinking about a wasp that he sees, Godbole remembers Mrs. Moore, even though she was not important to him.

Chapter Thirty-Four:

Dr. Aziz, who had taken part in the ceremony, leaves the palace at the same time as Godbole and sees the Professor, who tells him that Fielding arrived at the European Guest House. Fielding is making an official visit; he was transferred from Chandrapore and sent on a tour through Central India to see what the more remote states are doing with regard to English education. Fielding had married; Aziz assumes that his bride is Miss Quested. In Mau the conflict is not between Indians and English, but between Brahman and non-Brahman. Aziz had destroyed all the letters that Fielding had wrote to him after he learned that Fielding had married someone he knew. Unfortunately, Aziz never read any letters past the phrase "someone he knew" and automatically assumed it was Miss Quested. Aziz still remains under criminal investigation since the trial. Colonel Maggs, the Political Agent for the area, is committed to investigating Aziz, still convinced that he must be guilty based on events in Chandrapore. Aziz receives a note from Fielding, but he tears it up.

Chapter Thirty-Five:

There are two shrines to a Mohammedan saint in Mau. These commemorate a man who, upon his mother's order to "free prisoners," freed the inmates at the local jail, but whose head was cut off by the police. These shrines are the sites where the few Mohammedans in Mau pray. Aziz goes to the Shrine of the Head with his children, Ahmed, Jemila and Karim. The children see Fielding and his brother-in-law, and tell Aziz. They suggest throwing stones at them, but Aziz scolds them. Aziz, who is fortunately in a good temper, greets Fielding, although he had not intended to do so. Aziz greets the brother-in-law as "Mr. Quested," but he says that his name is Ralph Moore. Fielding had married Stella, the daughter of Mrs. Moore. Fielding blames Mahmoud Ali for the ill will between them, for he knew definitively that Fielding had married Stella. Aziz behaves aggressively and says that he forgives Mahmoud Ali. He tells Fielding that his heart is for his own people only. He leaves Fielding and returns to his house, excited and happy, but realizes that he had promised Mrs. Moore to be kind to her children, if he met them.

Chapter Thirty-Six:

The birth procession had not yet taken place, although the birth ceremony finished earlier. All would culminate in the dance of the milkmaidens before Krishna. Aziz could not understand the ceremony any more than a Christian could, puzzled that during the ceremony the people in Mau could be purged from suspicion and self-seeking. Godbole tells Aziz that he has known that Fielding was married to Stella Moore for more than a year. Aziz cannot be angry with Godbole, however, because it is not his way to tell anybody anything. Aziz and Godbole continue in the procession as it leads out of town. Aziz becomes cynical once again. He thinks that the pose of "seeing India" is only a form of conquest. Aziz goes to the Guest House where Fielding stays and reads two letters lying open on the piano. In the East the sanctity of private correspondence does not exist. The letters primarily concern Ralph Moore, who appears to be almost an imbecile, but there is a letter from Adela to Stella in which she says that she hopes Stella will enjoy India more than she did and says that she will never repay a debt. Aziz notices the friendly intercourse between these people, men and women, and believes that this is the strength of England. Ralph Moore enters, and Aziz claims that he is there to bring salve for his bee stings. Aziz abruptly prepares to leave, but apologizes. Ralph tells him that his mother loved Aziz, and Aziz claims that Mrs. Moore was his best friend in the world. Aziz offers to take Ralph Moore out on the river, as an act of homage to Mrs. Moore. Ralph is curious about the procession, which marks him as Mrs. Moore's son. The boat which Ralph and Aziz are in collides with another boat carrying Fielding and Stella.

Chapter Thirty-Seven:

Fielding and Aziz are friends again, but aware that they can meet no more. After the funny shipwreck there is no bitterness or nonsense. Aziz admits how brave Miss Quested was, and claims that he wants to do kind actions to wipe out the wretched business of the Marabar forever. Fielding realizes that his wife does not love him as much as he loves her. They realize that socially the two men have no meeting place. Fielding cannot defy his own people for the sake of a stray Indian, and Aziz is but a memento. Aziz explains what he can of the birthing ceremony to Fielding. They discuss who should rule India. Fielding mockingly suggests the Japanese, but Aziz wants his ancestors, the Afghans, to rule. To Aziz, India will then become a nation. Aziz cries "down with the English. That's certain," then states that only then will he and Fielding be friends.

Pride and Prejudice by J. Austen

Volume I, Chapter 1 Summary:

The novel begins with a conversation at Longbourn, the Bennet household, regarding the impending arrival of Mr. Bingley, "a single man of large fortune" to Netherfield Park, a nearby estate. Mrs. Bennet sees Mr. Bingley as a potential suitor for her daughters, and attempts to persuade Mr. Bingley to visit him. There are five daughters in the Bennet family. Mr. Bennet seems to prefer Elizabeth, the second oldest, because of her intelligence, while Mrs. Bennet seems fonder of the oldest, Jane, because of her beauty, and the middle child, Lydia, because of her good humor.

Volume I, Chapter 2 Summary:

Without telling his family, Mr. Bennet pays a visit to Mr. Bingley. He surprises his family by slipping the news unexpectedly into a conversation, but disappoints them by eluding their barrage of questions about Bingley's character.

Volume I, Chapter 3 Summary:

The ladies of the household meet Mr. Bingley and his friend from London, Mr. Darcy, at a ball at Meryton. Mr. Darcy is quickly judged as "the proudest, most disagreeable man in the world" because of his reserve and unwillingness to dance with anyone outside of his own party. When both Darcy and Elizabeth are sitting out a dance and Bingley attempts to persuade him to dance with her, Elizabeth overhears Darcy's reply "She is tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me." Mr. Bingley, on the other hand, is judged to be entirely amiable. He danced first with Charlotte Lucas, Elizabeth's friend, but the only person with whom he danced twice was Jane. Upon returning home, Mrs. Bennet attempts to explain the event of the ball in detail to Mr. Bennet, but he is indifferent and even annoyed.

Volume I, Chapter 4 Summary:

When they are alone, Jane confides to Elizabeth that she admires Mr. Bingley. Elizabeth approves of him, although she points out that Jane never sees faults in others. While Elizabeth is critical of the snobbish behavior of Bingley's sisters, Jane insists that they are pleasing in conversation.

Bingley has a long-standing friendship with Darcy, in spite of their opposite personalities. Bingley is easy-going and open, while Darcy is haughty and reserved. While Bingley found the company at the Meryton ball to be quite amiable, Darcy saw no one with whom he wished to associate, and even though he assents to Jane's beauty, he complains that she smiles too much.

Bingley's sisters also tell him that they like Jane, and he feels "authorised by such commendation" to think what he likes of her.

Volume I, Chapter 5 Summary:

Sir William Lucas and his family live near Longbourn, and Sir William's eldest daughter Charlotte is a close friend of Elizabeth. The day after the ball Charlotte and Lady Lucas go visit the Miss Bennetts to talk over the ball. They speak about general admiration for Jane's beauty and Bingley's attraction to her, and then go on to criticize Darcy's pride and his treatment of Elizabeth. Mary makes a remark about universality of pride in human nature and its differentiation from vanity.

Volume I, Chapter 6 Summary:

Bingley's sisters, while not desirous of become better acquainted with Mrs. Bennett and the younger Bennet sisters, begin to become better acquainted with Jane and Elizabeth. Jane is pleased by their attention, but Elizabeth is still critical of them. The mutual regard of Jane and Bingley for one another is evident to Elizabeth, though Jane's composure and "uniform cheerfulness of manner" prevent her regard for him from becoming obvious.

Charlotte remarks that it may not be such a good thing that Jane's affection is guarded, because it may cause discouragement in Bingley. Charlotte believes that a woman should show more affection than she feels in order to make a man form an attachment to her, and thinks that "happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance."

Mr. Darcy begins to take an interest in Elizabeth, attracted by her dark eyes and the "easy playfulness" of her manners. Before conversing directly with her, he listens on a conversation between Elizabeth and Sir William Lucas. Elizabeth refuses to dance with Darcy, in spite of the entreaties of Sir William. Darcy mentions his admiration for Elizabeth to Miss Bingley, who is vainly attempting to attract his admiration to herself. Miss Bingley responds by satirically criticizing Bennett family.

Volume I, Chapter 7 Summary:

Lydia and Catherine, the two youngest in the family, often go to visit their aunt, Mrs. Phillips, in Meryton, where a militia regiment has recently arrived. Mr. Bennet complains of his daughters' foolishness, but Mrs. Bennet does not consider their obsession with the officers to be a cause for concern.

Jane receives an invitation to have dinner with Bingley's sisters. Rather than allowing her to use the carriage to go to Netherfield, Mrs. Bingley tells Jane to go on horseback, hoping that it will rain and that Jane will have to spend the night at Netherfield. Jane does not like the scheme, but has no choice but to accept it.

The plan works all too well, however‹not only is Jane forced to spend the night at Netherfield, but she falls ill as a result of getting soaked in the rain, and has to stay at Netherfield until her recovery. Elizabeth goes to Netherfield to visit Jane, and because there are no horses available she walks. The Bingley sisters are scandalized that Elizabeth walked such a distance in the mud. Jane's condition having intensified, Elizabeth attends to her with great solicitude. Because Jane does not want Elizabeth to leave, Miss Bingley invites her to stay at Netherfield.

Volume I, Chapter 8 Summary:

When Elizabeth leaves the dinner table to continue attending to Jane, the Bingley sisters harshly criticize her pride and stubborn independence for having walked to Netherfield alone, but Mr. Bingley and Darcy admire Elizabeth's devotion to Jane. The Bingley sisters also deride the low family connections of Jane and Elizabeth. Bingley does not seem to care about their low connections, although Darcy considers it an impediment to their marrying well.

In the evening after Jane has fallen asleep, Elizabeth joins the others in the drawing room, and they have a conversation about what it means for a woman to be accomplished. Darcy and Miss Bennett provide such unrealistic criteria that Elizabeth claims she has never seen such a woman in her life.

Volume I, Chapter 9 Summary:

Elizabeth asks that her mother be summoned to come and see Elizabeth. Mrs. Bennet is happy because she sees that Jane is not in danger but that she is ill enough to continue her stay at Netherfield. Elizabeth is thoroughly embarrassed by her mother's conduct in the conversation, and particularly by her extreme rudeness to Darcy. Mrs. Bennet returns home and Elizabeth continues to attend to Jane.

Volume I, Chapter 10 Summary:

That evening in the drawing room Darcy writes a letter to his sister while Miss Bennet observes him and continually makes comments in admiration of his letter-writing style. The group gets into a discussion about Bingley's characters, which leads to Elizabeth's praise of someone who yields to the persuasion of friends.

As the Bennet sisters sing and play the piano, Elizabeth notices how frequently Mr. Darcy looks at her, but unable imagine that he might admire her she assumes he is staring at her because of his disapproval of her. Darcy asks her to dance a reel, but Elizabeth assumes that there is some sarcasm in this invitation, and satirically declines the offer. Miss Bingley notices, and begins to taunt Darcy by speaking about the possibility of marrying into the Bennet family and emphasizing the inferiority of her connections.

Volume I, Chapter 11 Summary:

After dinner Jane is feeling well enough to join the others in the drawing room, and Elizabeth is delighted by the attention which Bingley shows to her. Miss Bingley continues in her vain attempts to please Darcy, and even feigns a love for reading, picking up the second volume of the book which he is reading. She then begins to walk around the room, attempting to catch Darcy's admiration. She fails, but as soon as she invites Elizabeth to walk with her Mr. Darcy looks up and stops reading. They begin to converse about Darcy's character, and Darcy admits that he has a tendency to be resentful.

Volume I, Chapter 12 Summary:

Jane having recovered from her illness, she and Elizabeth resolve to go home the next morning. Her mother is unwilling to send the carriage so soon, wanting to extend Jane's stay as long as possible, but Elizabeth and Jane are resolved to go and they ask for the Bingleys to lend them their carriage. Elizabeth and Jane are glad to be returning home, and all except Bingley are happy to see them go. Darcy is glad to be removed from the danger of Elizabeth's company, and Miss Bingley is glad to be rid of her competition.

Volume I, Chapter 13 Summary:

At breakfast the following day Mr. Bennet announces that Mr. Collins, a cousin of his whom he has never met, will be coming to visit. Because of the laws of inheritance at the time and because Mr. Bennet has no sons, Mr. Collins is in line to inherit Longbourn. Mrs. Bennet hates Mr. Collins because of this, but Elizabeth and Jane try to explain the nature of the laws of entailment.

To inform them of his visit, Mr. Collins writes a letter to Mr. Bennet. In the letter Mr. Collins explains that he has recently been ordained and is under the patronage of Lady Catherine De Bourgh.

Mr. Collins arrives in the afternoon as expected. He is 25 years old, tall and heavyset, with a grave air and formal manners. When he is conversing with the women of the household before dinner, he mentions that he is well aware of the hardship involved in the entailment of the estate and that he wants to make amends for this hardship. He has come "prepared to admire" the young ladies of the household. Mr. Collins also expresses his admiration for the house itself and for the quality of the dinner.

Volume I, Chapter 14 Summary:

After dinner Mr. Bennet invites Mr. Collins to speak about his patroness Lady Catherine. Mr. Collins describes Lady Catherine with great solemnity and effusive praise, remarking on her great affability and condescension to him in spite of her high rank. He also describes Lady Catherine's daughter, Miss de Bourgh, as quite charming but rather sickly. He tries to ingratiate himself with Lady Catherine by thinking up pretty and flattering phrases to tell her about Miss de Bourgh while trying to make his praise seem spontaneous. Mr. Bennet is convinced that Mr. Collins is absurd.

After tea Mr. Bennet invites Mr. Collins to read aloud to the ladies. Mr. Collins declares that he never reads novels and instead begins to read with a book of sermons with "monotonous solemnity." After a few pages Lydia interrupts the reading by asking her mother a question about her uncle Philips. Mr. Collins is offended but takes the hint and stops reading after briefly reprimanding the frivolity of Lydia. He then proposes playing a game of backgammon.

Volume I, Chapter 15 Summary:

Mr. Collins' upbringing by an "illiterate and miserly father" along with his unexpected good fortune in finding a patroness like Lady Catherine has led to his lack of good sense and his strange combination of obsequiousness and self-conceit. Now that he is settled he wants to "make amends" for inheriting the Longbourn estate by marrying one of the young ladies in the Bennet household. After meeting them, he was first attracted to Jane because of her beauty, but after hearing from Mrs. Bennet that Jane may soon be engaged, he switches his affections to Elizabeth.

Mr. Collins joins the ladies for a walk to Meryton. Upon reaching Meryton they meet Mr. Denny, an officer with whom Lydia and Kitty are acquainted, and he introduces them to a new member of the regiment, Mr. Wickham. Mr. Wickham is handsome and charming. While they are all conversing, Bingley and Darcy notice them as they are riding by and stop to greet them. As soon as Darcy notices Mr. Wickham, he turns white, and Mr. Wickham turns red. Bingley and Darcy continue on their way.

Mr. Denny and Mr. Wickham take leave of the young ladies once they arrive at Mr. Philip's house. Jane introduces Mr. Collins to Mrs. Phillips. Mrs. Philips plans to invite Mr. Wickham to dinner tomorrow and invites the Longourn ladies and Mr. Collins to join them.

Volume I, Chapter 16 Summary:

At the beginning of the event at the Phillips' house the next day, Mr. Collins speaks to Mrs. Philips about Lady Catherine and her mansion Rosings, and Mrs. Philips is favorably impressed.

Elizabeth forms a very favorable impression of Mr. Wickham, and converses with him at length during the evening. Elizabeth is curious to find out about the obvious animosity which exists between him and Darcy. Wickham brings up the subject by inquiring how long Darcy has been in the area. Elizabeth expressed her dislike of Darcy to Wickham, and Wickham mentions that he and Darcy have been intimately acquainted since childhood. After feigning to avoid the subject, Wickham divulges to Elizabeth that Darcy's father was his godfather and had promised to provide an ample living for him, but after his death Darcy had circumvented his father's promise and had given the living to someone else because of his dislike for Wickham. Elizabeth is outraged and suggests that Darcy ought to be publicly dishonored for his actions, but Wickham refuses to do so ought of respect for Darcy's father. Wickham attributes Darcy's dislike of him to jealousy. Elizabeth and Wickham also speak of Darcy's pride, which Wickham believes is the source of all his generosity in the use of his money and excellent care for his sister. Wickham alludes to a previously close but now very cold relationship with Darcy's sister.

Wickham also mentions to Elizabeth that Lady Catherine de Bourgh is Mr. Darcy's aunt, and that Mr. Darcy is expected to marry Miss de Bourgh in order to unite the fortunes of the two families.

Volume I, Chapter 17 Summary:

When, the next day, Elizabeth relates to Jane the substance of her conversation with Wickham, Jane refuses to think ill of either Wickham or Darcy, and assumes that they must in some way be mutually deceived.

Mr. Bingley and his sisters come to Netherfield to announce a ball. When Elizabeth asks Mr. Collins whether or not he plans to attend, he state that he does and asks her for the first two dances. While she had wanted to reserve those dances for Wickham, she gracefully accepts his offer. Elizabeth begins to realize that she has become Mr. Collins choice for a future wife, but she ignores his hints in that direction hoping that he will not ask her.

Volume I, Chapter 18 Summary:

At the Netherfield Ball Elizabeth is disappointed because of Wickham's absence, which she assumes is all Mr. Darcy's doing. After relating her disappointment to her friend Charlotte Lucas, she suffers through her two dances with Mr. Collins. Mr. Darcy asks her for a dance and Elizabeth is so taken by surprise that she accepts. During the dance with Mr. Darcy Elizabeth makes a bit of sarcastic conversation, poking fun at his character. She alludes to her new acquaintance with Wickham and to the fact that she thinks he has not behaved well toward him. They change the subject after a brief interruption from Sir William Lucas, but then she goes back to it by asking him about his previous admission that he has a tendency toward resentment, explaining that she is unable to figure out his character because she has received such contradictory accounts. After the dance they part in silence but Darcy forgives her questioning and blames Wickham.

Miss Bingley, having heard from Jane that Wickham has talked with Elizabeth about Darcy, tries to warn her not to trust Wickham and assures her that Darcy has done nothing wrong to Wickham but that Wickham has treated Darcy shamefully. Elizabeth reacts rudely and considers Mr. Bingley to be blinded to the truth. Jane also tells Elizabeth that Mr. Bingley believes Darcy's behavior is above reproach and that Wickham is not reputed to be of good character, but Elizabeth dismisses Bingley's opinion because he received all his information from Darcy.

Mr. Collins finds out the Darcy is Lady Catherine's nephew and decides to introduce himself, in spite of Elizabeth's warnings that it would be inappropriate to do so because of Mr. Darcy's superior social status. Darcy is surprised at Mr. Collins but replies to him with civility and then walks away.

Jane seems to be having a wonderful time with Mr. Bingley, and Elizabeth enjoys herself in thinking of her sister's happiness. Mrs. Bennet is also happy to see how well Jane and Mr. Bingley are getting along, and during dinner speaks unceasingly and loudly about the imminence of their engagement in close proximity to Mr. Darcy, much to Elizabeth's great embarrassment.

After dinner Mary accepts an invitation to play and sing at the piano, and is insensible to Elizabeth's hints that she ought to decline. After Mary's second piece Elizabeth gets her father to tell Mary to stop playing. Mr. Collins then makes a speech about the importance of music which nonetheless should not take precedence to more important parish duties. Elizabeth feels completely embarrassed by her family's conduct during the evening.

At the end of the ball Mrs. Bennet invites Bingley to dinner at Longbourn and he promises to come as soon as he returns form a short trip to London.

Volume I, Chapter 19 Summary:

The next day Mr. Collins proposes to Elizabeth, in a long speech explaining that he considers it appropriate for him to marry and that he wants to marry one of the Miss Bennets in order lessen the difficulty of the entailment of the estate. Elizabeth refuses him in no uncertain terms, but Mr. Collins refuses to believe that her refusal could be sincere, considering it a formality of female coquetry to always refuse a proposal the first time. Elizabeth repeats and strengthens her refusal, but as he still cannot believe her to be sincere, she simply leaves.

Volume I, Chapter 20 Summary:

When Mrs. Bennet hears that Elizabeth has refused to marry Mr. Collins, she entreats Mr. Bennet to force Elizabeth to change her mind. Mr. Bennet agrees to speak with Elizabeth, but actually tells her that he would never hear of her marrying such a man as Mr. Collins. Mrs. Bennet does not give up however, and continually attempts to persuade Elizabeth to accept the proposal. In the midst of all this confusion, Charlotte Lucas comes to visit. Eventually Mr. Collins accepts Elizabeth's refusal.

Volume I, Chapter 21 Summary:

Mr. Collins reacts by treating Elizabeth coldly for the rest of the day and shifting his attentions to Charlotte Lucas. The girls all walk to Meryton after breakfast. Elizabeth speaks with Wickham and he accompanies them back to Longbourn, paying particular attention to Elizabeth.

When they return Jane receives a letter from Caroline Bingley stating that they have all left Netherfield for town and have no intention of returning. She states that Mr. Bingley will most probably not return for at least another six months. The letter also speaks of the family's expectation that Mr. Bingley will marry Georgiana Darcy, implying that they do not want him to marry Jane. Elizabeth attempts to comfort Jane by reassuring her that Mr. Bingley really is attached to her and that in spite of his sisters' efforts to prevent him from marrying Jane he will most assuredly return to Netherfield.

Volume I, Chapter 22 Summary:

Charlotte Lucas continues to engage Mr. Collins in conversation for the rest of the day. Early the next morning Mr. Collins goes to Lucas Lodge to propose to Charlotte. Charlotte accepts and Sir William and Lady Lucas approve of the match.

Mr. Collins left the next day without informing the Bennets of his engagement. His promise to return soon was met by assurances on the part of Mr. Bennet that they would not be offended if the fulfillment of his duties prevented his speedy return.

Later in the day Miss Lucas tells Elizabeth about her engagement. Elizabeth is shocked but tries to be kind in her reaction. She is however, very unhappy about Charlotte's decision because she thinks that the match is completely unsuitable.

Volume I, Chapter 23 Summary:

Later in the day Sir William Lucas came to announce the engagement, to the great surprise of the rest of the family. Mrs. Bennet is incredulous and after being convinced that the news was true is extremely angry at Elizabeth for having turned down the proposal.

Elizabeth and Charlotte do not discuss the subject of the marriage between themselves, and their friendship gradually diminishes.

Jane and Elizabeth are concerned because they have not heard anything at all from Mr. Bingley.

Mr. Collins returns again to Longbourn in order to make preparations for his marriage. The Bennets are not too happy to see him but they are glad that he spends most of his time at Lucas Lodge.

Volume II, Chapter 1 Summary:

Jane receives another letter from Miss Bingley confirming that they will definitely not return before the end of the winter, and boasting about the whole family's increasing intimacy with Miss Darcy and the hopes of an engagement between her and Mr. Bingley. When Elizabeth and Jane are finally able to speak alone, Jane confides her disappointment to Elizabeth. In spite of Elizabeth's arguments, Jane refuses to believe that the Miss Bingleys and Mr. Darcy are responsible for persuading Mr. Bingley not to propose to Jane.

Mrs. Bennet only aggravates the situation by speaking of Bingley so often, and Mr. Bennet only responds sarcastically.

Some comfort is provided to the household by Mr. Wickham's society. Soon the whole town knows Wickham's story about Darcy and is happy to believe it and judge Darcy to be completely in the wrong.

Volume II, Chapter 2 Summary:

Mr. Collins leaves Longbourn with his usual solemnity.

Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner, Mrs. Bennet's brother and his wife, come to Longbourn to visit. Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner are both sensible, intelligent and refined. Elizabeth and Jane are very fond of them. Mrs. Gardiner and Elizabeth speak about Jane and Bingley. Mrs. Gardiner offers to bring Jane back to London with her in order to cheer her with the change of scene. Elizabeth hopes that while in London Jane will run into Bingley.

During the course of the visit Mrs. Gardiner observes Elizabeth with Wickham and notices her preference for him. Mrs. Gardiner enjoys speaking with Wickham about mutual acquaintances and about Mr. Darcy and his father.

Volume II, Chapter 3 Summary:

Mrs. Gardiner speaks with Elizabeth about the imprudence of becoming attached to Wickham because of his poor financial state. Elizabeth makes no promises that she will not become attached to him, but does promise to try to prevent the attachment as much as possible.

Mr. Collins returns to Hertfordshire for his wedding. Charlotte Lucas makes Elizabeth promise to visit her at Hunsford

Jane writes to Elizabeth telling about her stay in London. Caroline Bingley is extremely inattentive to her, pretending first that she is unaware of Jane's presence in London, and then waiting a fortnight to make a promised visit, which itself is rudely short.

In a letter to Mrs. Gardiner Elizabeth relates that Mr. Wickham's affections for her have subsided and have been transferred to another young lady, Miss King, who recently acquired 10,000 pounds. Elizabeth concludes that she must not have been in love with him, because her feelings are still cordial toward him.

Volume II, Chapter 4 Summary:

After a couple of dull winter months in Hertfordshire, Elizabeth is looking forward to going with Sir William Lucas and his second daughter to visit Charlotte. She parts very amiably with Wickham, reinforced in her belief that he is a "model of the amiable and the pleasing." The travellers stop for a night in London to see the Gardiners. Elizabeth is pleased to see that Jane is looking well. Mrs. Gardiner informs her, however, that Jane does undergo periods of dejection occasionally. Mrs. Gardiner is critical of Wickham so quickly shifting his attentions to Miss King, but Elizabeth defends him. Elizabeth is pleasantly surprised to be invited to accompany the Gardiners on a tour of the country during the summer.

Volume II, Chapter 5 Summary:

The next day Elizabeth, Sir William and his daughter Maria set out for Hunsford to visit Charlotte. Upon arriving Mr. Collins welcomes him to the house with his usual verbose formality. Charlotte‹now Mrs. Collins‹seems to endure Mr. Collins' silliness very well, and to take pleasure in managing the house. On reflection, Elizabeth concludes that Charlotte is handling things well.

Elizabeth's reflections are interrupted by shouts from Maria telling her to look outside because Miss de Bourgh is there in her carriage. Elizabeth is happy that Miss de Bourgh looks sickly and cross, thinking that she'll make a perfect wife for Mr. Darcy. After the carriage drives away Mr. Collins congratulates them because they have all been invited to dine at Rosings the next day.

Volume II, Chapter 6 Summary:

The day of the dinner at Rosings is spent mostly in listening to Mr. Collins, who is trying to prepare his guests for the grandeur they are about to encounter. While Maria and Sir William are extremely nervous about meeting Lady Catherine, Elizabeth sees nothing to be intimidated about, being unimpressed by "the mere stateliness of money and rank."

Lady Catherine is "a tall, large woman, with strongly-marked features," and her manner of receiving her visitors is one which does not fail to remind them of their inferior rank. Miss de Bourgh is extremely thin and small. Mrs. Jenkinson, who lives with them, has an unremarkable appearance and spends most of her time fussing over Miss de Bourgh.

At dinner nothing much is said other than continuous compliments about the food from Mr. Collins, which are echoed by Sir William. After dinner Lady Catherine speaks about her opinion on every subject which comes to mind and offers advice to Charlotte about even the smallest details of household management. She then barrages Elizabeth with impertinent questions about her and her family. Elizabeth answers with composure but without fear of giving her own opinion. For the rest of the evening they play cards.

Volume II, Chapter 7 Summary:

Sir William Lucas stays only for a week at Hunsford, but Elizabeth stays for quite some time longer. She passes the time pleasantly, conversing with Charlotte and taking long walks through the gardens. They all dine regularly at Rosings about twice a week, and all dinners follow the model of the first.

After having stayed a fortnight at Hunsford Elizabeth hears that Mr. Darcy is planning to visit Rosings. She looks forward to his coming because he will provide a new face at the dinner parties and because she wants to see how he acts with Miss de Bourgh, whom he is expected to marry. When Mr. Darcy arrives with his cousin Colonel Fitzwilliam, the two gentlemen immediately call at Hunsford. Elizabeth asks Darcy whether or not he has seen Jane in the past few months, in order to see if he betrays any knowledge about what happened between Jane and the Bingleys. He looks a bit confused but simply answers that he has not seen her.

Volume II, Chapter 8 Summary:

It is about a week before Elizabeth and Mr. and Mrs. Collins are invited again to Rosings, since Lady Catherine is no longer in need of company. During the evening Colonel Fitzwilliam and Elizabeth have a very enjoyable conversation. Lady Catherine seems annoyed that she is not a part of the conversation, and interrupts them in order to join in. Mr. Darcy looks a bit ashamed at his aunt's impertinence and ill-breeding in treating Elizabeth as an inferior.

At Colonel Fitzwilliam's request, Elizabeth begins to play the piano. As she playing Darcy walks away from Lady Catherine in order to go up to the piano and watch her. They have a very lively conversation, teasing each other playfully about their characters. Soon Lady Catherine interrupts demanding to know what they are talking of, and Elizabeth immediately resumes playing. Lady Catherine offers generous criticisms and advice about Elizabeth's playing. Elizabeth tries to observe how Mr. Darcy reacts to Miss de Bourgh, and she finds in him no sign of affection for her.

Volume II, Chapter 9 Summary:

The next morning, when only Elizabeth is at home, Mr. Darcy comes to visit alone. He had thought that the other ladies were also at home. They converse for a while about several subjects, including his quick departure from Netherfield last November, and Charlotte's marriage to Mr. Collins. When Elizabeth tells Darcy that, contrary to his opinions, Charlotte is not exactly close to her family since they lack the income to travel frequently, he tells Elizabeth emphatically that she must not have such strong local attachments. Elizabeth is surprised and he quickly cools his tone of voice and changes the subject to a general conversation about the countryside. Charlotte and Marie return from their walk Mr. Darcy stays for a few minutes and then leaves. Charlotte tells Elizabeth that Mr. Darcy must be in love with her, but Elizabeth convinces her that such is not the case.

Colonel Fitzwalliams calls on the ladies frequently because he enjoys their company. Elizabeth can tell that he admires her. He reminds her of Wickham. Neither Elizabeth nor Charlotte are able to figure out why Mr. Darcy calls on them so often. Charlotte keeps suggesting that Mr. Darcy must be partial to her, but Elizabeth simply laughs at the idea.

Volume II, Chapter 10 Summary:

Elizabeth often unexpectedly meets Mr. Darcy during her walks in the Park, in spite of the fact that she has told him where she usually walks in hopes of deterring him from taking the same path. When they meet he not only stops to say hello but also walks all the way back to the house with her. During one conversation he asks questions which seem to imply that in the future when she comes to Kent she will be staying at Rosings. Elizabeth thinks that he may be alluding to the prospect of her marriage to Colonel Fitzwilliam.

On another walk Elizabeth runs into Colonel Fitzwilliam. He speaks to her about the fact that because he is a younger son he cannot ignore financial concerns in his choice of whom to marry. Elizabeth thinks that this statement may be made for her sake. They also speak of Miss Darcy, and then of Bingley. Colonel Fitzwilliam tells Elizabeth that Darcy recently saved a good friend probably Bingley from an imprudent marriage.

When she is alone and reflecting on the conversation, Elizabeth is sure that it was due to Darcy's influence that Bingley did not propose to Jane. Her reflections distress her so much that she begins to have a headache, and her headache combined with her desire to avoid seeing Mr. Darcy lead her to stay at home even though they have been invited to Rosings that evening.

Volume II, Chapter 11 Summary:

While Elizabeth is at home alone, the door bell rings and she thinks that it might be Colonel Fitzwilliam. To her surprise, however, it is Mr. Darcy. After he inquires about her health, he paces around the room for a few minutes and then makes a declaration of love for her. While he speaks eloquently about his admiration for her, he also clearly expresses the inferiority of her connections and the family obstacles which prevented him from proposing sooner. Elizabeth turns down his proposal rather harshly, and he is both surprised and resentful.

Elizabeth explains her reasons for turning him down. These reasons are, first, the arrogant manner of his proposal; second, his actions to separate Bingley and Jane; and third, his actions toward Wickham. Darcy replies angrily that her calculation of his faults is indeed heavy, but that she might have overlooked them if he had not been honest about the fact that her family connections had made him try to avoid becoming attached to her. She simply states that his manner of proposal had no influence on her other than to "spare me the concern of refusing you, had you acted in a more gentlemanlike manner." After she finishes speaking he quickly leaves the room.

Elizabeth collapses and cries from weakness as a result of what has passed. She is flattered that he should have proposed to her, but any softness which she feels toward him because of his affection is quickly dissipated as soon as she thinks of his "abominable pride" and all that he has done to Jane and to Wickham.

Volume II, Chapter 12 Summary:

The next morning Elizabeth decides to go for a walk. Though she avoids her usual walking route, Mr. Darcy finds her and gives her a letter, then quickly leaves. First the letter explains Darcy's reasons for persuading Bingley not to marry Jane. Darcy admits that the impropriety of the Bennet family made him hope that the two would not marry, but that his main reason for preventing Bingley from proposing to Jane was that he did not think that Jane had any particular regard for Bingley. The only part of his conduct which he is uneasy about is that he concealed from Bingley his knowledge that Jane has been in London for the past few months.

In response to Elizabeth's charge that Darcy had injured Mr. Wickham, Darcy relates the whole account of Wickham's relationship with him and his family. Darcy's father was very fond of Wickham and paid to provide him with an excellent education. Before his death Darcy's father asked Darcy to promote Wickham's professional advancement and stipulated that if Wickham should become a clergyman Darcy should provide him with a good family living. Wickham, however, having no desire to become a clergyman, wrote to Darcy after his father's death and asked for money in order to study law. Darcy gave him 3,000 pounds and Wickham resigned his claim to assistance in a church career. However, Wickham quickly gave up on studying law and squandered the money with a dissipate lifestyle. When he needed more money he went to Darcy and told him that he would become a clergyman if Darcy would provide him with the living that had been promised. Darcy refused, and Wickham was furious. A while afterwards, Wickham, with the help of Miss Darcy's governess Miss Younge, managed to deceive Darcy's younger sister into consenting to elope with him when she was fifteen. Darcy happened to go see his sister before the intended elopement and she ended up confessing the whole plan to him. He thus prevented the elopement, the motives for which on Wickham's side were mostly Miss Darcy's fortune and a desire to revenge himself on Mr. Darcy.

Volume II, Chapter 13 Summary:

Elizabeth reads the letter "with a strong prejudice against everything he might say." She does not at all believe his claim that he prevented Bingley from proposing to Jane because he thought Jane was not attached to him. After reading Darcy's account of his dealings with Wickham, she does not know how to react and tries to convince herself it must be false. She puts away the letter, resolving not to think about it, but then examines it slowly, line by line. After long deliberation Elizabeth begins to rethink her previous judgment of Wickham. She realizes that his communications to her in their first conversation were indelicate, improper and inconsistent, and that his attentions to Miss King were purely mercenary.

She begins to see that she judged Darcy completely wrongly, and she grows ashamed, concluding that she been "blind, partial, prejudiced, absurd," in spite of the fact that has always prided herself on her judgment. She realizes that vanity has been the cause of her prejudice.

After this realization, she rereads the first part of the letter which deals with his reasons for preventing Bingley's proposal to Jane. She now sees that he had reason to be suspicious of Jane's attachment. Elizabeth also admits that Darcy's criticisms of the impropriety of her mother and younger sisters is just, and is ashamed and depressed.

After wandering through the park or two hours, engrossed in her reflections, she returns to the Parsonage to find that both Mr. Darcy and Colonel Fitzwilliam have stopped by to take leave of them, but have since left. She is glad to have missed them.

Volume II, Chapter 14 Summary:

Lady Catherine invites Elizabeth, Maria and the Collinses to dinner because she is bored now that her nephews have left. Elizabeth can't help thinking that she might have been attending this dinner as Lady Catherine's future niece, and amusing herself at how indignant Lady Catherine would be. Lady Catherine attempts to persuade Elizabeth and Maria to stay another fortnight, but Elizabeth insists that her father wants her to come home.

She spends much time over the next few days before her return home reflecting on the contents of the letter and on her past conduct. She does not regret her refusal of Darcy's offer, but does regret her own past actions. She is also depressed by the hopelessness of improving the character of her younger sisters, since her father only laughs at them and her mother is equally frivolous. She is also sad to think that Jane could have been so happy had it not been for the indecorum of her family.

Volume II, Chapter 15 Summary:

Elizabeth and Maria leave the Parsonage on Saturday morning, after lengthy parting civilities from Mr. Collins. Before returning to Hertferdshore, they stop at the Gardiner's to spend a few days there. Jane is to return home with them. Elizabeth is tempted to tell her all that she learned from Darcy, but decides to wait because she is not sure how much she should reveal.

Volume II, Chapter 16 Summary:

Upon reaching Hertfordshire they are greeted by Kitty and Lydia, who have prepared lunch for them at the inn where they have arranged to meet the carriage. Elizabeth is happy to hear that regiment will soon be leaving Meryton, although Kitty and Lydia are not equally pleased. Lydia hopes that Mr. Bennet will allow them all to go to Brighton for the summer since the officers will be there. During lunch Lydia tells Jane and Elizabeth that Miss King has left and that Wickham is therefore once again available. Lydia entertains them on the carriage home by relating stories of all the balls and dances they have attended with the officers in Meryton. When they arrive at Longbourn they have dinner with the Lucases, who have come to meet Maria. Lydia urges everyone to take a walk with her to Meryton, but Elizabeth stays home because she wants to avoid seeing Wickham.

Volume II, Chapter 17 Summary:

The next morning Elizabeth tells Jane about Darcy's proposal, and about the part of the letter regarding Wickham. Jane is shocked not as much about the proposal as about Wickham's being so bad, and tries to make excuses for him, but realizes that no excuse can be found. Elizabeth asks Jane whether or not she should let the rest of the town know about Wickham's true character. They decide it would be best to keep the matter quiet, since he is leaving soon and it will be extremely difficult to convince people without telling about his attempts to seduce Miss Darcy. Elizabeth decides that she should not tell Jane about the part of Darcy's letter which relates to her and Bingley. After observing Jane at leisure, Elizabeth sees that she is not happy and is still very attached to Bingley.

Volume II, Chapter 18 Summary:

Kitty, Lydia and Mrs. Bennet are extremely disappointed because the regiment is leaving Meryton. Lydia receives an invitation from Mrs. Forster, the wife of the Colonel of the regiment, to accompany her to Brighton. Lydia is ecstatic.

Elizabeth entreats her father to prevent Lydia from going, explaining that such an experience will only increase her frivolousness. But her father does not listen and tells Elizabeth that Lydia will be fine in Brighton under the supervision of Colonel Forster and that she is too poor to be taken advantage of by any of the officers in the regiment.

Elizabeth sees Wickham frequently. He attempts to renew his attentions to her, but she represses them and is annoyed by them. On the last day of their stay in Meryton, they have a conversation in which Elizabeth speaks of her stay at the Parsonage and her enjoyment of Darcy's and Colonel Fitzwilliam's company. She leads Wickham to suspect that she knows the truth of his past. He pretends not to notice but stops distinguishing Elizabeth. At the end of the party Lydia returns to Meryton with Mrs. Forster in order to be able to set out with them for Brighton early in the morning.

Volume II, Chapter 19 Summary:

Elizabeth's father had married her mother because he was captivated by her beauty, but her weak understanding soon made him lose all real affection for her. Mr. Bennet derives his enjoyment from books and the country. Elizabeth has always recognized the impropriety of her father's behavior as a husband, and is now especially aware of the disadvantage that such a marriage has had on the children. She faults her father for not having used his talents to at least preserve the respectability of his daughters.

The days at Longbourn are far from enjoyable, with the constant lamentations of boredom form Mrs. Bennet and Kitty. Elizabeth consoles herself by looking forward to her tour of the Lakes with the Gardiners. After a few weeks things become more bearable at home, and Elizabeth hopes that Kitty may be improved by the time away from Lydia.

Elizabeth's vacation with the Gardiners is delayed and shortened on account of Mr. Gardiner's work commitments. In the course of the trip they pass near Pemberley and Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner want to go see it. Elizabeth does not want to go because of fear of seeing Darcy, but she finds out from the maid that the Darcy family is not at home.

Volume III, Chapter 1 Summary:

Elizabeth is captivated by the beauty of Pemberley, and feels that it would not be bad to be the mistress of such a house. She almost has a feeling of regret. The housekeeper gives them a tour of the house and talks to them about Mr. Darcy and Miss Darcy. She describes Mr. Darcy as exceptionally sweet-tempered, generous and good-natured, remarking that she has "never heard a cross word from him." Elizabeth is surprised, having retained her assumption that Darcy is ill-tempered. Elizabeth is also impressed with Darcy's excellent treatment of his younger sister. After hearing so much praise of Darcy from his housekeeper, Elizabeth thinks of his regard for her with more warmth than ever.

As they go out to see the gardens, Mr. Darcy unexpectedly comes forward from the road. Both he and Elizabeth are ill at ease, but she is impressed at the genteel civility in his inquiries. After exchanging a few civilities he takes leave. Elizabeth is mortified and wonders what he might think of her for having come to visit the house.

Elizabeth is extremely distracted but attempts to be sociable and make conversation with her aunt and uncle as they walk through the garden. After a long while she is surprised to see Mr. Darcy coming toward them. They are both better prepared for this encounter. Mr. Darcy asks Elizabeth to introduce him to the Gardiners. In spite of the fact that they are a much lower class than he, he enters into conversation with them and even tells Mr. Gardiner that he is welcome to come to Pemberley and fish as long as he is in the area.

Elizabeth and Darcy begin walking together, and she informs him that she thought he would not be at home. He explains his reason for returning early and then asks her if he can introduce his sister to her when she arrives the next day. Elizabeth is surprised at this offer but accepts. When they reach the house they have an awkward conversation while waiting for the Gardiners to catch up with them, and then he sees them off with great politeness.

The Gardiners are very pleased and surprised at Darcy's civility, having heard from so many people, including Elizabeth, that he is so disagreeable, and still believing Wickham's story. Elizabeth tells them in a very guarded way that there is reason to believe that Darcy is not at fault in his dealings with Wickham.

Volume III, Chapter 2 Summary:

Mr. Darcy brings his sister to visit Elizabeth at the inn the very morning of her arrival. Elizabeth is caught by surprise, not thinking that they will come until the next day. She is extremely nervous because she wants Georgiana to form a good opinion of her. The Gardiners begin to suspect that Darcy has a partiality for Elizabeth, seeing no other explanation for such attentions. Elizabeth is relieved to see that Miss Darcy is as nervous as she is. Miss Darcy is shy, attractive and graceful, with unassuming and gentle manners. Soon Mr. Bingley comes to visit as well. All of Elizabeth's anger at him disappears upon seeing him. The Gardiners, through their observations and conversation, become completely convinced that Darcy is in love with Elizabeth.

Elizabeth observes the conduct of Bingley and Georgiana toward one another, and is happy to find no sign of particular regard on the part of either. When Bingley has a moment to speak to Elizabeth without the others' hearing, he inquires about Jane and seems to regret that it has been so long since he has seen her.

Elizabeth is amazed at Darcy's civility toward the Gardiners, relations which he had previously spoken of with disdain, and she cannot imagine the reason for his change in manners. Before the visitors leave Darcy invites Elizabeth and the Gardiners to dinner at Pemberley, and they accept.

The Gardiners, seeing that Darcy is in love with Elizabeth, reevaluate their former negative opinion of him, which had been based on the accounts of their friends in Hertfordshire. They are satisfied that he is a much better man they had previously thought, and also find that Wickham is not held in such good esteem in the area.

Elizabeth stays awake trying to discern her feelings for Darcy. She realizes that she is grateful to him for having loved her and loving her still even after the rudeness of her rejection. She is extremely impressed by his change of character, and esteems him highly, but is still not sure whether or not she loves him.

Mrs. Gardiner decides that she and Elizabeth should wait on Miss Darcy the following morning in return for her great politeness in coming to see them immediately after her arrival.

Volume III, Chapter 3 Summary:

During their visit to Pemberley Miss Darcy receives them with civility, although she is very shy. Mrs. Hurst and Miss Bingley say very little, and the conversation is carried on mostly by Mrs. Annesley (an acquaintance), Mrs. Gardiner and Elizabeth. Elizabeth both hopes and fears that Mr. Darcy will join them.

After a while Mr. Darcy does join them, and his actions are closely scrutinized by Miss Bingley and Miss Hurst. When Miss Bingley notices that Mr. Darcy is trying to get Elizabeth and Georgiana to converse, she asks Elizabeth a question about the militia. Elizabeth answers with composure, and notices that both Mr. Darcy and Georgiana are pained by the allusion to Wickham.

After Elizabeth and Mrs. Gardiner take their leave, Miss Bingley speaks negatively about Elizabeth to Georgiana, but Georgiana's opinion is fixed firmly in Elizabeth's favor by her brother's commendations. Miss Bingley also repeats her criticisms of Elizabeth to Darcy, and after much provocation he coolly answers that he considers Elizabeth one of the most handsome women he has ever met, and then walks away.

Volume III, Chapter 4 Summary:

Elizabeth receives two letters from her sister relating that Lydia has eloped with Wickham. At first they expected that the two were planning to go to Scotland to get married (because minors can marry without parental permission in Scotland). However, after gaining further intelligence they find that there is reason to doubt that Wickham has any intention of marrying her at all. Jane asks Elizabeth and the Gardiners to return home as soon as possible, and requests that Mr. Gardiner help her father search for Lydia and Wickham in London.

Elizabeth rushes to the door to go out to find Mr. Gardiner, but as she does so Mr. Darcy appears. She tells him with great agitation that she must go immediately in search of Mr. Gardiner, but he recommends that a servant be sent. That being done, Elizabeth collapses into a chair and when she is able to she explains the situation to Darcy. He is extremely distressed, thinking that if he had revealed more of what he knew about Wickham's character this could have been prevented. Elizabeth, observing Darcy, believes that such an action on her sister's part will make a renewal of Darcy's proposal impossible. Feeling this loss, she realizes that she loves him.

After a few minutes Darcy realizes that he is doing no good by his presence and takes his leave, promising to maintain secrecy on the matter and wishing that he could do more to help. Elizabeth watches him go with regret, doubting that they will ever meet again on such friendly terms.

Elizabeth has no doubts that Wickham does not plan to marry Lydia. She knows that Lydia would not have gone off with him if she were not under the pretense that they were going to be married, but Elizabeth also realizes that Lydia is easy prey for Wickham's deceptions. The Gardiners quickly return and Elizabeth relates the sad news to them. Mr. Gardiner promises to do all he can to help, and they quickly prepare for their journey.

Volume III, Chapter 5 Summary:

On the way back to Longbourn, Mr. Gardiner attempts to convince Elizabeth that Wickham must have a genuine intention of marrying Lydia, but Elizabeth, knowing what she does of Wickham, is not convinced. Elizabeth reproaches herself for not having revealed what she knew of Wickham's true character.

They arrive at Longbourn the next day and Jane is very happy to see Elizabeth. So far there is no new news about Lydia's whereabouts. Mrs. Bennet has taken things badly and will not leave her apartment. When they go to see her, she tells them that she blames the Forsters for neglect, not thinking that Lydia is the type of girl to do such a thing. She is alarmed that when Mr. Bennet finds them he will fight with Wickham and be killed. Mr. Gardiner tries to reassure her, and promises to do what he can to help Mr. Bennet in London. Kitty and Mary do not seem extremely upset over the situation.

When Elizabeth and Jane are alone they discuss what has happened in more detail. Jane shows Elizabeth the note which Lydia left for Mrs. Forster. Lydia's letter shows extreme thoughtlessness and frivolity, but also proves that she had every intention to marry Wickham.

Volume III, Chapter 6 Summary:

The next morning Mr. Gardiner sets off for London. Mrs. Gardiner plans to remain for a few more days at Longbourn in order to help Elizabeth and Jane. All in Meryton quickly changed their opinion of Wickham from "an angel of light" to "the wickedest young man in the world," now finding fault with so many of his actions.

A letter from Mr. Gardiner arrives in a couple of days, explaining that they plan to inquire at every major hotel about Lydia and Wickham. Mr. Gardiner also plans to ask Mr. Forster if anyone in the militia has any idea of where he would be staying in London.

They receive a letter from Mr. Collins, offering condolences and also criticizing the lack of parental attention to Lydia. He also alludes to the fact that he is now glad Elizabeth turned down his proposal, since being married to her would connect him with this disgrace.

Another letter arrives from Mr. Gardiner saying that Mr. Forster has had no luck in finding any possible close friends or relations with whom Wickham and Lydia might be staying. He also mentions that Wickham has extra reasons for secrecy because of over 1,000 dollars in gaming debts, along with other debts to the town merchants. Mr. Bennet decides to come home and leave the rest of the searching to Mr. Gardiner. At the same time, Mrs. Gardiner returns home to London with her children.

Elizabeth's misery at the situation is greatly increased by the knowledge that it probably ruins her chances of marriage to Darcy. When Elizabeth speaks to her father, he tells her that he thinks himself completely to blame.

Volume III, Chapter 7 Summary:

Mr. Bennet receives an express letter from Mr. Gardiner, stating that he has found Wickham and that Wickham will agree to marry Lydia on condition that she receives her equal share of Mr. Bennet's wealth after his death along with 100 pounds per year. Mr. Gardiner assumes that Wickham's debts are not so bad as everyone had thought.

Mr. Bennet comments that Mr. Gardiner must have paid Wickham a large sum of money to make him comply, since what Wickham is asking is extremely little. When Elizabeth and Jane relate the news to Mrs. Bennet, Kitty and Lydia, Mrs. Bennet is ecstatic. She begins to think about ordering the wedding clothes.

Volume III, Chapter 8 Summary:

Mr. Bennet wants to find out how much Mr. Gardiner paid to get Wickham to agree to the marriage and to pay him back as much as possible.

After listening throughout dinner to Mrs. Bennet's talk of wedding plans and suitable houses in the neighborhood for Lydia and Wickham, Mr. Bennet informs her that he will not receive the couple at Longbourn, nor give Lydia money for wedding clothes. Mrs. Bennet is more disgraced by her daughter's lack of new clothes for the wedding than by her elopement.

Elizabeth reflects on the fact that with Wickham as a member of the family, there is no possibility that Darcy will propose to her again. His proposal of four months ago would now be most gratefully received. She realizes that Darcy is the man who would most suit her, and that their personalities would complement each other for their mutual advantage.

Another letter arrives from Mr. Gardiner. He reports that Wickham is planning to quit the militia and that has a promise of an ensigncy in a regiment quartered in the North. The letter also mentions Wickham will pay off all his debts both in Brighton and Meryton. After entreaties from Elizabeth and Jane, Mr. Bennet decides to allow Lydia and Wickham to visit Longbourn before leaving for the North.

Volume III, Chapter 9 Summary:

When the couple arrives, they show no sense of shame whatsoever and Lydia shamelessly expects congratulations from all her sisters. Jane and Elizabeth are extremely distressed at Lydia's conduct.

Upon observance, Elizabeth finds that Wickham's affection for Lydia is not nearly so strong as her affection for him. Lydia relates to Elizabeth all the details of the wedding. She is completely ungrateful for what the Gardiners have done, and even complains that they would not let her go out while she was staying with them. Lydia mentions in passing that Mr. Darcy attended the wedding, but then says that she was not supposed to tell anyone. Elizabeth writes to Mrs. Gardiner asking for more details about why Mr. Darcy was at the wedding.

Volume III, Chapter 10 Summary:

Mrs. Gardiner's letter arrives, explaining all the particulars with regard to Mr. Darcy's involvement in the wedding. Mr. Darcy was the one who found out Wickham's whereabouts by bribing Miss Younge (the woman who had helped Wickham to seduce Georgiana) to tell him. When Darcy found the couple, he tried to convince Lydia to leave, but she refused. That being the case, Darcy tried to get Wickham to marry Lydia, which Wickham had no intention of doing. Darcy offered Wickham money in order to persuade him to marry Lydia. Darcy then waited until Mr. Bennet had left for Longbourn and went to inform Mr. Gardiner of all that had occurred, explaining that he felt guilty for not having exposed Wickham's character sooner.

Mrs. Gardiner concludes the letter stating that she is sure Darcy's actions are motivated by his love for Elizabeth, and relates to Elizabeth how much she thinks that he would be a good match.

In reflecting on the letter, Elizabeth is sensible of all the mortification and suffering which Darcy must have gone through in the process of getting Wickham to marry Lydia. She does not think, however, that his regard for her could possibly be the primary motive, and she still does not think that there is any hope that he will marry her.

Elizabeth's reflections are interrupted by Wickham. They have a guarded conversation in which she makes it clear that she knows more about Wickham's true past than he would like, but she avoids provoking him for Lydia's sake.

Volume III, Chapter 11 Summary:

Lydia and Wickham leave for Newcastle, where his new regiment is stationed. Lydia's good-byes are not very affectionate. Mrs. Bennet is sad that she will not be able to see her daughter for a long time.

Mrs. Bennet hears from Mrs. Phillips that Mr. Bingley is planning to return to Netherfield in a few days. Jane tells Elizabeth that she does not want to see much of him. Elizabeth, however, after having seen him while on vacation with the Gardiners, is sure that he is still partial to Jane, and thinks that perhaps Mr. Darcy may have told Bingley that he now approves of the match.

Mrs. Bennet plans to invite Bingley to dinner. Jane is obviously disturbed by his coming and is pained by the constant mention of his name.

Mr. Bingley and Darcy come to pay a visit at Netherfield. Elizabeth begins to hope that Darcy's affections for her are not shaken. When they come in, Elizabeth is pained by Mrs. Bennet's cold reception of Darcy in comparison with Mr. Bingley, considering how much she owes to Darcy. Elizabeth is also mortified by her mother's jubilant announcement of Lydia and Wickham's marriage. Darcy speaks little during the visit. When the gentlemen are leaving Mrs. Bennet invites them for dinner.

Volume III, Chapter 12 Summary:

During the dinner party, Bingley sits next to Jane and Elizabeth is convinced that he still admires her. Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth are sitting too far apart to be able to speak, and circumstances prevent them from conversing after dinner. Elizabeth is anxious and annoyed because she wants to speak with him very badly. Mrs. Bennet is extremely pleased with the dinner and is sure that Bingley and Jane will soon be married. Mr. Darcy is going back to London but will return in 10 days.

Volume III, Chapter 13 Summary:

After a few days Mr. Bingley calls again, and the day after he joins them again for dinner. Mrs. Bennet contrives to get Jane and Bingley alone together, but is unsuccessful. The next morning Mr. Bingley joins Mr. Bennet to go hunting, and he then stays for dinner. Mrs. Bennet is this time successful in arranging for Jane and Bingley to be left alone together. When Elizabeth walks into the drawing room she finds them there alone in earnest conversation. Bingley quickly leaves and Jane tells Elizabeth that she is the happiest woman in the world. Jane then goes to tell her mother, and Bingley, who had gone to speak with Mr. Bennet, returns and receives Elizabeth's congratulations. All are very happy. Bingley now comes to visit Netherfield every day.

Volume III, Chapter 14 Summary:

Early the next morning Lady Catherine unexpectedly comes to visit. Lady Catherine is, as usual, domineering and arrogant in her conversation. She tells Elizabeth she would like her company for a walk outside. Lady Catherine tells Elizabeth that she has come because of rumors that Darcy and Elizabeth will soon be married. Elizabeth answers her inquiries curtly and without revealing the fact that Darcy has not proposed to her again. Lady Catherine tries to forbid Elizabeth to marry Mr. Darcy, but Elizabeth is insensible to her entreaties and threats. Lady Catherine is furious and leaves.

Volume III, Chapter 15 Summary:

Her conversation with Lady Catherine throws Elizabeth into a great discomposure of spirits. She is not sure what the cause of Lady Catherine's suspicion is, but she is uneasy about the fact that Lady Catherine will surely try to influence Darcy not to propose.

Mr. Bennet tells Elizabeth that he wants to speak with her and relates to her the contents of a letter from Mr. Collins in which he says that he has heard that Mr. Darcy may propose to Elizabeth and advises Elizabeth not to accept because of Lady Catherine's disapprobation. Mr. Bennet thinks the letter is extremely amusing because he still thinks that Darcy is indifferent to Elizabeth and that Elizabeth hates Darcy.

Volume III, Chapter 16 Summary:

Within a few days Mr. Darcy returns to Netherfield and he and Mr. Bingley come to Longbourn early in the day. Jane, Bingley, Darcy, Elizabeth, and Kitty take a walk. Jane and Bingley lag behind the rest, and eventually Darcy and Elizabeth are left to walk together alone as well. As soon as they are alone Elizabeth expresses to Darcy her gratitude for his assistance in the affair with Wickham and Lydia. Darcy replies that he wishes she had not found out, but adds that what he did was done for Elizabeth's sake. Elizabeth cannot say a word. Darcy tells her that his affections are no different than they were when he proposed, and asks her to tell him if hers are the same as well. Elizabeth informs him that her sentiments have changed and that she will now gladly receive his assurances of continued affection. He is overcome with delight upon hearing this and speaks warmly and fervently about his love. Lady Catherine's attempt to dissuade him from proposing only had the effect of giving him hope by letting him know that Elizabeth was not decided against marrying him.

They speak about the last proposal, both apologizing for their lack of civility. Mr. Darcy had been tortured by Elizabeth's reproof "had you acted in a more gentleman-like manner." This and her other reproofs on that night humbled him and led him to realize his selfishness and conceit. Elizabeth tells Darcy that his letter slowly removed all her former prejudices. When Darcy met Elizabeth at Pemberley, he wanted to show her immediately that he had changed as a result of her just reproofs.

Darcy tells Elizabeth that before leaving for London he had told Bingley that he had been wrong in interfering with Bingley's relationship with Jane and that he was now sure that Jane was really attached to him. This assurance from Darcy gave Bingley the encouragement he needed to make the proposal.

Volume III, Chapter 17 Summary:

At night, when she is finally able to speak with Jane alone, Elizabeth tells her what has happened. Jane is incredulous. But eventually Elizabeth convinces her that she is serious and that she really does love Darcy. Elizabeth explains her reasons for previously concealing her affection, and reveals to Jane what Darcy did for Lydia. Jane is extremely happy for her, and they spend half the night talking.

The next morning Mrs. Bennet is annoyed on seeing that Mr. Darcy has again accompanied Bingley to Longbourn, and suggests that Elizabeth go for a walk with him to keep him out of Jane and Bingley's way. Elizabeth is quite happy to comply. Bingley greets Elizabeth with such warmth that she is sure he knows of her engagement. During their walk Elizabeth and Darcy decide that Darcy will ask Mr. Bennet's consent in the evening and that Elizabeth will speak to her mother.

After Mr. Darcy speaks with Mr. Bennet, Darcy tells Elizabeth that her father wants to speak with her. Mr. Bennet is shocked because he thinks that Elizabeth hates Darcy. After long explanations she assures Mr. Bennet of her affection for him. She also tells him of what Darcy did for Lydia. He is surprised and happy for his daughter.

At night Elizabeth tells her mother of the engagement. Her mother is shocked but extremely happy in thinking of how rich Darcy is. Her former dislike of him is completely forgotten.

The next day her mother acts remarkably well toward Darcy, and her father tries to get to know him better and is pleased with him.

Volume III, Chapter 18 Summary:

Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy converse playfully about how he fell in love with her in the first place and why he took so long to propose the second time. He tells her that his second proposal was all thanks to Lady Catherine, her warning having given him hope of Elizabeth's affection. Elizabeth asks him when he will tell Lady Catherine the news, and he goes off to write to her, while Elizabeth goes to write to Mrs. Gardiner.

Miss Bingley's reactions to Mr. Bingley's engagement to Jane are affectionate and insincere. Miss Darcy's reaction to news of Mr. Darcy's engagement is one of genuine delight.

The Collinses come to stay at Lucas Lodge because Lady Catherine is so angry at the engagement. Darcy deals well with the obsequiousness of Mr. Collins, along with the vulgarity of Mrs. Philips and Mrs. Bennet.

Mrs. Bennet is extremely happy and proud at her daughters' marriages. Mr. Bennet misses Elizabeth and often goes to visit her at Pemberley.

Bingley and Jane leave Netherfield after a year and move to Derbyshire, because their closeness to Mrs. Bennet and the Meryton relations is too much to bear even for them.

Kitty now spends most of her time with her sisters, and is much improved by their example and society. Mary stays at home and keeps her mother company on her visits.

Lydia soon writes to Elizabeth to congratulate her and ask her to see if Mr. Darcy will use his money and influence to help Wickham. Elizabeth replies negatively, but does send Lydia money that she saves by economizing in her private expenses.

Miss Bingley drops her resentment of Darcy's marriage because she wants to retain the right of visiting Pemberley. Georgiana and Elizabeth become very close and very fond of one another. Relations with Lady Catherine were broken off for a while, but Elizabeth finally convinces Darcy to attempt a reconciliation, and Lady Catherine comes to visit them. Darcy and Elizabeth are always on intimate terms with the Gardiners, to whom they are grateful for having brought them together.

Pygmalion by B.Shaw


Born in Dublin in 1856 to a middle-class Protestant family bearing pretensions to nobility (Shaw's embarrassing alcoholic father claimed to be descended from Macduff, the slayer of Macbeth), George Bernard Shaw grew to become what some consider the second greatest English playwright, behind only Shakespeare. Others most certainly disagree with such an assessment, but few question Shaw's immense talent or the play's that talent produced.

Shaw died at the age of 94, a hypochondriac, socialist, anti-vaccinationist, semi-feminist vegetarian who believed in the Life Force and only wore wool. He left behind him a truly massive corpus of work including about 60 plays, 5 novels, 3 volumes of music criticism, 4 volumes of dance and theatrical criticism, and heaps of social commentary, political theory, and voluminous correspondence. And this list does not include the opinions that Shaw could always be counted on to hold about any topic, and which this amboyant public figure was always most willing to share. Shaw's most lasting contribution is no doubt his plays, and it has been said that "a day never passes without a performance of some Shaw play being given somewhere in the world." One of Shaw's greatest contributions as a modern dramatist is in establishing drama as serious literature, negotiating publication deals for his highly popular plays so as to convince the public that the play was no less important than the novel. In that way, he created the conditions for later playwrights to write seriously for the theater.

Of all of Shaw's plays, Pygmalion is without the doubt the most beloved and popularly received, if not the most significant in literary terms. Several _lm versions have been made of the play, and it has even been adapted into a musical. In fact, writing the screenplay for the _lm version of 1938 helped Shaw to become the first and only man ever to win the much coveted Double: the Nobel Prize for literature and an Academy Award. Shaw wrote the part of Eliza in Pygmalion for the famous actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell, with whom Shaw was having a prominent affair at the time that had set all of London abuzz.

The aborted romance between Professor Higgins and Eliza Doolittle reflects Shaw's own love life, which was always peppered with enamored and beautiful women, with whom he flirted outrageously but with whom he almost never had any further relations. For example, he had a long marriage to Charlotte Payne-Townsend in which it is well known that he never touched her once. The fact that Shaw was quietly a member of the British Society for the Study of Sex Psychology, an organization whose core members were young men agitating for homosexual liberation, might or might not inform the way that Higgins would rather focus his passions on literature or science than on women. That Higgins was a representation of Pygmalion, the character from the famous story of Ovid's Metamorphoses who is the very embodiment of male love for the female form, makes Higgins sexual disinterest all the more compelling. Shaw is too consummate a performer and too smooth in his self- presentation for us to neatly dissect his sexual background; these lean biographical facts, however, do support the belief that Shaw would have an interest in exploding the typical structures of standard fairy tales.


Professor Henry Higgins  Henry Higgins is a professor of phonetics who plays Pygmalion to Eliza Doolittle's Galatea. He is the author of Higgins' Universal Alphabet, believes in concepts like visible speech, and uses all manner of recording and photographic material to document his phonetic subjects, reducing people and their dialects into what he sees as readily understandable units. He is an unconventional man, who goes in the opposite direction from the rest of society in most matters. Indeed, he is impatient with high society, forgetful in his public graces, and poorly considerate of normal social niceties the only reason the world has not turned against him is because he is at heart a good and harmless man. His biggest fault is that he can be a bully.

Eliza Doolittle f Eliza, The Flower Girl, Flower Girl, flower girl, The flower girl, the flower girl g  "She is not at all a romantic figure." So is she introduced in Act I. Everything about Eliza Doolittle seems to defy any conventional notions we might have about the romantic heroine. When she is transformed from a sassy, smart-mouthed kerbstone flower girl with deplorable English, to a (still sassy) regal figure _t to consort with nobility, it has less to do with her innate qualities as a heroine than with the fairy-tale aspect of the transformation myth itself. In other words, the character of Eliza Doolittle comes across as being much more instrumental than fundamental. The real (re-)making of Eliza Doolittle happens after the ambassador's party, when she decides to make a statement for her own dignity against Higgins' insensitive treatment. This is when she becomes, not a duchess, but an independent woman; and this explains why Higgins begins to see Eliza not as a mill around his neck but as a creature worthy of his admiration.

Colonel Pickering  Colonel Pickering, the author of Spoken Sanskrit, is a match for Higgins (although somewhat less obsessive) in his passion for phonetics. But where Higgins is a boorish, careless bully, Pickering is always considerate and a genuinely gentleman. He says little of note in the play, and appears most of all to be a civilized foil to Higgins' barefoot, absentminded crazy professor. He helps in the Eliza Doolittle experiment by making a wager of it, saying he will cover the costs of the experiment if Higgins does indeed make a convincing duchess of her. However, while Higgins only manages to teach Eliza pronunciations, it is Pickering's thoughtful treatment towards Eliza that teaches her to respect herself.

Alfred Doolittle  Alfred Doolittle is Eliza's father, an elderly but vigorous dustman who has had at least six wives and who "seems equally free from fear and conscience." When he learns that his daughter has entered the home of Henry Higgins, he immediately pursues to see if he can get some money out of the circumstance. His unique brand of rhetoric, an unembarrassed, unhypocritical advocation of drink and pleasure (at other people's expense), is amusing to Higgins. Through Higgins' joking recommendation, Doolittle becomes a richly endowed lecturer to a moral reform society, transforming him from lowly dustman to a picture of middle class morality he becomes miserable. Throughout, Alfred is a scoundrel who is willing to sell his daughter to make a few pounds, but he is one of the few unaffected characters in the play, unmasked by appearance or language. Though scandalous, his speeches are honest. At points, it even seems that he might be Shaw's voice piece of social criticism (Alfred's proletariat status, given Shaw's socialist leanings, makes the prospect all the more likely).

Mrs. Higgins  Professor Higgins' mother, Mrs. Higgins is a stately lady in her sixties who sees the Eliza Doolittle experiment as idiocy, and Higgins and Pickering as senseless children. She is the first and only character to have any qualms about the whole affair. When her worries prove true, it is to her that all the characters turn. Because no woman can match up to his mother, Higgins claims, he has no interest in dallying with them. To observe the mother of Pygmalion (Higgins), who completely understands all of his failings and inadequacies, is a good contrast to the mythic proportions to which Higgins builds himself in his self-estimations as a scientist of phonetics and a creator of duchesses.

Freddy Eynsford Hill  Higgins' surmise that Freddy is a fool is probably accurate. In the opening scene he is a spineless and resourceless lackey to his mother and sister. Later, he is comically bowled over by Eliza, the half-baked duchess who still speaks cockney. He becomes lovesick for Eliza, and courts her with letters. At the play's close, Freddy serves as a young, viable marriage option for Eliza, making the possible path she will follow unclear to the reader.



Two old gentlemen meet in the rain one night at Covent Garden. Professor Higgins is a scientist of phonetics, and Colonel Pickering is a linguist of Indian dialects. The first bets the other that he can, with his knowledge of phonetics, convince high London society that, in a matter of months, he will be able to transform the cockney speaking Covent Garden flower girl, Eliza Doolittle, into a woman as poised and well-spoken as a duchess.

The next morning, the girl appears at his laboratory on Wimpole Street to ask for speech lessons, offering to pay a shilling, so that she may speak properly enough to work in a flower shop. Higgins makes merciless fun of her, but is seduced by the idea of working his magic on her. Pickering goads him on by agreeing to cover the costs of the experiment if Higgins can pass Eliza off as a duchess at an ambassador's garden party. The challenge is taken, and Higgins starts by having his housekeeper bathe Eliza and give her new clothes. Then Eliza's father Alfred Doolittle comes to demand the return of his daughter, though his real intention is to hit Higgins up for some money.

The professor, amused by Doolittle's unusual rhetoric, gives him five pounds. On his way out, the dustman fails to recognize the now clean, pretty flower girl as his daughter.

For a number of months, Higgins trains Eliza to speak properly. Two trials for Eliza follow. The first occurs at Higgins' mother's home, where Eliza is introduced to the Eynsford Hills, a trio of mother, daughter, and son. The son Freddy is very attracted to her, and further taken with what he thinks is her affected "small talk" when she slips into cockney. Mrs. Higgins worries that the experiment will lead to problems once it is ended, but Higgins and Pickering are too absorbed in their game to take heed. A second trial, which takes place some months later at an ambassador's party (and which is not actually staged), is a resounding success. The wager is definitely won, but Higgins and Pickering are now bored with the project, which causes Eliza to be hurt. She throws Higgins' slippers at him in a rage because she does not know what is to become of her, thereby bewildering him. He suggests she marry somebody. She returns him the hired jewelry, and he accuses her of ingratitude.

The following morning, Higgins rushes to his mother, in a panic because Eliza has run away. On his tail is Eliza's father, now unhappily rich from the trust of a deceased millionaire who took to heart Higgins' recommendation that Doolittle was England's "most original moralist." Mrs. Higgins, who has been hiding Eliza upstairs all along, chides the two of them for playing with the girl's affections. When she enters, Eliza thanks Pickering for always treating her like a lady, but threatens Higgins that she will go work with his rival phonetician, Nepommuck. The outraged Higgins cannot help but start to admire her. As Eliza leaves for her father's wedding, Higgins shouts out a few errands for her to run, assuming that she will return to him at Wimpole Street. Eliza, who has a lovelorn sweetheart in Freddy, and the wherewithal to pass as a duchess, never makes it clear whether she will or not.

Act I

A heavy late-night summer thunderstorm opens the play. Caught in the unexpected downpour, passers-by from distinct strata of the London streets are forced to seek shelter together under the portico of St Paul's church in Covent Garden. The hapless Son is forced by his demanding sister and mother to go out into the rain to find a taxi even though there is none to be found. In his hurry, he knocks over the basket of a common Flower Girl, who says to him, "Nah then, Freddy: look wh' y' gowin, deah." After Freddy leaves, the mother gives the Flower Girl money to ask how she knew her son's name, only to learn that "Freddy" is a common by-word the Flower Girl would have used to address anyone.

An elderly military Gentleman enters from the rain, and the Flower Girl tries to sell him a flower. He gives her some change, but a bystander tells her to be careful, for it looks like there is a police informer taking copious notes on her activities. This leads to hysterical protestations on her part, that she is only a poor girl who has done no wrong. The refugees from the rain crowd around her and the Note Taker, with considerable hostility towards the latter, whom they believe to be an undercover cop. However, each time someone speaks up, this mysterious man has the amusing ability to determine where the person came from, simply by listening to that person's speech, which turns him into something of a sideshow.

The rain clears, leaving few other people than the Flower Girl, the Note Taker, and the Gentleman. In response to a question from the Gentleman, the Note Taker answers that his talent comes from "simply phonetics...the science of speech." He goes on to brag that he can use phonetics to make a duchess out of the Flower Girl. Through further questioning, the Note Taker and the Gentleman reveal that they are Henry Higgins and Colonel Pickering respectively, both scholars of dialects who have been wanting to visit with each other. They decide to go for a supper, but not until Higgins has been convinced by the Flower Girl to give her some change. He generously throws her a half-crown, some florins, and a half-sovereign. This allows the delighted girl to take a taxi home, the same taxi that Freddy has brought back, only to find that his impatient mother and sister have left without him.

Act II

The next day, Higgins and Pickering are just resting from a full morning of discussion when Eliza Doolittle shows up at the door, to the tremendous doubt of the discerning housekeeper Mrs. Pearce, and the surprise of the two gentlemen. Prompted by his careless brag about making her into a duchess the night before, she has come to take lessons from Higgins, so that she may sound genteel enough to work in a flower shop rather than sell at the corner of Tottenham Court Road. As the conversation progresses, Higgins alternates between making fun of the poor girl and threatening her with a broomstick beating, which only causes her to howl and holler, upsetting Higgins' civilized company to a considerable degree. Pickering is much kinder and considerate of her feelings, even going so far as to call her "Miss Doolittle" and to offer her a seat. Pickering is piqued by the prospect of helping Eliza, and bets Higgins that if Higgins is able to pass Eliza o_ as a duchess at the Ambassador's garden party, then he, Pickering, will cover the expenses of the experiment.

This act is made up mostly of a long and animated three-(sometimes four-)way argument over the character and the potential of the indignant Eliza.

At one point, incensed by Higgins' heartless insults, she threatens to leave, but the clever professor lures her back by stuffing her mouth with a chocolate, half of which he eats too to prove to her that it is not poisoned. It is agreed upon that Eliza will live with Higgins for six months, and be schooled in the speech and manners of a lady of high class. Things get started when Mrs. Pearce takes her upstairs for a bath.

While Mrs. Pearce and Eliza are away, Pickering wants to be sure that Higgins' intentions towards the girl are honorable, to which Higgins replies that, to him, women "might as well be blocks of wood." Mrs. Pearce enters to warn Higgins that he should be more careful with his swearing and his forgetful table manners now that they have an impressionable young lady with them, revealing that Higgins's own gentlemanly ways are somewhat precarious. At this point, Alfred Doolittle, who has learned from a neighbor of Eliza's that she has come to the professor's place, comes a-knocking under the pretence of saving his daughter's honor. When Higgins readily agrees that he should take his daughter away with him, Doolittle reveals that he is really there to ask for five pounds, proudly claiming that he will spend that money on immediate gratification and put none of it to useless savings.

Amused by his blustering rhetoric, Higgins gives him the money. Eliza enters, clean and pretty in a blue kimono, and everyone is amazed by the difference. Even her father has failed to recognize her. Eliza is taken with her transformation and wants to go back to her old neighborhood and show o_, but she is warned against snobbery by Higgins. The act ends with the two of them agreeing that they have taken on a difficult task.


It is Mrs. Higgins' at-home day, and she is greatly displeased when Henry Higgins shows up suddenly, for she knows from experience that he is too eccentric to be presentable in front of the sort of respectable company she is expecting. He explains to her that he wants to bring the experiment subject on whom he has been working for some months to her at-home, and explains the bet that he has made with Pickering. Mrs. Higgins is not pleased about this unsolicited visit from a common flower girl, but she has no time to oppose before Mrs. and Miss Eynsford Hill (the mother and daughter from the first scene) are shown into the parlor by the parlor-maid. Colonel Pickering enters soon after, followed by Freddy Eynsford Hill, the hapless son from Covent Garden.

Higgins is about to really offend the company with a theory that they are all savages who know nothing about being civilized when Eliza is announced. She makes quite an impact on everyone with her studied grace and pedantic speech. Everything promises to go well until Mrs. Eynsford Hill brings up the subject of influenza, which causes Eliza to launch into the topic of her aunt, who supposedly died of influenza. In her excitement, her old accent, along with shocking facts such as her father's alcoholism, slip out. Freddy thinks that she is merely affecting "the new small talk," and is dazzled by how well she does it. He is obviously infatuated with her.

 When Eliza gets up to leave, he offers to walk her but she exclaims, "Walk! Not bloody likely. I am going in a taxi." The Mrs. Eynsford Hill leave immediately after. Clara, Miss Eynsford Hill, is taken with Eliza, and tries to imitate her speech. After the guests leave, Mrs. Higgins chides Higgins. She says there is no way Eliza will become presentable as long as she lives with the constantly-swearing Higgins. She demands to know the precise conditions under which Eliza is living with the two old bachelors. She is prompted to say, "You certainly are a pretty pair of babies, playing with your live doll," which is only the first of a series of such criticisms she makes of Higgins and Pickering.

They assail her simultaneously with accounts of Eliza's improvement until she must quiet them. She tries to explain to them that there will be a problem of what to do with Eliza once everything is over, but the two men pay no heed. They take their leave, and Mrs. Higgins is left exasperated by the "infinite stupidity" of "men! men!! men!!!"

Act IV

The trio return to Higgins' Wimpole Street laboratory, exhausted from the night's happenings. They talk about the evening and their great success, though Higgins seems rather bored, more concerned with his inability to find slippers. While he talks absentmindedly with Pickering, Eliza slips out, returns with his slippers, and lays them on the floor before him without a word. When he notices them, he thinks that they appeared out of nowhere.

Higgins and Pickering begin to speak as if Eliza is not there with them, saying how happy they are that the entire experiment is over, agreeing that it had become rather boring in the last few months. The two of them then leave the room to go to bed. Eliza is clearly hurt ("Eliza's beauty turns murderous," say the stage directions), but Higgins and Pickering are oblivious to her.

Higgins pops back in, once again mystified over what he has done with his slippers, and Eliza promptly flings them in his face. Eliza is mad enough to kill him; she thinks that she is no more important to him than his slippers.

At Higgins' retort that she is presumptuous and ungrateful, she answers that no one has treated her badly, but that she is still left confused about what is to happen to her now that the bet has been won. Higgins says that she can always get married or open that flower shop (both of which she eventually does), but she replies by saying that she wishes she had been left where she was before. She goes on to ask whether her clothes belong to her, meaning what can she take away with her without being accused of thievery. Higgins is genuinely hurt, something that does not happen to him often. She returns him a ring he bought for her, but he throws it into the _replace. After he leaves, she finds it again, but then leaves it on the dessert stand and departs.

Act V

Higgins and Pickering show up the next day at Mrs. Higgins' home in a state of distraction because Eliza has run away. They are interrupted by Alfred Doolittle, who enters resplendently dressed, as if he were the bridegroom of a very fashionable wedding. He has come to take issue with Henry Higgins for destroying his happiness. It turns out that Higgins wrote a letter to a millionaire jokingly recommending Doolittle as a most original moralist, so that in his will the millionaire left Doolittle a share in his trust, amounting to three thousand pounds a year, provided that he lecture for the Wannafeller Moral Reform World League. Newfound wealth has only brought him more pain than pleasure, as long lost relatives emerge from the woodwork asking to be fed, not to mention that he is now no longer free to behave in his casual, slovenly, dustman ways. He has been damned by "middle class morality."

The talk degenerates into a squabble over who owns Eliza, Higgins or her father (Higgins did give the latter five pounds for her after all). To stop them, Mrs. Higgins sends for Eliza, who has been upstairs all along. But first she tells Doolittle to step out on the balcony so that the she will not be shocked by the story of his new fortune.

When she enters, Eliza takes care to behave very civilly. Pickering tells her she must not think of herself as an experiment, and she expresses her gratitude to him. She says that even though Higgins was the one who trained the flower girl to become a duchess, Pickering always treated her like a duchess, even when she was a flower girl. His treatment of her taught her not phonetics, but self-respect. Higgins is speaking incorrigibly harshly to her when her father reappears, surprising her badly. He tells her that he is all dressed up because he is on his way to get married to his woman. Pickering and Mrs. Higgins are asked to come along. Higgins and Eliza are finally left alone while the rest go o_ to get ready.

They proceed to quarrel. Higgins claims that while he may treat her badly, he is at least fair in that he has never treated anyone else differently. He tells her she should come back with him just for the fun of flithe will adopt her as a daughter, or she can marry Pickering. She swings around and cries that she won't even marry Higgins if he asks. She mentions that Freddy has been writing her love letters, but Higgins immediately dismisses him as a fool.

She says that she will marry Freddy, and that the two will support themselves by taking Higgins' phonetic methods to his chief rival, Nepommuck. Higgins is outraged but cannot help wondering at her character he finds his defiance much more appealing than the submissiveness of the slippers-fetcher. Mrs. Higgins comes in to tell Eliza it is time to leave. As she is about to exit, Higgins tells her off handedly to fetch him some gloves, ties, ham, and cheese while she is out. She replies ambivalently and departs; we do not know if she will follow his orders. The play ends with Higgins's roaring laughter as he says to his mother, "She's going to marry Freddy. Ha! Freddy! Freddy!! Ha ha ha ha ha!!!!!"


Олден Пайл — предстаитель экономического отдела американского посольства в Сайгоне, антагонист Фаулера, другого героя романа. Будучи обобщенным изображением вполне конкретных политических сил и методов борьбы на мировой арене, фигура О. П. несет в себе и более глубокий и широкий смысл. Перед нами достаточно знакомый тип человеческого поведения, сформировавшийся именно в XX в., в эпоху острого идеологического противостояния государств и систем, когда идейная убежденность человека, не способного мыслить самостоятельно и критически, оборачивается на психическом уровне своеобразной запрограммированностью суждений и действий, шаблонностью мышления, стремящегося заключить сложность людских отношений в уже готовые рамки и схемы.

Для О. П. не существует ничего индивидуального, частного, неповторимого. Все, что он видит, переживает сам, он стремится подвести под систему понятий, соотнести с некими якобы навсегда данными правилами, моделью отношений: свой любовный опыт он сопоставляет с выводами статистики Кинси, впечатления о Вьетнаме — с точкой зрения американских политических комментаторов. Каждый убитый для него либо «красная опасность», либо «воин демократии». Художественное своеобразие романа основано на сопоставлении и противопоставлении двух главных действующих лиц: Фаулера и О. П. Гораздо более благополучным выглядит О. П.: он закончил Гарвард, он из хорошей семьи, молод и довольно богат.

Томас Фаулер — английский журналист, работающий в Южном Вьетнаме в 1951—1955 гг. Усталый, душевно опустошенный человек, во многом схожий со Скоби — героем другого романа Грэма Грина— «Суть дела». Он считает, что его долг — сообщать в газеты только факты, оценка их его не касается, он не хочет ни во что вмешиваться, стремится остаться нейтральным наблюдателем. В Сайгоне Т. Ф. уже давно, и единственное, чем он дорожит, что удерживает его там, — любовь к вьетнамской девушке Фуонг. Но появляется американец Олден Пайл, который уводит Фуонг. Роман начинается с убийства Пай л а и с того, что Фуонг возвращается к Т. Ф. Но дальше идет ретроспекция. Полиция ищет преступника, а параллельно с этим Т. Ф. вспоминает о Пайле: тот спас его во время нападения вьетнамских партизан, буквально отнеся в безопасное место, рискуя собственной жизнью. Как будто бы добрый поступок?

Пайл раздражает Т. Ф. своими идеями, своим безапелляционным поведением, граничащим с фанатизмом. Узнав наконец, что взрыв на площади, устроенный американцами, в результате которого погибли женщины и дети, дело рук Пайла, Т. Ф. не выдерживает и передает его в руки вьетнамских партизан: «Вы бы на него посмотрели... Он стоял там и говорил, что все это печальное недоразумение, что должен был состояться парад... Там, на площади, у одной женщины убили ребенка... Она закрыла его соломенной шляпой». После смерти Пайла как-то сама собой устраивается судьба Т. Ф.: он остается во Вьетнаме — «этой честной стране», где нищета не прикрыта стыдливыми покровами; женщина, некогда легко оставившая его для Пайла, с той же естественностью выгоды легко и грустно приходит теперь назад.

The Quiet American by G.Greene

Олден Пайл - представитель экономического отдела американского посольства в Сайгоне, антагонист Фаулера, другого героя романа. Будучи обобщенным изображением вполне конкретных политических сил и методов борьбы на мировой арене, фигура О. П. несет в себе и более глубокий и широкий смысл. Перед нами достаточно знакомый тип человеческого поведения, сформировавшийся именно в XX в., в эпоху острого идеологического противостояния государств и систем, когда идейная убежденность человека, не способного мыслить самостоятельно и критически, оборачивается на психическом уровне своеобразной запрограммированностью суждений и действий, шаблонностью мышления, стремящегося заключить сложность людских отношений в уже готовые рамки и схемы. Для О. П. не существует ничего индивидуального, частного, неповторимого. Все, что он видит, переживает сам, он стремится подвести под систему понятий, соотнести с некими якобы навсегда данными правилами, моделью отношений: свой любовный опыт он сопоставляет с выводами статистики Кинси, впечатления о Вьетнаме - с точкой зрения американских политических комментаторов. Каждый убитый для него либо "красная опасность", либо "воин демократии". Художественное своеобразие романа основано на сопоставлении и противопоставлении двух главных действующих лиц: Фаулера и О. П. Гораздо более благополучным выглядит О. П.: он закончил Гарвард, он из хорошей семьи, молод и довольно богат. Все подчинено правилам морали, но морали формальной.

Так, он уводит у своего друга Фаулера девушку, причем объясняет это тем, что ей будет с ним лучше, он может дать ей то, что не может Фаулер: жениться на ней и дать ей положение в обществе; жизнь его разумна и размеренна. Постепенно О. П. превращается в носителя агрессии. "Напрасно я уже тогда не обратил внимания на этот фанатический блеск в его глазах, не понял, как гипнотизируют его слова, магические числа: пятая колонна, третья сила, второе пришествие..." - думает о нем Фаулер. Той третьей силой, которая может и должна спасти Вьетнам, а заодно помочь установлению господства США в стране, по мнению О. П. и тех, кто направляет его, должна стать национальная демократия. Фаулер предупреждает О. П.: "Эта ваша третья сила- это все книжные выдумки, не больше. Генерал Тхе просто головорез с двумя-тремя тысячами солдат, никакая это не третья демократия". Но О. П. переубедить нельзя. Он организует взрыв на площади, и гибнут ни в чем не повинные женщины и дети, а О. П., стоящего на площади, заполненной трупами, волнует ничтожное: "Он взглянул на мокрое пятно на своем башмаке и упавшим голосом спросил: - Что это? - Кровь, - сказал я, - никогда не видели, что ли? - Надо непременно почистить, так нельзя идти к посланнику, - сказал он..." К моменту начала повествования О. П. мертв- он предстает перед нами в мыслях Фаулера: "Я подумал: "Какой смысл с ним говорить? Он так и останется праведником, а разве можно обвинять праведников - они никогда ни в чем не виноваты. Их можно только сдерживать или уничтожать. Праведник - тоже своего рода душевнобольной".

Томас Фаулер - английский журналист, работающий в Южном Вьетнаме в 1951-1955 гг. Усталый, душевно опустошенный человек, во многом схожий со Скоби - героем другого романа Грэма Грина- "Суть дела". Он считает, что его долг - сообщать в газеты только факты, оценка их его не касается, он не хочет ни во что вмешиваться, стремится остаться нейтральным наблюдателем. В Сайгоне Т. Ф. уже давно, и единственное, чем он дорожит, что удерживает его там, - любовь к вьетнамской девушке Фу-онг. Но появляется американец Олден Пайл, который уводит Фуонг. Роман начинается с убийства Пай л а и с того, что Фуонг возвращается к Т. Ф. Но дальше идет ретроспекция. Полиция ищет преступника, а параллельно с этим Т. Ф. вспоминает о Пайле: тот спас его во время нападения вьетнамских партизан, буквально отнеся в безопасное место, рискуя собственной жизнью. Как будто бы добрый поступок? Пайл раздражает Т. Ф. своими идеями, своим безапелляционным поведением, граничащим с фанатизмом. Узнав наконец, что взрыв на площади, устроенный американцами, в результате которого погибли женщины и дети, дело рук Пайла, Т. Ф. не выдерживает и передает его в руки вьетнамских партизан: "Вы бы на него посмотрели... Он стоял там и говорил, что все это печальное недоразумение, что должен был состояться парад... Там, на площади, у одной женщины убили ребенка... Она закрыла его соломенной шляпой". После смерти Пайла как-то сама собой устраивается судьба Т. Ф.: он остается во Вьетнаме - "этой честной стране", где нищета не прикрыта стыдливыми покровами; женщина, некогда легко оставившая его для Пайла, с той же естественностью выгоды легко и грустно приходит теперь назад.

Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

Part 1 Summary:

The narrator introduces himself as Robinson Crusoe. He was born in 1632 in the city of York to a good family. His father is a foreigner who made money in merchandise before settling to down and marrying his mother, whose surname is Robinson. His true last name is Kreutznaer, but has been corrupted into Crusoe by the English. There are two older brothers in the family; one died in the English regiment, and Robinson does not know what became of the other.

Crusoe's father has designed him for the law, but early on his head is filled with "rambling thoughts" of going to sea. No advice or entreaties can diminish his desire. His father gives him "excellent advice and counsel," telling him that only men of desperate and superior fortunes go abroad in search of adventures, and that he is too high or too low for such activities. His station is the middle station, a state which all figures, great and small, will envy eventually, and his happiness would be assured if he would stay at home. Nature has provided this life, and Robinson should not go against this. After all, look what happened to his brother who went into the army. The narrator is truly affected by his father's discourse, but after a few weeks he decides to run away. He prevails upon his mother to speak to his father and persuade him to allow one voyage. If Robinson does not like it, he resolves to go home and think of the sea no more. She reluctantly reports their conversation, but no headway is made, no consent given. About a year later, he is able to procure free passage on a friend's boat heading to London. Asking for no blessing or money, he boards the ship and leaves.

Misfortune begins immediately. The sea is rough, and Robinson regrets his decision to leave home. He sees now how comfortably his father lives. The sea calms, and after a few days, the thoughts are dismissed. The narrator speaks with his companion, marveling at the "storm." His companion laughs and says it was nothing at all. There is drinking that night, and Robinson forgets his fear of drowning. Within a few more days, the wind is behaving terribly, and then a true and terrible storm begins. Robinson spends much time in his cabin, laying down in fright. He sees nothing but distress, and is convinced he is at death's door. The ship is being flooded, and he is commissioned to help bail water. At one point Robinson faints, but is roused quickly. The water is coming too fast, so they board life boats. People on shore are ready to assist them, if they can reach land. The boats arrive at Yarmouth, and the magistrate gives the men rooms. They must decide whether or not to continue to London or return to Hull. His comrade notes that Robinson should take this as a sign that he is not meant to go to sea. They part in an angry state. Robinson travels to London via land. He is ashamed to go home and be laughed at by neighbors. Finally he decides to look for a voyage. He is deaf to all good advice, and boards a vessel bound for Guiana because he befriends the its captain. This voyage, save seasickness, goes well, but upon arrival the captain dies. Robinson resolves to take his ship and be a Guiana trader.

On a course towards the Canary Islands, they are attacked by Turkish pirates, who capture them and take them into Sallee, a Moorish port. Robinson is now a slave. His new master takes him home for drudgery work. The narrator meditates escape for the next two years. An opportunity presents itself when his master sends Robinson, along with some Moorish youths, to catch some fish. Robinson secretly stores provisions and guns on the ship. They set out to fish. Robinson convinces the helmsman that they will find fish further out. He goes behind one of the Moors and tosses him overboard, saying that he should swim for shore because he the narrator is determined to have liberty. Robinson turns to the other boy, called Xury, and says he must be faithful or be tossed as well. Xury resolves fidelity and says he will see the world with Robinson. They sail for five days, as the narrator is anxious to get far away. They land in a creek and resolve to swim ashore and see what country this is. For two days they are anchored there. They observe "mighty creatures" yelling on shore and swimming towards the ship. Robinson fires a gun to discourage them from swimming further. They are not sure what animal this is.

Although the two are scared, they need water. Together they will go ashore, and either they will both live or both die. The land appears uninhabited. They are able to kill a hare-like animal for dinner and obtain fresh water. Robinson is sure they are on the Canary or the Cape Verde Islands. He hopes to come upon English trading vessels that will allow them to board. The two men remain in the creek. Together they kill a lion for sport as they pass the time. Xury cuts off a foot for them to eat. They begin to sail along the land in search of a river. Eventually they see the land is inhabited by naked black people. Robinson and Xury go closer to shore. The people leave food at the water's edge. They keep great distance from the two men. Another creature swims toward the boat. Robinson kills it, and sees that it is a leopard of some sort. The black people accept the killing happily, so Xury goes ashore for water and food. In the distance Robinson spies a Portuguese ship, but it is too far to make contact. They leave immediately, trying to follow the ship. Robinson fires a gun to get their attention. Joyfully, Robinson finds they will let Xury and himself board, and the captain does not demand any money from them. The ship is headed for Brazil.

Part 2 Summary:

The sea captain is extremely kind to Crusoe. He buys Robinson's boat, all of his worldly goods, and Xury. At first the narrator is reluctant to part with his servant, but the captain promises to free him in ten years if he has turned Christian. As Xury finds this agreeable, Robinson allows the exchange. The voyage to Brazil goes well. The narrator is recommended by the captain to the house of an "honest man." This man lives on a plantation, and Robinson lives with him for a while. Seeing how rich the plantation owners are, he resolves to become a planter, and begins purchasing much land. Once Robinson is planting, he becomes friendly with Wells, his Portuguese neighbor. They slowly increase the diversity of their stock. At this juncture Robinson regrets having sold Xury. He is in a trade that he knows nothing about, and he has no one to talk to but the neighbor. If he had listened to his father, he would have been comfortable at home. Still, he is sustained by his augmenting wealth.

The captain returns and tells Robinson to give him a letter of procuration so that he can bring the narrator half of the fortune he has left with the English captain's widow. He returns not only with money, but with a servant. Robinson is now infinitely richer than his neighbor, and purchases a "Negro slave" and a "European servant." Each year he grows more tobacco and thrives. But he is not completely happy with this life. "Nature" and "Providence" stir him so that he is not content, and winds up throwing himself into the pit of human misery once more. Having made friends during his four year residence in Brazil, he has spoken much of voyages to Guinea, where one can buy desirable items, but especially Negro servants for plantation work. It is a highly restricted trade, though. Three merchants come to him and say they want to buy the Negroes privately for their own plantations. They ask if he will join and manage the trading on Guinea. Ignoring the inner voice of his father, Robinson wholeheartedly agrees to go. He makes the investing merchants promise they will look after his plantation if he "miscarries." He boards the ship on the first of September, eight years after he ran away from home.

Good weather lasts for a while, but then it turns stormy. One man dies of sickness; a little boy is washed overboard. After 12 days it is clear that the ship will not make it due to leakiness. They decide to try and make it to Africa, where they can get assistance. For 15 days they sail, and another storm hits. There is land in the distance, but they are afraid it might be inhabited by savages who will eat them. The ship crashes into sand, and the sea powerfully washes over it. They use their oars to edge closer to shore, but their hearts are heavy because they know as soon as they get there, the ship will be dashed to pieces and they will be overtaken by the undercurrent and drowned. They have to at least try and swim. Once they jump into the sea, Robinson has some good luck and is helped to shore by a wave. He runs as the sea continues to chase him. The water fights him, but he manages to land safely on shore. Robinson thanks God for his deliverance. He looks around, sees nothing to help him, and runs about like a madman until he falls asleep in a tree. The next day is calm and sunny. The narrator now sees that if they had stayed on board, the ship would have made it to land without being dashed. But the rest of the company is dead, and Robinson grieves. He swims out to the ship and takes a few pieces to build a raft. On this he loads the provisions, everything from food to weaponry. Robinson looks about the island for a good place to live and store his supplies. There are no people, only beasts. A tent serves as his lodging. He makes a number of voyages to the ship in the next few weeks and brings back everything salvageable. In order to guard against possible savages, the narrator moves his tent near a cave with steep sides. He sets up a home with cables and rigging. A hammock is his bed. He makes a cave behind the tent to serve as a cellar. Discovering goats on the island, Robinson goes out daily to kill his food. This leads to his making a cooking area. When desolation threatens to overwhelm him, he forces himself to remember the dead company, and how much better off he is. At the very least he has housing and guns to kill food.

Part 3 Summary:

After having been there about 12 days, Robinson decides to keep a calendar by marking a large wooden post. He is very happy to have some pen and paper, three Bibles, two cats and a dog, all from the ship. The work upon his home is tedious without proper tools, but he improvises. After all, he has nothing else to occupy his time. To comfort himself the narrator makes a list of pros and cons about his shipwreck. Ultimately he decides to be joyous because God has delivered and provided for him. He is raising a wall around his home. After about a year and a half, he has rafters and a thatched roof. Robinson realizes there is nothing he wants that he can't make: thus he creates entrance and exit to his home, table and chairs that he might truly enjoy writing and reading. The narrator begins a journal, in which he documents his initial misery, and all of his tasks and duties that he performs in acclimating to the island. A scheduled routine forms for his hunting and building. Every animal he kills, he keeps the skins and hangs them as ornaments. Robinson goes about the business of making chests to store his provisions, as well as tools such as a wheelbarrow. The cave/cellar appears to be finished when a quantity of earth falls from the ceiling; Crusoe repairs this. He builds storage shelves to create "order within doors." A more solid fence begins to form around his dwelling. The narrator takes frequent walks and discovers pigeons, a very good meat. The darkness is his greatest annoyance; he decides to make candles from the tallow of slaughtered goats. While emptying sacks from the ship, Robinson shakes out come pieces of corn. After the rains, husks of barley appear. The narrator is astounded and thanks God. He manages to plant some rice as well.

Robinson builds a ladder to the entrance of his home. While in his cave/cellar, an earthquake occurs and much of the walls crumble. He is frightened and prays profusely. It rains violently. He resolves to move his tent a bit to prevent untimely death from other earthquakes. Pieces of the shipwreck wash up on shore. Robinson gathers them to use on his new home. He finds a large tortoise that provides a good meal. Soon he falls ill and has chills for many days. The narrator sleeps restlessly and has nightmares about dark men coming to kill him. He reflects once more on how good God has been to him, and assumes that this sickness is a punishment for not realizing this goodness sooner. He regrets not listening to his father. Robinson prays what he refers to as his "first prayer." He makes a homemade remedy in the form of rum, tobacco and water. When his sickness grows worse he wonders what he has done to deserve this. His conscience answers that he has led a "dreadful misspent life." Robinson takes up reading the Bible. He becomes better.

Part 4 Summary:

It takes some weeks for Robinson to recover his full strength. He marvels at this deliverance from sickness. More serious reading of the Bible commences. The narrator now looks at his past life with complete horror. His thoughts are directed to a "higher nature." The rainy season is dangerous to his health, so he spends little time walking about. Crusoe's habitation is set; he feels that he wants to explore the rest of the island. When the weather improves, he goes about and sees many meadows. He also finds some tobacco growing. In the woods there is fruit growing in great abundance, and a spring of fresh water. Robinson tries to being fruit back, but he is gone so long it spoils. He resolves to try again. Returning to his home, Crusoe finds that some of his grapes have been trod upon. There must be wild creatures thereabouts. He hangs the remaining grapes to dry them into raisins. Robinson loves the wilder part of the island so dearly that he resumes his thoughts of a new habitation, and decides to simply build another one and have two homes: a "sea coast house" and a "country house." He finishes in time for the next rainy season. His cats are breeding with wild cats on the island, so he is forced to kill some of them, that his food supply is not entirely diminished. The year anniversary of his arrival is unhappy. He prays again to God.

He has learned the rainy season from the dry season, and decides to plant crops of rice and corn. The first crop is a good one, so Robinson extends the arable land. He busies himself with the farming and with making finer household items, like baskets. He moves frequently between his two homes. His greatest desire at the moment is for a pipe. On an exceptionally clear day, he spies a line of land, but he cannot be sure where it is. He is sure, however, that the inhabitants are cannibalistic savages. He discovers more animals on his rambles around the island. Many times the narrator sleeps outdoors, in trees to protect himself. When he comes home, however, he is always very happy. He has tamed a parrot and a young goat, who follow him endlessly. The two year anniversary arrives, and it is still solemn, but with much more joy in Robinson's heart. His desires in life are completely altered. He decides he can be more happy in this existence than in his previous one. Scripture reading is done daily and methodically. The narrator finds that his crops are being eaten by birds. He shoots one and uses it successfully as a scarecrow. The next goal is to try and make bread. His parrot Poll now talks.

Robinson makes some very good pots and jars. He then forms a stone mortar to beat the corn into meal, and a sieve to dress it. Over hot embers he bakes the batter and gets corn bread. This new technique leads to an enlargement of the barns, to hold more corn.

Part 5 Summary:

Robinson is growing curious about the land on the other side of the island. He believes from there he might spot a mainland and obtain escape. Yet he does not think about falling into the hands of savages. The narrator wishes for Xury and the boat they sailed. He resolves to try and repair the wrecked ship's boat, but it sinks repeatedly. He then decides to build his own boat. Crusoe is unsure as to how he will get the boat off land, but decides to worry about this later. In retrospect this is referred to as "preposterous method" of work. The boat is well-made, but Robinson is unable to get it to the water due to its weight. The only way is to build a canal to the ocean, which will take a long while. The fourth anniversary comes, and Crusoe observes it with respect, marveling that there is no wickedness here. Ironically, all the money he has is worthless--he longs for a tobacco pipe or a handmill. He reflects upon the goodness of Providence, and spends much time remembering important dates in his life.

Robinson's clothes have begun to wither. He manages to use the skins of creatures he has killed to make a "sorry shift." The skins keep him very dry in the rain, so he decides to make an umbrella. He also makes another boat, small enough that he can get it to the water. In the sixth year of his "reign or captivity," he sets out on a voyage around the island. The current is strong and sweeps him away from the island. Crusoe begins to fear that he will not be able to return. Gradually the wind changes, and the narrator immediately goes back to shore, drops to his knees, and thanks God. He is able to reach his country house by nightfall. He is terribly frightened to hear a voice calling his name, asking where he is, until he sees it is the parrot Poll. For the next year Robinson lives a quiet, sedate life. He perfects his carpentry skills and is able to make a wheel tool to aid in his building. His powder supply is decreasing, so he begins to set traps to catch the goats and have his own flock. Eleven years have past. The goats provide him with milk, from which the narrator is able to make butter and cheese. He now dines like a "king among his subjects." Still the narrator longs to sail around the island, but he is afraid of being swept away. Thus he decides to have a boat on either side of the island. One day going to visit his boat, he spies a man's footprint near it. Robinson is thunderstruck with fear: it must be a savage from nearby lands. He wonders if there are on the island, if it is the mark of the devil. His religious hope is abating. But the narrator resolves to let God decide--if he is not to be delivered from the evil, so be it.

Part 6 Summary:

Robinson begins to think that he might have made the footprint himself; this makes him bolder and he goes out again to milk his goats. But he walks with incredible fear, always looking behind him. He concludes that since he has not seen anyone in fifteen years, the people must come from abroad in boats. He wants to hide himself even more, so he reinforces his walls and plants groves of trees that develop into a forest in six years time. He moves his goats to a more remote location and divides them into two groups. Crusoe makes his way to the shore opposite to the one on which he landed, and finds it littered with human bones. His fear of cannibalistic savages is confirmed. He thanks God that he was not eaten and that he is distinguished from these people whom he sees as abhorrent. Gradually the narrator becomes comfortable again, but he is cautious about firing his gun, and prefers to tend his livestock, so he does not have to hunt. Aside from this, he sets his mind to other tasks, such as learning to make beer.

Crusoe is not fearful but vengeful. He longs for the chance to hurt these savages and save the victims. Several times he imagines the proper mode of ambush and attack. He picks the exact sniper spots. A daily tour commences to look out for approaching ships. He then steps back, however, and wonders if it is his place to engage in violence with people who have not done him any personal harm, and who are most likely killing prisoners of war. Robinson debates with himself and concludes that he should leave them to the justice of God. He continues his secluded life and is once more thankful for his deliverance. Occasionally he is frightened by strange sounds, and he is still cautious. But the narrator tells himself that if he is not fit to face the devil, he could not have lived twenty years alone on the island. Time continues passing. Robinson spends time with his parrot and his various animals. One day, he is stunned to see a fire on his side of the island--the savages are back. He sees they have two canoes from a lookout point, but he does not dare approach them. When the tide returns they leave. Crusoe is horrified at the human remains on the shore. Once again he wants to destroy the savages when they return. When the twenty-fourth anniversary passes, Robinson spies the wreck of a Spanish ship drifting towards the island. His heart is lightened by the thought that there might be a survivor. He hastens to his boat, gathers provisions, and rows out to the wreck. Aside from a yelping dog, he finds no one living. Crusoe takes the dog, along with some liquor, clothing and money, back to the island with him.

Part 7 Summary:

The narrator resumes his quiet steady life. He always thinks upon the goodness of Providence. But he is haunted by dreams of savages. In this time the narrator has thought that upon saving the life of a captive or a savage himself, he might be able to make him his companion and obtain escape from the island. Only now does he realize how lonely he has been. Crusoe waits patiently, and after a year and a half he is rewarded by the appearance of five canoes on shore. Against twenty or thirty men, he wonders how he will fight. He spies two "miserable wretches" being pulled from the boat. As one is beaten and cut open for the feast, the other manages to run away, towards Robinson. He fetches his two guns and goes to save "the creature's" life. He manages to shoot the two men pursuing the prisoner. The prisoner then begins to bow to the narrator and rest his head on his foot. He is amazed that his enemies are dead. Apparently he has never seen a gun. Together they bury the bodies. Robinson gives the man bread, raisins and water, who then falls asleep. He is a good-looking youth, about twenty-six years old, but he does not speak English. Robinson manages to tell the man that his name is Friday, and that he should call the narrator Master. When they go out and reach the graves of the two men, Friday makes signs that they should eat the bodies. Crusoe becomes very angry and leads away the docile Friday. He still hungers for flesh, but the narrator makes him understand that he will be killed if he eats other men. Friday is dressed in his master's image. He becomes a most devoted manservant. The relationship is very loving. Robinson seeks to make Friday civilized with everything from eating habits to religious teachings. He teaches him how to use guns and roast goats. Crusoe is having a wonderful time.

A year goes by in this pleasant way. Friday learns broken English. He manages to tell Robinson that they are near the Caribbean, and that they would need a big boat to get back to his homeland. The narrator begins to teach about the Christian God. Friday does not understand why the Devil cannot be beaten if God is stronger. Robinson makes him understand that all must be given the chance to repent and be pardoned. Explaining this makes Crusoe even more full of faith because he clears up his own ideas. Friday tells him that there are white men living peaceably on his native land. When the weather is clear, Friday rejoices at seeing his homeland in the distance. Robinson worries that he might return there and resume his old habits. Thus he is jealous. But Friday assures him that he only wants to return so that he can teach the others. He says that Crusoe would have to come with him, though, or he would not be able to leave. He cannot even bear for Crusoe to send him to the continent first--they have lived in harmony for three years. Together they manage to build a big boat. Robinson sets the adventure for the post-rain months of November and December.

Part 8 Summary:

Before Friday and Robinson can make their journey, three canoes arrive on the island. Friday panics. Robinson provides him with some rum, and they gather their weapons. Crusoe is not worried; they are "naked, unarmed wretches" who are subservient to him. The savages have prisoners. As Friday and Robinson approach, they are eating the flesh of one. A white-bearded man of European descent is a prisoner. The narrator is horrified and enraged, for he thought those men lived peaceably with Friday's people. Against nineteen men Friday and Crusoe wage battle, Friday always copying the moves of his master. In the chaos, the prisoners are freed. One of them is a Spaniard. The narrator enlists his help in shooting his captors. Together the three of them manage to kill most of the savages. The remaining ones run to two of the canoes and hastily row away, never again to return to the island. In the third canoe another man is founded, bound and gagged. Friday is ecstatic--it is his father. The reunion is joyous, and the narrator is very touched. They give the prisoners bread and water. Friday and Robinson make them some beds. Crusoe is very happy that "his island is now peopled," and he is "rich in its subjects." He considers himself the rightful lord. Talking with the Spaniard, Robinson learns that more of his men are living with the savages, but in peace. The narrator would like to join these Europeans, but he fears being a prisoner in New Spain and being sent to the Inquisition. The Spaniard assures him this would not happen. He is so impressed with Robinson's island that he wants to bring the rest of his men there to live. Everyone works to increase the livestock and crops in preparation. Finally the Spaniard and Friday's father are sent back in the canoe to gather the men.

As Friday and Robinson await their return, they spy another ship close to shore. It appears to be an English boat. Some men row to the island. Three of them are prisoners. The seamen are running about, trying to explore this strange place. Robinson dearly wishes that the Spaniard and Friday's father were here to help fight. While the seamen sleep, Crusoe and Friday approach the prisoners, who see them as God-sent. They learn from one that he is the captain of the ship, and his crew has mutinied. They want to leave him with the first mate and a passenger to perish. Robinson says he will try to save them on two conditions: that they pretend no authority on the island, and that if the battle is won, that they take Friday and himself to England passage-free. It is agreed. They are able to surprise everyone on land, killing some and granting mercy to those who beg for their lives. Crusoe tells the captain of his life on the island. The captain is visibly moved. Next they want to recover the ship. On the water they hear shots. With the aid of a binocular-type instrument, they see another small boat of men approaching. The captain says only a few can be trusted; the chief organizer of the mutiny is in the boat. Robinson marshals his "troops," consisting of Friday and the prisoners. They wait to start the battle.

Part 9 Summary:

The boat of men lands on shore. They examine the first, broken boat. Shots go off to try and find the other crew members. Robinson and his army wait for a while. Just as the men are going to leave, the narrator bids Friday and the first mate to holler from an area of rising ground within his sight. The men run back eagerly. Two stay in the boat. Crusoe and the others surprise them and quickly get them to join their side. The other men are looking for the calls. Friday and the mate lead them astray until dark. They return to the boat and are stunned when they find the other two men gone. In the midst of their surprise Robinson and the army attack. Two men are killed outright. The captain tells the rest to surrender by order of the governor, Crusoe. Arms are laid down and the men are rounded up as prisoners and divided up. Some are taken to the goat pasture, some to the cave, where the first prisoners lay. Except for the worst of the crew, they all pledge their undying devotion to the captain. In the guise of the governor's assistant, Crusoe tells them that if they mutiny or go back on their word, they will be killed. The captain goes out with his men in a boat and is able to reclaim his large ship. He kills the head of the mutiny, and they hang his body from a tree on the island. The captain immediately hands over the ship to Crusoe. Crusoe embraces the captain as his deliverer. He dresses in new clothing from the ship and poses as the Governor. He addresses the untrustworthy prisoners, and tells them they can either stay on the island or return to England and be hanged. They choose to stay on the isle. Robinson takes time to show them where all his amenities are. He and Friday leave on the ship with the rest of their little army.

Robinson arrives in England thirty-five years after he left it. He finds the old Portuguese captain in Lisbon and is able to get in contact with his old plantation partners. He finds he is very wealthy and successful. He pays the Portuguese man and the widow who was his trustee very well for all the kindness they have shown him. He sends his two sisters in the English countryside some money. Crusoe thinks of going to Brazil, but decides he could not bear the rule under the religion of Catholicism. Thus he resolves to sell the plantation and settle in England. To get to England from Portugal, Robinson decides not to sail but to go by land. The journey is treacherous. They are almost attacked by wolves. The guide becomes ill. At one point Friday must fight a bear. Happily enough, they are successful and arrive unscathed in Dover. Robinson eventually marries and has three children. When his wife dies, he takes a voyage with his nephew to the East Indies. There he sees that his island is faring well, the Spaniards having arrived at the behest of Friday's father and the first Spaniard who landed on the isle. There are women and young children as well as men. Crusoe looks in on the inhabitants of the island from time to time. He is always on a voyage.


The Picture of Dorian Grey by O.Wilde


The artist creates beautiful things. Art aims to reveal art and conceal the artist. The critic translates impressions from the art into another medium. Criticism is a form of autobiography. People who look at something beautiful and find an ugly meaning are "corrupt without being charming." Cultivated people look at beautiful things and find beautiful meanings. The elect are those who see only beauty in beautiful things. Books can’t be moral or immoral; they are only well or badly written.

People of the nineteenth century who dislike realism are like Caliban who is enraged at seeing his own face in the mirror. People of the nineteenth century who dislike romanticism are like Caliban enraged at not seeing himself in the mirror.

The subject matter of art is the moral life of people, but moral art is art that is well formed. Artists don’t try to prove anything. Artists don’t have ethical sympathies, which in an artist "is an unpardonable mannerism of style." The subject matter of art can include things that are morbid, because "the artist can express everything." The artist’s instruments are thought and language.

Vice and virtue are the materials of art. In terms of form, music is the epitome of all the arts. In terms of feeling, acting is the epitome of the arts.

Art is both surface and symbol. People who try to go beneath the surface and those who try to read the symbols "do so at their own peril." Art imitates not life, but the spectator. When there is a diversity of opinion about a work of art, the art is good. "When critics disagree the artist is in accord with him[/her]self."

The value of art is not in its usefulness. Art is useless.


In a richly decorated studio an artist, Basil Hallward talks with a guest, Lord Henry Wotton about a new portrait he has standing out. Lord Henry exclaims that it is the best of Hallward’s work and that he should show it at Grosvenor. Hallward remarks that he doesn’t plan to show it at all. Lord Henry can’t imagine why an artist wouldn’t want to show his work. Hallward explains that he has put too much of himself in it to show it to the public. Lord Henry can’t understand this since Hallward isn’t a beautiful man while the subject of the portrait is extraordinarily beautiful. As he is explaining himself, he mentions the subject’s name--Dorian Gray. He regrets having slipped, saying that when he likes people, he never tells their names because it feels to him as if he’s giving them away to strangers.

Lord Henry compares this idea to his marriage, saying that "the one charm of marriage is that it makes a life of deception absolutely necessary for both parties." He adds that he and his wife never know where the other is and that she’s always a better liar than he is, but that she just laughs at him when he slips. Basil Hallward is impatient with Lord Henry for this revelation, accusing Lord Henry of posing. He adds that Lord Henry never says anything moral and never does anything immoral. Lord Henry tells him that being natural is the worst of the poses.

Hallward returns to the idea of the portrait. He explains that "every portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not the sitter." The sitter only occasions the production of the art. The painter is revealed, not the sitter. He won’t, therefore, show the secret of his soul to the public.

He tells the story of how he met Dorian Gray. He went to a "crush" put on by Lady Brandon. While he was walking around the room, he saw Dorian Gray, "someone whose mere personality was so fascinating that, if I allowed it to do so, it would absorb by whole nature, my whole soul, my very art itself." He was afraid of such an influence, so he avoided meeting the man he saw. He tried to leave and Lady Brandon caught him and took him around the room introducing him to her guests. He had recently shown a piece that created a sensation, so his cultural capital was quite high at the time. After numerous introductions, he came upon Dorian Gray.

Lady Brandon says she didn’t know what Mr. Gray did, perhaps nothing, perhaps he played the piano or the violin. The two men laughed at her and became friends with each other at once.

He tells Lord Henry that soon he painted Dorian Gray’s portrait. Now, Dorian Gray is all of Hallward’s art. He explains that in art, there are two epochal events possible: one is the introduction of a new medium for art, like the oil painting, the second is the appearance of a new personality for art. Dorian Gray is the latter.

Even when he’s not painting Dorian Gray, he is influenced by him to paint extraordinarily different creations. It is like a new school of art emerging. Dorian Gray is his motive in art.

As he is explaining the art, he mentions that he has never told Dorian Gray how important he is. He won’t show his Dorian Gray- inspired art because he fears that the public would recognize his bared soul. Lord Henry notes that bared souls are quite popular these days in fiction. Hallward hates this trend, saying that the artist should create beautiful things, and should put nothing of his own life into them. Dorian Gray is often quite charming to Basil, but sometimes he seems to take delight in hurting Basil. Basil feels at such moments that he has given his soul to someone shallow and cruel enough to treat it as a flower to ornament his lapel. Lord Henry predicts that Basil will tire of Dorian sooner than Dorian will tire of him. Basil refuses to believe this. He says as long as he lives, Dorian Gray will dominate his life.

Lord Henry suddenly remembers that he has heard Dorian Gray’s name. His aunt, Lady Agatha, has mentioned him in relation to some philanthropic work she does, saying he was going to help her in the East End. Suddenly, Dorian Gray is announced. Basil Hallward asks his servant to have Mr. Gray wait a moment. He tells Lord Henry not to exert any influence on Dorian Gray because he depends completely on Dorian remaining uncorrupted. Lord Henry scoffs at the idea as nonsense.


When they walk from the studio into the house, they see Dorian Gray at the piano. He tells Basil that he’s tired of sitting for his portrait. Then he sees Lord Henry and is embarrassed. Basil tries to get Lord Henry to leave, but Dorian asks him to stay and talk to him while he sits for the portrait. He adds that Basil never talks or listens as he paints. Lord Henry agrees to stay.

They discuss Dorian’s work in philanthropy. Lord Henry thinks he’s too charming to do that kind of thing. Dorian wonders if Lord Henry will be a bad influence on him as Basil thinks he will be.

Lord Henry thinks all influence is corrupting since the person influenced no longer thinks with her or his own thoughts. He thinks the "aim of life is self development." He doesn’t like philanthropy because it makes people neglect themselves. They clothe poor people and let their own souls starve. Only fear governs society, according to Lord Henry. Terror of God is the secret of religion and terror of society is the basis of morals. If people would live their lives fully, giving form to every feeling and expression to every thought, the world would be enlivened by a fresh impulse of joy. He urges Dorian not to run from his youthful fears.

Dorian becomes upset and asks him to stop talking so he can deal with all that he has said. He stands still for ten minutes. He realizes he is being influenced strongly. He suddenly understands things he has always wondered about. Lord Henry watches him fascinated.

He remembers when he was sixteen he read a book and was immensely influenced. He wonders if Dorian Gray is being influenced that way by his random words. Hallward paints furiously. Dorian asks for a break. Basil apologizes for making him stand so long. He is excited about the portrait he’s painting, and praises Dorian for standing so perfectly still as to let him get at the effect he had wanted. He says he hasn’t heard the conversation, but he hopes Dorian won’t listen to anything Lord Henry tells him.

Lord Henry and Dorian go out into the garden while Basil works on the background of the portrait in the studio. Dorian buries his face in a flower. Lord Henry tells him he is doing just as he should since the senses are the only way to cure the soul. They begin to stroll and Dorian Gray clearly looks upset. He’s afraid of Lord Henry’s influence. Lord Henry urges him to come and sit in the shade to avoid getting a sunburn and ruining his beauty. Dorian wonders why it’s important. Lord Henry tells him it matters more than anything else since his youth is his greatest gift and that it will leave him soon. As they sit down, he implores Dorian to enjoy his youth while he can. He shouldn’t give his life to the "ignorant, the common, and the vulgar." He thinks the age needs a new Hedonism (pursuit of pleasure as the greatest goal in life). Dorian Gray could be its visible symbol.

Dorian Gray listens intently. Suddenly, Basil comes out to get them. He says he’s ready to resume the portrait. Inside, Lord Henry sits down and watches Basil paint. After only a quarter of an hour, Basil says the painting is complete. Lord Henry proclaims it his finest work and offers to buy it. Basil says it’s Dorian’s painting.

 When Dorian looks at it, he realizes he is beautiful as Lord Henry has been telling him. He hadn’t taken it seriously before. Now he knows what Lord Henry has meant by youth being so short-lived. He realizes the painting will always be beautiful and he will not. He wishes it were reversed. He accuses Basil of liking his art works better than his friends. Basil is shocked at this change in Dorian. He tells him his friendship means more to him than anything. Dorian is so upset that he says he’ll kill himself the moment he realizes he’s growing old. Basil turns to Lord Henry and says it’s his fault. Then he realizes he is arguing with his two best friends and says he’ll destroy the painting to stop the argument. Dorian pulls the knife away from him to stop him. He tells Basil he’s in love with the portrait and thinks of it as part of himself.

The butler brings tea and the men sit down to drink it. Lord Henry proposes they go to the theater that night. Basil refuses the invitation, but Dorian agrees to go. When they get up to go, Basil asks Lord Henry to remember what he asked him in the studio before they went in to see Dorian. Lord Henry shrugs and says he doesn’t even trust himself, so Basil shouldn’t try to trust him.


It is 12:30 in the afternoon and Lord Henry Wotton is walking to his uncle’s house. Lord Fermor had in his youth been secretary to his father, an ambassador to Madrid. When his father didn’t get the ambassadorship of Paris, he quit in a huff and Lord Fermor quit with him. From them on Lord Fermor had spent his life devoted "to the serious study of the great aristocratic art of doing absolutely nothing." He pays some attention to the coal mines in the Midland counties, "excusing himself from the taint of industry on the ground that the one advantage of having coal was that I enabled a gentleman to afford the decency of burning wood on his own hearth."

Lord Henry is visiting him to find out what he knows about Dorian Gray’s parents. He doesn’t belong to the Bluebooks (the lists of English nobles), but he is Kelso’s grandson and his mother was Lady Margaret Devereux, an extraordinary beauty of her day. She married a penniless man and upset everyone in the process. Her husband died soon afterwards, killed in a duel set up by her father. She was pregnant. In childbirth, she died, leaving Dorian to grow up with his ruthless grandfather.

Lord Henry leaves from his uncle’s and goes to his aunt’s house for lunch. He becomes engrossed in his thoughts about Dorian Gray’s background. He decides he will dominate Dorian just as Dorian dominates Basil Hallward. When he gets to his aunt’s he is happy to see Dorian is at the table. He begins to regale his aunt’s guests with his hedonistic philosophy of life. He scorns the motives of philanthropy, which his aunt and most of her guests espouse, and carries on about the joys of the pursuit of pleasure for its own sake. He is pleased to see that Dorian is fascinated by his speech. All of his aunt’s guests are, in fact, and he receives several invitations.

When lunch is over, he says he will go to the park for a stroll. Dorian asks to come along and begs him to keep talking. Lord Henry says he is finished talking and now he just wants to be and enjoy. Dorian wants to come anyway. Lord Henry reminds him he has an appointment with Basil Hallward. Dorian doesn’t mind breaking it.


One month later, Dorian Gray is waiting at Lord Henry’s for him to come home. He is impatient since he’s been waiting for a while. Lord Henry’s wife comes in and they chat for a while about music. She notices that he parrots her husband’s views, as many people in her social circle do. Lord Henry arrives and his wife leaves. After Henry advises him not to marry, Dorian says he is too much in love to consider marriage. He is in love with an actress. He thinks of her as a genius. Lord Henry explains that women can’t be geniuses because they are made only for decoration. He adds that there are only two kinds of women, the plain and the colored. Plain women are useful for respectability and colored women are useful for charming men. Dorian claims to be terrified by Lord Henry’s views. Lord Henry pushes him to tell more about the actress.

Dorian says that for days after he met Lord Henry, he felt alive with excitement and wanted to explore the world intensely. He walked the streets staring into the faces of people to see into their lives. He decided one night to go out and have an adventure. He was walking along the street and was hailed to come into a second rate theater. Despite his repulsion for the caller, he went in and bought a box seat. The play was Romeo and Juliet. He hated all of it until Juliet came on stage and then he was entranced. Since that night he has gone every night to the theater. He met her on the third night and found her exquisitely innocent, knowing nothing at all of life but art.

He wants Lord Henry and Basil Hallward to come to see her the next evening. His plan is to pay her manager off and set her up in a good theater. Lord Henry invites him to dinner that evening, but he refuses, saying he has to see her perform Imogen. He leaves.

Lord Henry thinks about what he’s learned. He thinks of Dorian Gray as a good study. He likes to study people like a scientist studies the results of an experiment. He thinks of Dorian as being his own creation. He had introduced his ideas to Dorian and made him a self-conscious man. Literature often did that to people, but a strong personality like his could do it as well. As he thinks over his thoughts, he’s interrupted by his servant reminding him it’s time to dress for dinner. As he arrives home that night, he finds a telegram on the hall table announcing that Dorian Gray was to marry Sibyl Vane.


Sibyl Vane is exclaiming to her mother about how much in love she is with her Prince Charming, as she calls Dorian Gray, not knowing yet what his name is. Her mother warns her that she must keep her focus on acting since they owe Mr. Isaacs fifty pounds. Sibyl is impatient with her mother and tries to get her mother to remember when she was young and in love with Sibyl’s father. Her mother looks pained and Sibyl apologizes for bringing up a painful subject.

Her brother Jim comes in. It’s his last night on shore. He is booked as a sailor on a ship headed for Australia. When Sibyl leaves the room, he asks his mother about the gentleman he has heard has been coming to the theater to see Sibyl every night. His mother tells him the man is wealthy and it might be a good thing for Sibyl. Jim is not convinced.

When Sibyl comes back, she and Jim go for a walk in the park together. While there, Jim questions her about the man who has been calling on her. She only says how much she is in love with the man and how she is sure he’s trustworthy. Jim says that if he comes back and finds that the man has hurt her, he’ll kill the man. They walk on and return home after a while.

 Alone again with his mother, Jim asks her if she was married to his father. She has been feeling like he has been on the verge of asking this question for weeks. She is relieved to get it out in the open. She says she was never married to the man. He was married, but loved her very much. He would have provided for her and her family, but died. Jim tells her to keep the gentleman away from Sibyl. She tells him that he need not worry because Sibyl has a mother, but she herself didn’t. He is touched by her sincerity and they embrace. Soon, though, he has to get ready to leave for his ship. Mrs. Vane thinks about his threat to kill Sibyl’s Prince Charming, but thinks nothing will ever come of it.


Lord Henry greets Basil Hallward as he arrives at the Bristol for dinner. He tells him the news about Dorian’s engagement to Sibyl Vane. Basil is surprised and can’t believe it’s true. He can’t believe Dorian would do something as foolish as to marry an actress in light of his "birth, and position, and wealth." Lord Henry acts nonchalant about the news and Basil is quite worried.

Finally Dorian arrives elated to tell the others of his news. Over dinner he tells them that he proposed to Sibyl on the previous evening after watching her as Rosalind. He kissed her and told her he loved her and she told him she wasn’t good enough to be his wife. They are keeping their engagement a secret from her mother.

Dorian tells Lord Henry that she will save him from Lord Henry’s "wrong, fascinating, poisonous, delightful theories" about life, love, and pleasure. Lord Henry says they aren’t his theories but Nature’s. Basil Hallward begins to think the engagement will be a good thing for Dorian after all.

As they leave, Lord Henry tells Hallward to take a separate conveyance to the theater since his is large enough only for him and Dorian. As he rides in the carriage behind Lord Henry’s, Basil Hallward feels a strong sense of loss, as if Dorian Gray will never again be to him all that he had been in the past. He realizes that life has come between them. He feels, when he arrives at the theater, that he has grown years older.


At the theater, Dorian is surprised to find it crowded with people. He takes Lord Henry and Basil Hallward to his usual box and they discuss the crowd below. He tells them that Sibyl’s art is so fine that she spiritualizes the common people, transforming their ugliness into beauty. Basil tells him he now agrees that the marriage will be a good thing for him.

When Sibyl appears on the stage, both men are entranced by her beauty, but when she starts to act, they are embarrassed for Dorian. Dorian doesn’t speak, but he is horribly disappointed. Sibyl’s acting is horribly wooden. The people below hiss and catcall to the stage making fun of her poor acting. After the second act, Lord Henry and Basil Hallward leave. Dorian tells them he will stay out the performance. He hides his face in anguish.

When the play is over, he goes to the green room to find Sibyl. She’s waiting for him. She looks radiantly happy. She tells him she acted so badly because she loves him. She says that before she loved him, the stage was real and alive for her. she never noticed the tawdriness of the stage set or the ugliness of her fellow actors. She had put everything into it because it was all of her life. When she realized tonight that she was acting horribly, she was struck by the realization that it was because she had found a new reality.

When she finishes, Dorian tells her she disappointed him and embarrassed him horribly. He says she killed his love. Sibyl is shocked and horrified by his words. She begs him to take them back, but he goes on. he tells her he loved her for her art and now she has nothing of her art and so he doesn’t love her any more. Now she is nothing but "a third-rate actress with a pretty face." Sibyl throws herself at his feet begging him to be kind to her, but he walks away scornfully, thinking how ridiculous she looks.

He walks through the poverty-stricken streets of London for a long time. Then he gets back to his room, recently redecorated since he learned to appreciate luxury from Lord Henry. He is undressing when he happens to glance at the portrait. He is taken aback to notice a change in it. Lines around the mouth have appeared. The face has a cruel expression. He turns on the lights and looks at it more carefully, but nothing changes the look of cruelty on the face. He remembers what he said in Basil’s studio the day he saw it for the first time. He had wished to change places with it, staying young forever while it aged with time and experience. He knows that the sin he committed against Sibyl that evening had caused him to age. He realizes that the portrait will always be an emblem of his conscience from now on. He dresses quickly and hurries toward Sibyl’s house. As he hurries to her, a faint feeling of his love for her returns to him.


Dorian doesn’t wake up the next day until well past noon. He gets up and looks through his mail, finding and laying aside a piece of mail hand delivered from Lord Henry that morning. He gets up and eats a light breakfast all the while feeling as if he has been part of some kind of tragedy recently. As he sits at breakfast, he sees the screen that he hurriedly put in front of his portrait the night before and realizes it was not a dream but is true. He tells his servant that he is not accepting callers and he goes to the portrait and removes the screen. He hesitates to do so, but decides he must. When he looks at the portrait he sees that it was not an illusion. The change remains. He looks at it with horror.

He realizes how unjust and cruel he had been to Sibyl the night before. He thinks the portrait will serve him as a conscience throughout life. He remains looking at the portrait for hours more. Finally, he gets paper and begins to write a passionate letter to Sibyl apologizing for what he had said to her and vowing eternal love. He reproaches himself in the letter so voluptuously that he feels absolved, like a person who has been to confession. He lays the letter to the side and then he hears Lord Henry calling to him through the door.

Lord Henry begs to be let in and Dorian decides he will let him. Lord Henry apologizes for all that has happened. Dorian tells him he was brutal with Sibyl the night before after the performance, but now he feels good and is not even sorry that it happened. Lord Henry says he had worried that Dorian would be tearing his hair in remorse. Dorian says he is quite happy now that he knows what conscience is. He asks Henry not to sneer at it, and says that he wants to be good. He adds that he can’t stand the idea "of [his] soul being hideous." Lord Henry exclaims about this "charming artistic basis for ethics." Dorian says he will marry Sibyl. It is then when Lord Henry realizes Dorian didn’t read his letter. In it, he had told Dorian that Sibyl committed suicide the night before by swallowing some kind of poison.

Lord Henry begins advising Dorian about how to avoid the scandal that such a story would attach to his name. He asks if anyone but Sibyl knew his name and if anyone saw him go behind stage to speak to her after her performance. Lord Henry urges Dorian not to let the episode get on his nerves. He invites him out to dinner and to the opera with his sister and some smart women. Dorian exclaims that he has murdered Sibyl Vane. He marvels that life is still as beautiful with birds singing and roses blooming. He adds that if he had read it in a book, he would have thought it movingly tragic. He recounts the exchange between he and Sibyl the night before, telling Henry of how cruel he was in casting her aside. He ends by condemning her as selfish for killing herself.

Lord Henry tells him that a woman can only reform a man by boring him so completely that he loses all interest in life. He adds that if Dorian would have married Sibyl, he would have been miserable because he wouldn’t have loved her. Dorian concedes that it probably would have been. He is amazed that he doesn’t feel the tragedy more than he does. He wonders if he’s heartless. He thinks of it as a wonderful ending to a wonderful play, a "tragedy in which [he] took a great part, but by which [he] has not been wounded." Lord Henry likes to play on Dorian’s unconscious egotism, so he exclaims over the interest of Dorian’s sense of it.

Dorian thinks he will now have to go into mourning, but Lord Henry tells him it is unnecessary since there is already enough mourning in life. He adds that Sibyl must have been different from all other women who are so trivial and predictable. When Dorian expresses remorse at having been cruel to her, Lord Henry assures him that women appreciate cruelty more than anything else. They are primitive. Men have emancipated them, but they have remained slaves and they love being dominated. He reminds Dorian that Sibyl was a great actress and that he can think of her suicide as an ending to a Jacobean tragedy.

Dorian finally thanks Lord Henry for explaining himself to him. He revels in what a marvelous experience it has all been for him. He wonders if life will give him anything more marvelous and Henry assures him that it will. He wonders what will happen when he gets old and ugly. Henry tells him that then he will have to fight for his victories. Dorian decides he will join Lord Henry at the opera after all. Lord Henry departs.

When he is alone, Dorian looks again at the portrait. He sees that it hasn’t changed since he last saw it. He thinks of poor Sibyl and revels in the romance of it all. He decides that he will embrace life and the portrait will bear the burden of his shame. He is sad to think of how the beautiful portrait will be marred. He thinks for a minute about praying that the strange sympathy that exists between him and the picture would disappear, but he realizes that no one would give up the chance at being forever young. Then he decides that he will get pleasure out of watching the changes. The portrait would be a magic mirror for him, revealing his soul to him. He pushes the screen back in front of it and dresses for the opera.


The next morning after the opera, Dorian is visited by Basil Hallward. Basil assumes that he really didn’t go to the opera the night before and is shocked to find out that he did so after all. He can’t believe that Dorian is so unfeeling when Sibyl isn’t even buried yet. Dorian tells him he doesn’t want to hear about it because it’s in the past. He thinks if he is a strong man, he should be able to dominate his feelings and end them when he wants to end them. Basil blames Dorian’s lack of feeling on Lord Henry.

Dorian tells Basil that it was he who taught him to be vain. Basil is shocked to find out that Sibyl killed herself. Dorian tells him it is fitting that she did, more artistic. "Her death has all the pathetic uselessness of martyrdom, all its wasted beauty." He tells Basil that he has suffered, that he was suffering terribly yesterday around five or six o’clock. He says he no longer has these emotions and it would be nothing but empty sentimentality to try to repeat the feelings that have passed. He asks Basil to help him see the art in it rather than to try to make him feel guilt over it. He begs Basil not to leave him but to stop quarreling with him.

Basil is moved by Dorian’s speech and decides Dorian might be passing through a momentary lapse of feeling and should be berated for it. He agrees not to speak to Dorian again of Sibyl. Dorian asks him, however, to draw him a picture of Sibyl. Basil agrees to do so and urges Dorian to come sit for him again, saying he can’t get on with his painting without Dorian. Dorian starts and says he will never be able to sit for Basil again. Basil is shocked and then looks around to see if he can see the portrait he gave Dorian. He is annoyed to find that it is hidden behind a screen and goes toward it. Dorian jumps up and stands between him and the screen keeping him away from it. He makes Basil promise never to look at it again and not to ever ask why. Basil is surprised but agrees to do so, saying that Dorian’s friendship is more important to him than anything. He tells Dorian he plans to show the portrait in an exhibit. Dorian remembers the afternoon in Basil’s studio when Basil said he would never show it. He remembers Lord Henry telling him to ask Basil one day about why. He does so now.

Basil explains to him reluctantly that he was fascinated with him and dominated by his personality from the first moment he saw him. He painted every kind of portrait of him, putting him in ancient Greek garb and in Renaissance garb. One day he decided to paint Dorian as he was, and as he painted each stroke, he became fascinated with the idea that the portrait was revealing his idolatry of Dorian. He swore then hat he would never exhibit it. However, after he gave the portrait to Dorian, the feeling passed away from him. He realized that "art conceals the artist far more completely than if ever reveals him." That was when he decided to exhibit the portrait as a centerpiece.

Dorian takes a breath. He realizes he is safe for the present since Basil clearly doesn’t know the truth about the painting. Basil thinks Dorian sees what he saw in the portrait, his idolatry of Dorian. He tries to get Dorian to let him see the portrait, but Dorian still refuses. Basil leaves and Dorian thinks over what he had said to him. He calls his servant, realizing that the portrait has to be put away where he won’t run the risk of guests trying to see it.


Dorian is in his drawing room when his manservant Victor enters. She scrutinizes Victor to see if Victor has looked behind the curtain at the portrait. He watches Victor in the mirror to see if he can see anything but can see nothing but "a placid mask of servility." He sends for the housekeeper. When she arrives, he asks her to give him the key to the old schoolroom. She wants to clean it up before he goes up to it, but he insists he doesn’t need it cleaned. She mentions that it hasn’t bee used for five years, since his grandfather died. Dorian winces at the mention of his grandfather, who was always mean to him.

When she leaves, he takes the cover off the couch and throws it over the portrait. he thinks of Basil and wonders if he shouldn’t have appealed to Basil to help him resist Lord Henry’s influence. He knows Basil loves him with more than just a physical love. However, he gives up on the thought of asking Basil for help, deciding that the future is inevitable and the past can always be annihilated.

He receives the men from the framemaker’s shop. The framemaker himself, Mr. Hubbard, has come. He asks the two men to help him carry the portrait upstairs. He sends Victor away to Lord Henry’s so as to get him out of the way in order to hide the operation from him. They get the portrait upstairs with some trouble and he has them lean it against the wall and leave it. He hates the idea of leaving it in the dreaded room where he was always sent to be away from his grandfather who didn’t like to see him, but it’s the only room not in use in the house. He wonders what the picture will look like over time. He thinks with repulsion of how its image will show the signs of old age.

When he gets back downstairs to the library, Victor has returned from Lord Henry’s. Lord Henry had sent him a book and the paper. The paper is marked with a red pen on a passage about the inquest into Sibyl Vane’s death. He throws it away annoyed at Lord Henry for sending it and fearing that Victor saw the red mark. Then he picks up the book Lord Henry sent him. It is a fascinating book from the first page. It is a plot-less novel, a psychological study of a young Parisian who spends all his life trying to realize all the passions and modes of thought of previous ages. It is written in the style of the French Symbolistes. He finds it to be a poisonous book. He can’t put it down. It makes him late to dinner with Lord Henry.


For years afterwards, Dorian Gray continues to feel the influence of the book Lord Henry gave him. He gets more copies of the book from Paris and has them bound in different colors. He thinks of the book as containing the story of his life. He feels himself lucky to be different from the novel’s hero in respect to aging. While the novel’s hero bemoans his loss of youthful beauty, Dorian Gray never loses his youth. He reads the passages over and over again reveling in his difference from the hero in this respect.

People in his social circle often hear dreadful things about Dorian Gray, but when they look at him and see his fresh, young looks, they dismiss the rumors as impossible. Dorian is often gone from home for long periods of time and never tells anyone where he has gone. He always returns home and goes straight upstairs to see the portrait’s changes. He grows more and more in love with his own beauty. He spends much time in a sordid tavern near the docks and thinks with pity of the degradation he has brought on his soul.

 Most of the time, though, he doesn’t think of his soul. He has "mad hungers that [grow] more ravenous as he [feeds] them."

He entertains once or twice a month with such lavish fare and such exquisite furnishings that he becomes the most popular of London’s young men. He is admired by all the men who see him as a type of man who combines the real culture of a scholar with the grace of a citizen of the world. He lives his life as if it were an art work. His style of dressing sets the standard of all the fashionable shops.

He worships the senses in many different forms. He lives the new Hedonism, that Lord Henry has told him of. He enjoys the service of the Catholic Church for its ritual and its pathos. Yet, he never embraces any creed or system of thought because he refuses to arrest his intellectual development. He studies new perfumes and experiments with them endlessly. He devotes himself for long periods to the study of all kinds of musical forms from all over the world. He even studies the stories written about the music, the stories of magic and death. He takes of the study of jewels for a while, collecting rare and precious jewels from all over the world for the pleasure of looking at them and feeling them. He collects stories about jewels as part of animals and stories of jewels which caused death and destruction. For a time, he studies embroideries of all sorts and the stories that attach to them. He collects embroideries and tapestries from all over the world. He especially loves ecclesiastical vestments. The beautiful things he collects are part of his methods of forgetfulness. He wants to escape the fear that sometimes seems to overwhelm him.

After some years, he becomes unable to leave London for any purpose because he cannot bear to be away from the portrait for any length of time. Often when he’s out with friends, he breaks off and rushes home to see if the portrait is still where it should be and to ensure that no one has tampered with the door. He develops a desperate fear that someone might steal the portrait and then everyone would know about him.

Most people are fascinated with Dorian Gray, but some people are distrustful of him. He is almost banned from two clubs. He is ostracized by some prominent men. People begin to tell curious stories about him hanging around with foreign sailors in run down pubs and interacting with thieves and coiners. People talk about his strange absences. He never takes notice of these looks people give him. Most of them see his boyish smile and can’t imagine that the stories could be true. Yet the stories remain. Sometime people notice women, who at one time adored him, blanch when he walks in a room in shame or horror. To most people, the stories only increase his mysterious charm. According to Lord Henry, society doesn’t care about morality in its aristocratic members, only good manners.

Dorian Gray can’t imagine why people reduce human beings to a single, "simple, permanent, reliable essence." For Dorian, people enjoy myriad lives and sensations; they change radically from time to time. Dorian likes to look at the portrait gallery of his country house. He wonders about his ancestors and how their blood co- mingled with his own. He looks at Lady Elizabeth Devereaux in her extaordinary beauty and realizes her legacy to him is in his beauty and in his love of all that is beautiful.

He also thinks of his ancestors as being in literature he has read. These characters have influenced him more even than his family members have. The hero of the central novel of his life has certainly been his greatest influence. He also loves to think of all the evil heroes about whom he has read: Caligula, Filippo, Due of Milan, Pietro Barbi, the Borgia, and many more. He feels a "horrible fascination" with all of them. He knows he has been poisoned by the French Symboliste book. He thinks of evil as nothing more than a mode of experiencing the beautiful.


It is the ninth of November, not long before Dorian Gray will turn 38 years old. He is walking home late one night when he sees Basil Hallward. He becomes suddenly afraid to have contact with his old friend whom he hasn’t seen in many months, but Basil sees him and stops him. Basil says he’s been waiting for him all evening and has just given up. He insists on coming back inside with Dorian because he says he has something important to tell him.

Inside, Dorian acts as though he’s bored and wants to go to bed. Basil insists on talking. He says he is going to Paris in one hour’s time and will be taking a studio there for six months. He tells Dorian that he is always having to defend Dorian’s name wherever he goes. He thinks Dorian must be a good person because he looks so beautiful. He says he knows sin tells on people’s faces after a while, so he has a great deal of trouble believing the stories. However, the evidence has piled up and is quite compelling. He names several young men who have lost very promising reputations after being extremely close to Dorian. He names several young women, including Lord Henry’s sister, who have lost their reputations. Lady Gwendolyn, Lord Henry’s sister, has suffered such a fall that she is not even allowed to see her own children any more. He mentions the stories of people who have seen Dorian spending time in "dreadful houses" and in "the foulest dens in London." He mentions the stories of what happens at Dorian’s country house.

Basil urges Dorian to have a good influence on people instead of a bad one. He tells Dorian that it is said that he corrupts everyone with whom he becomes intimate. He has even seen a letter shown to him by Lord Gloucester, one of his best friends, that his wife wrote to him on her death bed. It implicated Dorian Gray in her debasement. Basil sums up by saying that he doesn’t know that he even knows Dorian any more. He says that he can’t say without seeing Dorian’s soul and only God can do that.

At his last words, Dorian goes white with fear and repeats the words "To see my soul!" He laughs bitterly and tells Basil that he will see his soul that very night. He will let Basil look on the face of corruption. Basil is shocked and thinks Dorian is being blasphemous. He stands over Basil and tells him to finish what he has to say to him. Basil says Dorian must give him a satisfactory answer to all the stories about him that very night. Dorian just tells him to come upstairs with him. He says he has written a dairy of his life from day to day and that it never leaves the room in which it is written.


 The two men climb the stairs and Dorian lets Basil in the room upstairs. He lights the lamp and asks Basil again if he really wants an answer to his question. Basil does, so Dorian pulls the curtain from the portrait and shines the light on it, saying he is delighted to show Basil because Basil is the only man in the world entitled to know all about him. Basil cries out in horror when he sees the portrait. He stares at it for a long time in amazement, not believing at first that it is the same portrait he painted all those years ago.

Dorian is leaning against the mantle shelf watching Basil’s reaction with something like triumph expressed on his face. Dorian tells him that years ago when he was a boy, Basil had painted this portrait of him, teaching him to be vain of his looks. Then he had introduced him to Lord Henry who explained to him the wonder of youth. The portrait had completed the lesson in the beauty of youth. When he had seen it in the first moment, he had prayed that he should change places with it, never changing and aging, but letting the picture do so. Basil remembers the prayer. He thinks, however, that it must be impossible. He tries to find some logical explanation for the degradation of the beauty of the portrait. He thinks perhaps the room was damp or that he had used some kind of poor quality paints. He says there was nothing evil or shameful in his ideal that he painted that day. This, instead, is the face of a satyr. Dorian says it is the face of his soul.

Basil begins to believe it is true and then realizes what it means. It means that all that is said of Dorian is true and that his reputation isn’t even as bad as he is. He can hear Dorian sobbing as he begins to pray. He asks Dorian to join him in prayer. He says Dorian worshipped himself too much and now they are both punished.

Dorian tells him it’s too late. Basil insists that it isn’t. He begins to pray. Dorian looks at the picture and suddenly feels an overwhelming hatred for Basil. He sees a knife lying nearby and picks it up. He walks over and stands behind Basil and stabs him in the neck several times. When he is finished, he hears nothing but blood dripping. He goes to the door and locks it. He is horrified to look at Basil’s body.

He goes to the window and sees a policeman outside and an old woman. He tries not to think about what has happen. He picks up the lamp because he knows the servant will miss it from downstairs, and he goes downstairs, locking the door behind him.

Everything is quiet in the house. He remembers that Basil was supposed to leave for Paris that night and had even sent his heavy things ahead of him. No one had seen him come back inside after he left his house earlier that evening. No one will begin to wonder about him for months to come. He puts Basil’s bag and coat in a hiding place, the same place where he hides his disguises. Then he puts on his own coat, goes outside, and knocks on the door. His servant opens the door and he asks him what time it is. Then he tells him to wake him at nine the next morning. The servant tells him Mr. Hallward came by and Dorian exclaims over having missed him.

Inside his library again, he picks up the Blue Book and finds the name of Alan Campbell. He says this is the man he wants.


Dorian Gray wakes with a smile the next morning at nine o’clock, feeling well rested. He gradually recalls the events of the night before. He feels sorry for himself and loathing for Basil. Then he realizes that Basil’s body remains upstairs in he room. He fears that if he thinks too much on what happened he will go crazy. He gets up and spends a long time choosing his outfit and his rings. He has a leisurely breakfast and reads his mail, throwing away a letter from a lover, remembering one of Lord Henry’s misogynist sayings about women, that they have a awful memory. He writes two letters and sends one to Mr. Alan Campbell by his manservant.

He smokes a cigarette and sketches for a while, but every face he sketches looks like Basil’s. He lies down on the sofa and tries to read Gautier’s Emaux et Camees. He enjoys the images in the book of the beauties of Venice. It reminds him of his visit there. He was with Basil and he remembers Basil’s joy over the work of Tintoret. He tries to read again and then begins to worry that Alan Campbell might be out of town.

Five years ago, he and Alan had been great friends. Now they never speak. Alan always leaves the room when Dorian comes in at any party they both attend. Alan is a scientist, but when he and Dorian were together, he was also in love with music. They were inseparable for a year and a half. Then they quarreled and have not spoken since. Alan has given up music in favor of science. Dorian becomes hysterical with anxiety as he waits. Finally, the servant announces that Mr. Campbell has arrived.

Dorian loses all anxiety and plays the part of the gracious host. Alan Campbell is stiff with disapproval and hatred. He wants to know why Dorian has called him. Dorian tells him there is a dead body in a room at the top of the stairs and he needs Campbell to dispose of it. Alan tells him to stop talking. He says he will not turn him in, but that he will not have anything to do with it. Dorian tells him he wants him to do it because of Alan’s knowledge of chemistry. He wants him to change the body into a handful of ashes. He at first says it was a suicide, but then admits that he murdered the man upstairs. Dorian begs him to help and Alan refuses to listen. Finally, when he is sure he can’t convince him,

Dorian writes something down and tells Alan to read it. Alan is shocked at what he reads. Dorian says if Alan won’t help him, he will send a letter to someone and ruin Alan’s reputation. He tells Alan he is terribly sorry for him for what he will have to do, but tries to console him by saying he does this sort of thing all the time for the pursuit of science so it shouldn’t be too horrible for him.

Finally, Alan says he needs to get things from home. Dorian won’t let him leave. He makes him write down what he needs and sends his servant to get the equipment. Then when it arrives, he sends his servant away for the day to get some orchids in another city. He and Alan carry the equipment upstairs. At the door, Dorian realizes he has left the portrait uncovered for the first time in years. He rushes over to it to cover it. He sees that on the hands, there is a red stain. He covers it and then leaves the room to Alan without looking at the body.

Long after seven o’clock that evening, Alan comes downstairs and says it is finished. He says he never wants to see Dorian again. Dorian thanks him sincerely, saying he saved him from ruin. When Campbell leaves, Dorian rushes upstairs and sees there is no trace of the body.


That evening, Dorian Gray goes to a dinner party at Lady Narborough’s house. He looks perfectly dressed and perfectly at ease. The party is small and the guests boring. Dorian is relieved when he hears that Lord Henry will be coming. When Lord Henry arrives late, he carries on in his usual way with one aphorism after another much to Lady Narborough’s amusement. Dorian, for his part, cannot even eat. He is noticeably distracted. Lady Narborough asks him several times what is the matter and when the men are left alone after dinner for their cigars, Lord Henry questions him. Lord Henry asks him where he went the night before since he left the party early. Dorian first says he went home, then he says he went to the club, then he corrects himself again and says he walked around until half past two when he got home and had to ask his servant to let him in.

The two men chat a little longer. Dorian is planning a party at his country house the next weekend and they discuss the guest list. Dorian is interested in a Duchess and has invited her and her husband. Lord Henry warns him against her, saying she is too smart, and that women are best when they are weak and ignorant. Dorian finally says he must leave. He goes home and opens the hiding place where he has put Basil Hallward’s coat and bag. He puts them on the fire and waits until they are completely burned up. Then he sits and looks at a cabinet for a long time fascinated.

Finally, he gets up and gets a Chinese box out of it. He opens it and finds inside a green paste with a heavy odor. He hesitates with a strange smile and then puts the box back and closes the cabinet. He gets dressed and leaves the house. He hails a cab telling the man the address. The cab driver almost refuses since it is too far, but Dorian promises him a huge tip and they drive off toward the river.


It is raining and cold as Dorian rides to the outskirts of the city. The ride is extraordinarily long. He hears over and over again Lord Henry’s saying that one can cure the soul by means of the sense and can cure the sense by means of the soul. He heard Lord Henry say that on the first day he met him. He has repeated it often over the years. Tonight it is all he can think of to calm himself through the long drive. The roads get worse and worse. People chase the cab and have to be whipped away by the driver. Finally, they arrive and Dorian gets out.

He goes into a building and passes through several dirty and poor rooms. He passes through a bar where a sailor is slumped over a table and two prostitutes are jeering at a crazy old man. He smells the odor of opium and feels relieved. However, when he goes into the opium den, he is unhappily surprised to see Adrian Darlington.

Adrian tells him he has no friends any more and doesn’t need them as long as he has opium. Dorian doesn’t want to be in the same place with the young man about whom Basil Hallway had just spoken the night before. He buys Adrian a drink and is bothered by a prostitute. He tells her not to speak to him and gives her money to leave him alone. He tells Adrian to call on him if he ever needs anything and then he leaves. As he is leaving, one of the prostitutes calls out to him "There goes the devil’s bargain." He curses her and she says, "Prince Charming is what you like to be called, ain’t it?" As she says this the sailor who has been asleep jumps up and runs after Dorian.

Outside, Dorian is wishing he hadn’t run into Adrian Singleton and cursing fate. He hurries along when he is suddenly grabbed from behind and shoved against the wall. A gun is shoved into his face. Dorian calls out and the man tells him to be quiet. The man tells him to make his peace with God before he dies. He says he is James Vane, brother of Sibyl Vane, who killed herself after Dorian ruined her. He plans to leave for India that night and will kill Dorian before he goes. Dorian suddenly thinks of a way out. He asks James when his sister died. James tells him it was eighteen years ago. Dorian tells James to look at his face under the light.

James drags him to the street light and looks at him. He sees a face that is too young to have been a young lover eighteen years ago. H releases Dorian feelings shocked that he might have killed the wrong man.

After Dorian is gone, the prostitute comes out of the darkness and tells James he should have killed the man. She says he has made a bargain with the devil to remain looking young. She says the same man had ruined her eighteen years ago and left her to become a prostitute. He is nearly forty years old now. She swears she is telling the truth. He runs away from her but sees no trace of Dorian Gray.


It is one week later and Dorian Gray is entertaining guests at his country estate, Selby Royal. He is chatting with the Duchess of Monmouth when Lord Henry interrupts them. Lord Henry has decided to begin calling everyone Gladys as a means to combat the ugliness of names in the modern world. He engages the Duchess in a witty repartee about women and about values in general. The Duchess at one point mentions that Dorian’s color is very poor. He seems not to be feeling well. Dorian tries but does not do well in keeping up with their conversation. Finally, he volunteers to go to the conservatory to get her some orchids for her dress that evening.

When he is gone, Lord Henry tells the Duchess that she is flirting disgracefully with Dorian. She jokes with him in return. He teases her that she has a rival in Lady Narborough. She asks Lord Henry to describe women as a sex. He says women are "Sphinxes without secrets." She notices that Dorian is taking a long time and suggests going to find him when they hear a crash. They rush into the conservatory to find Dorian fainted away on the floor. They carry him in to the sofa and he gradually comes awake. He asks Lord Henry if they are safe inside. Lord Henry tells him he just fainted and must stay in his room instead of coming down to dinner.

Dorian insists he will come down to dinner. At dinner, he is wildly gay. Every once in a while, he feels a thrill of terror as he recalls the face of James Vane looking at him through the window of the conservatory.


The next day, Dorian Gray remains in his house afraid to leave it for fear of being shot by James Vane. The second day brings its own fears as well, but on the third day, Dorian wakes up and feels that he has been imagining things. He tells himself that James Vane has sailed away on his ship and will never find him in life.

After breakfast, he talks to the Duchess for an hour in the garden and then he drives across the part to join the shooting party. When he gets close, he sees Geoffrey Clouston, the Duchess’s brother. He joins Geoffrey for a stroll. Suddenly, a rabbit appears out of the bush and Geoffrey aims for it. Dorian tells him not to shoot it, but Geoffrey shoots anyway. Instead of the rabbit falling, a man who was hidden by the bush falls. The two men think it was one of the beaters (the men hired to beat the bushes so the wildlife will run and the hunters will be able to shoot at it). Geoffrey is annoyed at the man for getting in front of the gunfire. Lord Henry comes over and tells Dorian they should call off the shooting for the day to avoid appearing callous. Dorian is awfully upset by the shooting.

Lord Henry consoles him, saying the man’s death is of no consequence, though it will cause Geoffrey some inconvenience. Dorian thinks of it as a bad omen. He thinks he will be shot. Lord Henry laughs his fears away, telling him there is no such thing as destiny.

They arrive at the house and Dorian is greeted by the gardener who has a note from the Duchess. He receives it and walks on. They discuss her. Lord Henry says the Duchess loves him. Dorian says he wishes he could love but that he’s too concentrated on himself to love anyone else. He says he wants to take a cruise on his yacht where he will be safe. As they talk, the Duchess approaches them.

She is concerned bout her brother. Lord Henry says it would be much more interesting if he had murdered the man on purpose. He says he wishes he knew someone who had committed murder. Dorian blanches and they express concern for his health. He says he will go lie down to rest.

Lord Henry and the Duchess continue their talk. He asks her if she is in love with Dorian. She avoids answering. He asks if her husband will notice anything. She says her husband never notices and she wishes he would sometimes.

Upstairs in his room, Dorian lies on his sofa almost in a faint. At five o’clock he calls for a servant and tells him to prepare his things for his leave-taking. He writs a note to Lord Henry asking him to entertain his guests. Just as he is ready to leave, the head keeper is announced. He says the man who was shot was not one of the beaters, but seems to have been a sailor. No one knew the man. Dorian is wildly excited at the thought hat it might be James Vane. He rushes out to go and see the body. When the cloth is lifted from the face, he cries out in joy because it is the face of James Vane. He rides home with tears of joy knowing he’s safe.


Lord Henry tells Dorian he doesn’t believe him when he says he is now going to be good. He says Dorian is already perfect and shouldn’t change at al. Dorian insists that he has done many terrible things and has decided to stop that and become a good person. He says he’s been staying in the country lately and has resolved to change. Lord Henry says anyone can be good in the country. Dorian says he has recently done a good thing. He wooed a young girl as beautiful as Sibyl Vane was and loved her. He has been going to see her several times a week all month. They were planning to run away together and suddenly he decided to leave her with her innocence. Lord Henry says the novelty of the emotion must have given Dorian as much pleasure as he used to get in stealing the innocence of girls. Dorian begs Henry not to make jokes about his reform. Lord Henry asks him if he thinks this girl will now ever be able to be happy after she was loved by someone as beautiful and graceful as he is. Now she will be forever dissatisfied with love. He wonders if the girl will even commit suicide.

Dorian begs Henry to stop making fun of him. He tells him he wants to be better than he has been in life. After a while, he brings up the subject of Basil’s disappearance. He asks Henry what people are saying about it and wonders if anyone thinks foul play was involved. Henry makes light of it. He imagines that Basil fell off a bus into the Seine and drowned. Dorian asks Henry what he would think if he said he had killed Basil. Henry laughs at the idea, saying Dorian is too delicate for something as gross as murder.

Lord Henry says he hates the fact that Basil’s art had become so poor in the last years of his life. After Dorian stopped sitting for him, his art became trite.

Lord Henry begs Dorian to play Chopin for him and talk to him. Dorian begins playing and remembers a line from Hamlet that reminds him of the portrait Basil painted of him: "Like the painting of a sorrow,/ A face without a heart." He repeats the line over again thinking how much it suits the portrait Basil painted of him.

Lord Henry thinks of a line he heard when he passed by a preacher in the park last Sunday: "What does it profit a man if he gain the whole world and lose his own soul?" Dorian is shocked at the saying and wonders why Henry would ask him this question. Henry laughs it off and moves on to another topic.

Henry urges Dorian to stop being so serious. He tells him he looks better than he ever has and wonders what his secret is for warding off old age. He revels in the exquisite life Dorian has led and wishes he could change places with him. He tells Dorian his life has been a work of art. Dorian stops playing and tells Lord Henry that if he knew what he had done in life, he would turn from him.

Lord Henry urges Dorian to come to the club with him. He wants to introduce him to Lord Poole, Bournemouth’s eldest son who has been imitating Dorian and wants to meet him terribly. He then suggests that Dorian come to his place the next day and meet Lady Baranksome who wants to consult him about some tapestry she is going to buy. He asks Dorian why he no longer sees the Duchess and guesses that the Duchess is too clever, one never liking being around clever women. Finally, Dorian leaves after promising to come back later.


The night is beautiful. Dorian walks home from Lord Henry feeling good about himself. He passes some y young men who whisper his name. He no longer feels the thrill he used to feel when he is spoken of with such reverence by young men. He wonders if Lord Henry is right, that he can never change. He wishes he had never prayed that the portrait bear the burden of his age. He knows that his downfall has come because he has never had to live with the consequences of his actions.

He gets home and looks in a mirror. He feels sickened by the idea that youth spoiled his soul. He throws down the mirror smashing it on the floor. He tries not to think of the past. Nothing can change it. He knows Alan Campbell died without telling anyone of Dorian’s secret. He doesn’t even feel too badly about the death of Basil. He doesn’t forgive Basil for painting the portrait that ruined his life. He just wants to live a new life.

He thinks of Hetty Merton and he wonders if the portrait upstairs has changed because of his good deed toward her. He gets the lamp and rushes up the stairs, hopeful that the portrait will have already begun to change back to beauty. When he gets there, he is horrified to see that the portrait looks even worse. Now the image has an arrogant sneer on its face. More blood has appeared on its hands and even on its feet.

Dorian wonders what he should do. He wonders if he will have to confess the murder before he will be free of the guilt of it. He doesn’t want to confess because he doesn’t want to be put in jail.

He wonders if the murder will follow him all his life. Finally he decides to destroy the portrait. He finds the knife he used to kill Basil. He rushes to the portrait and stabs at it.

Downstairs on the street below, two men are passing by when they hear a loud scream. They rush for a policeman who knocks on the door, but no one comes. The men ask the policeman whose house it is. When they hear it is Dorian Gray’s, they sneer and walk away. Inside, the servants rush up to the room from whence the sound came. They try the door but it’s locked. Two of them go around by way of the roof to get in through the window. When they get inside, they find Dorian Gray stabbed in the heart and above him a glorious portrait of him hanging on the wall. The man stabbed on the floor is wrinkled and ugly. They don’t eve recognize him until they see the rings on his fingers.



Dorian Gray, a man who is jolted out of oblivion at the beginning of the novel and made aware of the idea that his youth and beauty are his greatest gifts and that they will soon vanish with age.


Lord Henry Wotton, the bored aristocrat who tells Dorian Gray that he is extraordinarily beautiful. He decides to dominate Dorian and proceeds to strip him of all his conventional illusions. He succeeds in making Dorian live his life for art and forget moral responsibility.

A secondary antagonist is age. Dorian Gray runs from the ugliness of age throughout his life. He runs from it, but he is also fascinated with it, obsessively coming back again and again to look at the signs of age in the portrait.


The climax follows Sibyl Vane’s horrible performance on stage when Dorian Gray tells her he has fallen out of love with her because she has made something ugly. Here, Dorian rejects love for the ideal of beauty. The next morning, he changes his mind and writes an impassioned letter of apology, but too late; Sibyl has committed suicide.


Dorian Gray becomes mired in the immorality of his existence. He places no limit on his search for pleasure. He ruins people’s lives without qualm. His portrait shows the ugliness of his sins, but his own body doesn’t. His attempts at reform fail. He even kills a messenger of reform--Basil Hallward. Finally, he kills himself as he attempts to "kill" the portrait. He dies the ugly, old man and the portrait returns to the vision of his beautiful youth.

The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1866 - 1946)

Type of Work: Fantasy / science fiction novel

Setting: England; late nineteenth century, and

Principle Characters:

 The Time Traveller, an inquisitive, scientific man

 Weena, a future woman

Story Overview

One Thursday evening, four or five men assembled for dinner at a friend's home near London. But as the evening passed, their host failed to appear. Finally, at half past seven the guests agreed it was a pity to spoil a good dinner and seated themselves to a delicious meal. The main topic of their conversation was time travel, a subject their host had seriously argued as a valid theory during an earlier dinner.

He had gone so far as to show them the model of a curious machine he had built, which, he declared, could travel through the fourth dimension - time. While the guests conversed, the door suddenly opened and in limped their host. He was in a state of disarray. His coat was dusty, dirty and smeared with green; his hair was markedly grayer than the last time they had seen him, his face pale, and his expression haggard and drawn as if by

 intense suffering. As he stumbled back through the door in tattered, bloodstained socks, he promised his guests that be would return shortly with an explanation for his actions and appearance.

 Soon after, the gentleman did reappear, and commenced with his remarkable story:

 That morning, his machine at last completed, he had begun his journey through time. Increasing the angle of his levers, at first he was able to maintain a sense of time and place. His laboratory still looked the same, but slowly its image dimmed. Then, faster and faster, night followed day, until the palpitation of night and day merged into one continuous grayness. New questions sprung up in the Traveller's mind: What had happened to civilization? How had humanity changed?

 Now he saw great and splendid architecture rising about him, while the surrounding expanse became a richer green, with no interruptions made by winter. The Time Traveller decided to stop.

 He fell from his machine to find himself at the foot of a colossal, winged, sphinx-like figure carved out of white stone on a bronze pedestal. The huge image, outlined by early morning mist, made him somewhat ill at ease. Then he noticed figures approaching, - slight creatures, perhaps four feet high, very beautiful and graceful, but indescribably frail. These beings advanced toward the Time Traveller, laughing without fear, and began touching him all over. "So these are the citizens of the future," he mused. They acted like five-year old children, and the Traveller was disappointed with their lack of intelligence and refinement.

 These gentle people, called Eloi, bore their visitor to a towering building that appeared ready to collapse. Their world in general seemed in disrepair - a beautiful, tangled waste of bushes and flowers; a long-neglected and yet weedless garden. The Eloi served their guest a meal that consisted entirely of fruit. During this repast, they all sat as close to the Time Traveller as they could.

 With much difficulty he began to learn their language, but the Floi, with their very short attention spans, tired easily of teaching him. That evening the Traveller began to hypothesize how these people, who all looked identical, dressed alike, and reacted to life in the same way, had evolved. Perhaps, he thought, mankind had overcome the numerous difficulties of life facing it in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Under new conditions of perfect comfort and security, perhaps power and intellect - the very qualities he most valued - had no longer been necessary. He decided that he had emerged into the sunset of humanity; a vegetarian society - for he had noticed no animals - where there was no need for either reasoning or strength. As night drew near, the Time Traveller suddenly realized that his time machine had vanished. Engulfed by the fear of losing contact with his own age and being left helpless in this strange new world, he flew into a desperate rampage, a futile attempt to find his machine.

 Soon the voyager's panic faded as he realized his machine was probably inside the huge stone figure near the spot where he had "landed." He pounded on the bronze doors without effect, but he was certain he had heard some voice from inside - a distinct little chuckle. Calm, welcome sleep, finally overcame the adventurer, and he reasoned that in time he would succeed in breaking into the stone behemoth to regain his machine.

 Another day passed. The Time Traveller came to realize that he had been wrong about the little beings. The Eloi had no machinery or appliances of any kind, yet they were clothed in pleasant fabric and their sandals were fairly complex specimens of metalwork. Perhaps this was a truly advanced society.

 Later, the Time Traveller rescued an Eloi woman from drowning. Her name was Weena. Weena, unable to vocally express her gratitude and regard for the Time Traveller, slept by his side in the dark. This took great courage because the Eloi feared darkness and never ventured from their buildings after sunset. This point also puzzled the Time Traveller: If the Eloi lived in a perfect society, then why were they afraid of the dark?

 On the fourth day of his adventure, the Traveller came across other earth creatures. These subterranean, ape-like vermin were called Morlocks. Summoning courage, the Time Traveller warily descended into their world to learn what he could about them. There he found the machines that he had not seen above ground. Morlocks were apparently another race of man's descendants, no longer able to tolerate the sun-lit surface of the planet. Here were the enemies who had taken his time machine. By their smell and appearance they were obviously carnivores.

 Suddenly the Traveller understood why the Eloi feared darkness. They were like fatted calves, kept well and healthy, only to be seized and eaten when the Morlocks grew hungry. Eloi society wasn't perfect after all.

 A few days later, Weena and the Time Traveller set out to search for a weapon they could use to break into the pedestal where the machine was hidden. Coming across an ancient museum, they collected matches, some camphor for a candle, and, most important of all, an iron mace. The sun was setting as they emerged from the museum. Though filled with a sense of doom, and having several miles of forest between them and safety, they nevertheless started for home in the shadowy darkness.

 Morlocks proceeded to close in on them along the way. The beasts were temporarily driven off each time the Time Traveller lighted a match, but finally, in an effort to slow them down, he ignited a larger fire. In minutes the entire forest was in flames. The Traveller was able to escape - but Weena was lost in the flames. Standing on a knoll, he looked out over the burning wasteland, and mourned the loss of his devoted Eloi friend.

 When morning came, the Time Traveller began retracing his steps to the place where he bad originally landed. On the way he pondered how brief the reign of human intellect had been. Our priceless, heroic, human existence had been traded for a life of comfort and ease.

 Now, as the voyager approached the stone relic, he found the door of the pedestal open. Inside was his time machine. It was an obvious trap, but the Morlocks had no idea how the device worked. The Traveller sprinted to his machine and adjusted the lever, while fighting off several Morlocks. Then he found himself enveloped by the same welcome grey light and tumult he had before observed. He had escaped that dismal future.

 The visit to the Eloi took place in the year 802,701. The Time Traveller next journeyed through millions of years, seeing even more alien creatures than before. Finally halting thirty million years after he had departed, he found a distant age where the sun no longer shone brightly. In bitter cold and deathly stillness, the horrified Traveller started back toward the present.

 The guests listened with mixed emotions to the last of this tale. Their host seemed sincere; but was such a feat possible? A few days later one of his friends came to hear more. Again, the Traveller excused himself, asking his guest to wait momentarily and he would be back with evidence of this excursion. Three years elapsed and the Time Traveller had not reappeared. He was considered by his friends as a lost wanderer, somewhere in time.

Ulysses by J.Joyce

Chapter One: Telemachus

When James Joyce began writing his novel Ulysses, he had in mind a creative project that brought together aspects of his two major works Dubliners and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, while at the same time incorporating aspects of Homer's epic The Odyssey. The novel Ulysses encompasses a total of eighteen chapters, tracing the actions of various Dubliners beginning at 8 am on the day of June 16, 1904.

Chapter One opens with the breakfast of three young men: Haines, a British student who is in Dublin on temporary leave from Oxford; Malachi "Buck" Mulligan, a medical student; and Stephen Dedalus, the protagonist from Portrait and the central character in the first three chapters of Ulysses. The three young men are living in Martello Tower, for which only Stephen pays rent as he is the one who has rented it from the Ministry of War. We immediately discover that there are tense relations between Mulligan and Stephen; particularly, Stephen feels increasingly ostracized, as Mulligan and Haines become closer. Further, Buck spares no sympathy in his constant tormenting of Stephen in regards to the recent death of his mother, Mary Dedalus. Stephen is, in general, the butt of most of Mulligan№s jokes.

Particularly, Mulligan teases Stephen that he is responsible for his mother's death because upon seeing her on her deathbed, he refused her pleas for him to pray, having distanced himself from organized religion. In this, Mulligan jokes that his aunt has refused to allow him to keep company with Stephen, as his apostasy is made worse by being the murderer of his mother. Further, Stephen feels distanced from Haines; Stephen feels that Haines is somewhat patronizing in his attitude towards Stephen's desire to become a poet. Haines is a British native and both Mulligan and Stephen despise him, though Mulligan masks his true thoughts with hypocrisy and flattery. Haines appears as a spoiled student and a shallow thinker. He argues that British oppression is not the cause of Ireland№s problems; rather "history" is to blame. Interrupting the young men's conversation about Ireland and its international politics, an old lady arrives to deliver the morning milk and Stephen finds that he is forced to pay the bill. Soon after breakfast, the three men leave the Tower to walk along the beach. After making plans to meet Stephen at a bar called the Ship around noon, Mulligan asks him for his key to the tower. After, forfeiting his key to Mulligan, Stephen departs from his two roommates, feeling that he has been usurped from his position.

Chapter Two: Nestor

About an hour after "Telemachus" ends, we find Stephen teaching ancient history and the classics to a disrespectful class of wealthy boys. Neither Stephen nor the students are particularly interested in the lesson which concerns the martial exploits of the Greek hero, Pyrrhus. Armstrong, the class clown, is disruptive and Talbot, a lazy cheater who is reading the answers out of his book, does not bother to hide his act from Stephen, who tells him to 'turn the page" when he stammers at his final response. Stephen struggles to keep the class in order and it is clear that they disrespect him. Eventually, even Stephen is distant and half-hearted in his participation and he eventually gives up his attempt to quiz the students on their classics lesson.

Later, the young boys ask Stephen to tell them ghost stories and riddles instead of their lesson. Upon recess, one pathetic student named Cyril Sargent asks Stephen for assistance with his multiplication tables and Stephen is reminded of his mother as he considers the fact that only a mother could love as pitiful a creature as what he and Cyril must have been. Stephen considers his roommate Haines to be much like the spoiled students to whom he must cater. Because he feels that his students are incapable of learning, and because he feels that his intellectual talents are being wasted in his current position, Stephen does not care about his job and is already considering leaving his position.

At the end of the chapter, the schoolmaster, Mr. Deasy, gives Stephen his meager pay for the month. and annoys the young teacher with trite advice on lending money, pro-British and anti-Semitic rhetoric. Mr. Deasy continues with an unintelligent attempt at philosophy as well as Shakespearean criticism. At the close of the chapter, Mr. Deasy asks Stephen to examine his letter on a cattle-disease that has caused foreign economic powers to consider an embargo on Irish cattle. Deasy intends for Stephen to use his contacts to get the letter, which is full of misstatements and incorrect assertions, printed in the Evening Telegraph.

Chapter Three: Proteus

After 11 AM, Stephen Dedalus wanders along Sandymount strand (a beach) to waste time before he is to go to the Ship at 12:30 to meet Mulligan and Haines. Though, in the end, Stephen decides not to go to the Ship to see Mulligan. This occurs immediately after the "Nestor" episode at Mr. Deasy's school and Stephen is still disgruntled by his unpleasant experience with Mr. Deasy and also feels burdened because he has to carry Mr. Deasy№s inane letter to the Evening Telegraph. Later in the chapter, Stephen sits on a rock and pencils in a few corrections, in an effort to make his upcoming trip to the newspaper office less embarrassing.

After walking for several miles, Stephen considers visiting his mother's family (the Gouldings) but after imagining what his father's objections would be, he decides against it. Stephen imagines a vivid scene of what would transpire if he did decide to visit the Gouldings. He imagines his Uncle Richie Goulding who is laid up in bed as he suffers the consequences of decades of alcoholism. As usually, "nuncle Richie" would be singing Italian opera while cousin Walter ran around the house in search of backache pills for his father. In another room, Mrs. Goulding would no doubt be bathing one of the myriad young children running around the house.

As he walks on the beach, Stephen considers different philosophical questions on what is real and what is only perceived, on the relationship of the symbol versus the symbolized, as well as the human senses and how they interact and overlap. Stephen expresses his feelings of solitude as his mind wanders on the real and imagined figures that surround him on Sandymount and he imagines himself to be in Paris, in the company of his friend, Kevin Egan. Dedalus№ friend, Egan, was reputed to be a socialist and after exiling himself to Paris, unlike Stephen, he never returned to Ireland.

Chapter Four: Calypso

Chapter Four marks the opening of Part Two, beginning at 8am with Leopold Bloom in his house on 7 Eccles Street. It is breakfast time at the Bloom residence as was the case in Martello, and the scene that we encounter is one of fractured domesticity. Bloom's wife, Molly, is asleep in the bed and their daughter Milly is away. Joyce's focus on Bloom's thoughts is a contrast to Stephen's intellectualism. When he wakes up, Bloom№s primary concern is to get breakfast made before his wife is stirring. He likes to serve Molly breakfast in bed, and Molly is very specific about how she likes her toast corners cut and her morning tea served. After beginning preparations for her breakfast and serving the cat her milk, Bloom quickly departs for the butcher shop in search of a nice cut of pork kidney for his own breakfast. He later burns the kidney when he spends too much time assisting Molly upstairs.

Indeed, Joyce's Ulysses is more of a comic hero than an epic figure, a resemblance to Cervantes' Don Quijote. Bloom is doomed to wander for the day because he has left his key in the pair of pants that he wore the previous day and he is afraid to go upstairs and disturb his wife Molly. Like Stephen, Bloom is rather submissive in his relationships. Bloom, for example, is aware of the fact that his wife is having an affair with Blazes Boylan, a younger man with whom she professionally sings. Molly has received a letter from Boylan that morning and Bloom is aware that Molly and Boylan plan to consummate their relationship that very afternoon. Additionally, Bloom is also concerned that his daughter's innocence may be imperiled on account of her new suitor; Bloom simply shrugs this off and is passive, if not fatalistic.

We learn a little about Bloom's sexual preferences in his rather obsessive voyeurism. When Bloom goes to the Dlugacz butcher shop, he attempts to pursue a young girl at the hope of catching a glimpse of her underwear. Towards the end of the chapter, Bloom is dressing in all black on account of the funeral of his acquaintance, Paddy Dignam. And the chapter ends when Bloom takes a trip to the outhouse and expresses his concern about again while reading a serialized story which leads him to consider taking up a literary career to make more money.

Chapter Five: The Lotus Eaters

Chapter Five begins close to 10am as a keyless Bloom leaves his house and takes a circuitous route to the post office in order to pick up any responses to an advertisement in which he inquired for a secretary. As a result of his advertisement, Bloom has been in correspondence with a flirtatious woman who uses the pseudonym "Martha Clifford" to his "Henry Flower, Esquire." Despite the fact that he has already found an answer to his advertisement, Bloom continues to check the post office box and his advertisement has netted over forty responses and in the end Martha Clifford was the final consideration, narrowly defeating Lizzie Twigg for the "position." Regardless of Bloom№s initial intent and whether or not he was initially searching for a secretary, Martha Clifford has become a platonic pen-pal and now it seems that the relationship is escalating. Upon reading Clifford's letter, Bloom regrets the fact that he has goaded Clifford by responding to her letters and he is afraid that she may want to meet him instead of continue a Clifford-Flower relationship with non-committed, teasing love letters. As if to confirm her romantic intentions, Clifford, the coquette, has included a flower along with her letter.

After leaving the post office, Bloom travels to the Belfast and Oriental Tea Company, though he only looks through the window and admires the various spiced teas from the outside. Looking through the large window of the store, Bloom is lost in a daydream as he imagines the various advertisement possibilities for the establishment. Bloom continues on his wandering course until he reaches F.W. Sweny's chemist shop where he buys a bar of lemon soap and makes plans to return with a recipe for Molly's lotion. He had forgotten to bring it with him. Bloom sees Bantam Lyons on the street and Lyons misunderstands Bloom's offer of the newspaper that he has just finished reading.

Bloom's statement that he was just going to throw away the paper is misheard by Lyons who thinks that Bloom is giving him a tip on the racehorse, Throwaway. This rather strained comic scene has unfortunate consequences for Bloom, later in the novel. Towards the end of the chapter, Bloom contemplates a Turkish bath, but his peaceful thoughts are interrupted by his memory of his father's suicide. Bloom№s father, Rudolph, took an overdose of monkshood poison and died in a resort in Italy.

Chapter Six: Hades

Soon before 11am, Bloom enters a funereal carriage with other friends of Paddy Dignam. Jack Power, Martin Cunningham, Simon Dedalus (the father of Stephen) and Bloom, follow Dignam's hearse to Glasnevin Cemetery where Father Coffey delivers the conclusion of the religious interment ceremony. Along the way, the carriage passes throngs of urban poor, the small hearse of an orphan, a widow, Blazes Boylan, as well as Stephen Dedalus. As the funeral procession passes through the city, all of Dublin№s bleakest characteristics are exposed and magnified. Bloom imagines it as a city of the dead and when he passes an old lady, he thinks to himself that she is somewhat relieved to see the hearse pass by her as she lives in the constant fear that the next death she sees will be her own. The carriage has a few navigational problems as the course to Glasnevin Cemetery requires that they pass over four different rivers including the Liffey, Dublin№s largest river.

Bloom's outsider status is revealed even in the stilted congeniality of the cramped carriage. Power and Dedalus are extremely terse in their comments to Bloom, though Cunningham does make an effort to express his kindness. Still, the conversation is triangular and Bloom spends most of his time thinking of ways to jump into the conversation. His attempt to be sociable is more of a faux pas than anything else and his comments expose him as a non-Catholic. One of the carriage members comments on the unfortunate nature of Paddy Dignam№s death, given that he died in a drunken and unconscious stupor. For the three Catholics, it need not be said that Dignam was unable to receive last rites, jeopardizing the status of his soul in the afterlife. Bloom, an outsider, has missed the nuance of the conversation and he argues that Paddy was lucky, for dying in ones sleep is the least painful exit. Later the conversation turns to the subject of suicide and Jack Power makes an inconsiderate remark about the eternal damnation suffered by suicides. Unlike Power, Cunningham is aware of the fact that Bloom№s father committed suicide and he steers the conversation to a lighthearted topic. Despite the stiff sobriety of the occasion though, Bloom's opinions of the Roman Catholic ceremony provide comic relief from the somber subject matter of the chapter.

Chapter Seven: Aeolus

After the Dignam funeral, Bloom goes downtown to the newspaper office (an office for three different publications) to work on his newest advertising assignment, a two-month renewal for Alexander Keyes. Bloom appears close to accomplishing his goal because Keyes previous ad is easily recovered. Problems arise when the business manager, Nannetti, decides that Keyes should take out a three-month advertisement and he is largely unwilling to compromise. Nannetti№s tone is sarcastic when he addresses Bloom and so the ad canvasser is unclear as to whether or not he will have to re-negotiate his contract with Keyes, though in the end it seems that this is the case.

To further complicate manners, Bloom learns that he will have to trek to the National Library to retrieve a specific graphic image of two crossed keys. The Keyes house wanted to use this image and though it was the same image that they used in their last advertisement, Bloom is unable to find a copy of it in the office. Bloom's escapades in the office are interrupted by the entrance and exit of both Simon and Stephen Dedalus at different times and within different groups. Simon Dedalus has arrived with a few of his friends who were also in attendance at the funeral and they eventually leave for drinks. While they are there, the men discuss and ridicule a recent patriotic speech that has printed in the paper.

When Stephen arrives, he sends a telegraph to Mulligan, notifying him that he will not be going to the Ship. Instead, Mulligan and Stephen will cross paths in the National Library, though Stephen is wholly unaware of Leopold Bloom and his plans. Stephen is also engaged in a political discussion in which he tells what he calls the Parable of the Plums, describing the Irish condition as that of two old women who have begun to climb the tall statue of the British Lord Nelson. Having stopped midway, they take a break to eat plums, spitting the pits down into the Irish soil. At this point, the two old women are horrified and unable to move, frightened by the distance between their current position and ground level. At the same time though, they find Lord Nelson№s face to be unwelcoming and menacing and they refuse to climb any further on the statue, resigned to live the rest of their lives clutching on Lord Nelson№s midsection. After telling the parable to his enthusiastic and older audience, Stephen delivers Mr. Deasy's letter on Irish cattle, which the staff reluctantly agrees to print. Bloom re-appears towards the end of the chapter as he attempts to call Keyes to confirm the three-month renewal before beginning the work but all of his attempts at communication are unsuccessful as his co-workers are disrespectful and only make Bloom's assignment more difficult than it needs to be.

Chapter Eight: The Lestrygonians

Chapter Eight is a chronology of Bloom's early afternoon. Rather than directly venturing to the National Library, Bloom wanders for a little over an hour and the narrative of the chapter follows his course as he decides to get something to eat. A young proselytizer affiliated with the YMCA hands Bloom a "throwaway" tract and when Bloom first reads the words: "blood of the lamb," he mistakes the letters B-L-O-O for the beginning of his own name. Soon after, Bloom sees one of Simon Dedalus' daughters waiting for him outside a bar. Bloom then feeds the gulls, watches the five men advertising H.E.L.Y.S. establishment, listens to Mrs. Breen's story concerning her husband, Denis, who is losing his mind. Mr. Denis Breen has received a postcard in the mail that reads "U. p: up" and enraged, by the unintelligible prank, he has ventured to a lawyer in order to press charges. Denis Breen intends to sue for libel, though he is unaware of the intent or sender of the postcard.

Mrs. Breen also shares the story of Mina Purefoy, who has been in labor for three days. Purefoy is losing her strength and apparently, Mrs. Breen has recently visited her in the National Maternity Hospital. Concerned for Mrs. Purefoy, Bloom decides that he will visit the pregnant woman and a little after this decision, Bloom encounters an in/famous character by the name of Cashel Boyle O'Connor Fitzmaurice Tisdall Farell. Farrell is another Dublin crazyman who spends him time walking in between the lampposts. After avoiding Farrell's track, a hungry Bloom enters the Burton Restaurant but he leaves, disgusted by the exceptionally poor habits of the savage customers. Bloom, in fact, does not even give himself the chance to sit down in the Restaurant, whose somewhat opulent dйcor contrasts the loud noise of the animated diners.

After leaving the Burton Restaurant, Bloom continues his wandering through the city before he finally opts for Davy Byrne's "moral pub," where he sees Nosey Flynn. Just as the "moral pub" is considerably cleaner than the Burton Restaurant, Flynn presents himself as a decent man‹though he too, is not the cleanest. Flynn is constantly picking and brushing lice off his shoulders. The conversation inside Byrne's touches upon Blazes Boylan as well as the upcoming horserace in which Sceptre is heavily favored. After Bloom's exit, Byrne and Flynn discuss the wanderer, concluding rather fairly that he is a decent man despite his deliberate ambiguity and consistent refusal to sign his name to any agreement. The chapter ends soon after Bloom is on the path to the National Library. He helps a "blind stripling" cross street and soon after, Bloom enters a Museum, presumably to hide from Blazes Boylan whose path has again crossed with Bloom's.

Chapter Nine: Scylla and Charybdis

This afternoon chapter lasts for approximately an hour and a half and ends at 3pm. "Scylla and Charybdis takes place in the National Library and the shift in focus from Bloom to Stephen Dedalus marks Stephen's third appearance since "Proteus." Stephen has left the news office of "Aeolus" and after sending a message to Mulligan, he departed for the National Library rather than The Ship. It is unclear exactly what Stephen has been doing in the interim, though we do see that he is not alone in the library and Stephen sees that this casual company provides him with another opportunity to present himself as an intellectual thinker and budding literary genius.

Despite Stephen’s continued efforts to impress the men in his company, he finds that his ploys are mostly frustrated. In contrast to Stephen's more receptive audience in "Aeolus," two of his library companions, Russell and Eglington, are men of literary stature who patronize Stephen's ideas about Shakespeare, ideas that he wedges between commentary on Irish politics and the difficult predicament of the young Irish literati. In his discussion of Shakespeare, Stephen aims to make use of his various critical skills without actually believing the arguments that he makes. Bloom is the first interruption of the narrative when we learn that he has arrived in search of the design the Keyes advertisement. Upon Bloom№s arrival, the head Librarian briefly departs presumably, to help Bloom locate the design of the "Keys of Killarney."

Later, Mulligan arrives and continues his "tongue-in-cheek" mocking of Stephen and while Bloom and Stephen do not meet in this chapter, Bloom does pass between the two young men as he exits, separating them. By the end of "Scylla and Charybdis," Stephen is irked by the discussion of the Irish literary renaissance and he wonders if he will ever achieve literary success in Ireland as Mulligan, a sarcastic medical student, has been invited to attend a literary function with Haines, while he remains uninvited.

Chapter Ten: Wandering Rocks

The "Wandering Rocks" chapter of Ulysses is a narrative interlude midway through the novel. Joyce depicts the adventures of a collection of Dubliners between 2:40 and 4pm, ending approximately half an hour before Molly and Boylan meet. The diverse roll of characters includes some figures that do not appear in other chapters and Joyce's primary concern in Chapter Ten is painting a vivid portrait of Dublin. Among these, we meet several figures of the Roman Catholic Church included Father "Bob" Cowley, who a habitual alcoholic who has lost is collar for previous indiscretions.

We also encounter Father Conmee, who has the noble though naпve dream of venturing into Africa in the hopes of converting the millions of "dark souls" who are lost in paganism. Father Conmee№s nostalgic thoughts on his days at Clongowes College are interrupted when he notices two young people who are kissing behind a half-hidden bush. Joyce also offers several glimpses of the Dedalus daughters. One of the four daughters has made a failed effort to pawn their brother Stephen№s books in the hopes of getting some money for food. After she returns, another daughter departs for the bars there father is none to frequent. While she accosts him in the hope of getting a few coins to purchase some food, her sisters are at home boiling laundry before taking a break to drink some discolored pea soup.

We receive separate views of Boylan and Molly before they meet. Molly appears on Eccles Street, offering a coin to a beggar sailor before preparing her home for her upcoming tryst. Boylan exposes himself as a hopeless flirt in his relationship with his secretary and in his treatment of the clerk of the flower shop. Stephen Dedalus appears without mulligan; a few mourners meet again to discuss Dignam's funeral and two viceregal carriages cast their shadows over beggars and barmaids, among others. Bloom's path intersects with Boylan's yet again and Bloom busies himself with the purchase of a book.

Chapter Eleven: The Sirens

"The Sirens" takes place in the bar and restaurant of the Ormond Hotel, where Lydia Douce and Mina Kennedy are barmaids. The chronology of the chapter overlaps with the previous one. Douce and Kennedy have entered the Ormond bar before the "Wandering Rocks" episode has concluded and Bloom only arrives at the Ormond after he has made his purchase of Sweets of Sin. Because Bloom is in the restaurant area of the Ormond he can only hear the noise coming from the bar area. Boylan arrives at the Ormond to meet Lenehan and the singer enters and exits without Bloom noticing; all the while, Bloom sits in dread of his upcoming cuckolding. A despondent Leopold Bloom accompanies Richie Goulding to a restaurant table. The physical consequences of Richie's drinking are visible to Bloom who suspects that Goulding will soon die. Soon after sitting at the table, Bloom begins writing a letter to Martha while talking to Goulding, disguising his efforts and insisting that he is only replying to a newspaper advertisement and not writing a letter as Goulding had suspected.

The piano sets a lively tone for those who are in the bar, including Simon Dedalus, Douce, Kennedy, Lenehan, Boylan, a singer named Ben Dollard, Father Cowley and Tom Kernan. This lively group provides intermittent comic relief from Bloom№s depressing meal. Dedalus is a strong singer and he engages in several rounds of a few Irish folk songs including the patriotic ballad, "The Croppy Boy." Ben Dollard, a professional singer, is also rather obese and he is the butt of a few of the barmaids№ jokes. For their parts, Douce and Kennedy, fully thrust themselves into their "siren" roles, luring Boylan and after he departs for 7 Eccles, focusing their attentions on Lenehan who squanders a significant amount of money in their bar.

Chapter 12: The Cyclops

During the time of Molly's affair, Leopold Bloom wanders into Barney Kiernan's pub. Bloom is not a drinker and this is not a pub that he regularly frequents; indeed, Bloom seems to be lost in thought when he literally wanders into Kiernan№s where he is to meet Cunningham and Power for a trip to see the Widow Dignam. The pub's fierce scene is a severe contrast to the mellow drunkenness of the Ormond's bar and Bloom is immediately uncomfortable. A rabid Irish nationalist called Citizen, terrorizes Kiernan's pub and focuses most of his verbal attack on Bloom. Citizen, like many of Joyce№s patriots, is both anti-Semitic and isolationist in his thinking.

Citizen initially begins his drunken discourse on the subject of the lost Celtic culture. Though he briefly touches upon the death of the Irish language, Citizen№s primary focus is on the renaissance of the ancient Celtic games. Citizen№s verbal spouting is not held in regard, though none of the pub№s patrons feel as uncomfortable as Bloom. A large dog named Garryowen is equally menacing for Bloom, and despite Garryowen№s allegiance with Citizen, who feeds the dog biscuits, Citizen is not the dog№s owner.

Lenehan is present and his conversation reveals the results of the horserace where Throwaway has upset the heavily favored Sceptre. When Citizen's anti-Semitism flares, Bloom is forced to assume a heroic role in defending himself. Specifically, the Citizen accuses Bloom of stealing from widows and orphans and he goes further, insinuating that Jews can never be true Irish citizens. Bloom defends himself as an honest person before offering Citizen a brief catalogue of Jews who have made significant contributions to European and Irish culture. When Bloom informs Citizen that his own God (Christ) also happened to be a Jew, Citizen becomes enraged and as Bloom exits the pub victorious, Citizen chases behind him, throwing an empty biscuit tin at Bloom's head. The sun temporarily blinds Citizen, whose missile falls far short of the target. Upon exiting Kiernan№s pub Bloom continues on his mission to visit the Dignam widow, accompanied by Martin Cunningham and Jack Power. They intend to discuss the specifics of Paddy Dignam№s insurance policy and help the widow get her finances in order.

Chapter 13: Nausicaa

Nausicaa takes place several hours after "The Cyclops," and ends with the clock striking nine. In the interim between the chapters, Bloom has visited the Dignam widow to discuss Paddy's insurance policy and in this chapter he is walking along Sandymount strand, the same beach where Stephen strolled during "Proteus." There is a group of young people on the beach including a young woman named Cissy Caffrey who is watching Tommy and Jacky Caffrey and a smaller baby. Alongside Cissy is her friend Gertrude "Gerty" MacDowell. Gerty's mostly thinks about her previous boyfriend and later she considers thoughts of marriage. In her conversation with Caffrey, MacDowell hides the emotional disappointment that she has suffered. Even as she maintains a rigid and impassive exterior, MacDowell is deep in thought, considering (apparently, for the first time) that she may not be able to find a boyfriend whom she might convince or seduce into marriage.

Midway through her thoughts, Gerty notices the voyeur, Bloom. Leopold Bloom is still dressed in all black on account of Dignam№s funeral and he is a somber contrast to the white sand of the beach. MacDowell can easily detect that Bloom is watching her though he continues his failed attempts to conceal his furtive staring. Cissy Caffrey suspects that something is awry when MacDowell appears to be distracted and focused in the direction of the dark stranger. MacDowell then decides to use Caffrey in a ploy to get a better look at Bloom who is sitting in the distance. Knowing the Caffrey did not have a timepiece with her, MacDowell asks her for the time and when Cissy replies that she does not know, MacDowell ventures over to Bloom, an "uncle" of hers, so that she might find out.

Upon returning to her original seat with Caffrey, MacDowell feels sympathy for Bloom, who she decides must be the saddest man alive. In place of her thoughts on her boyfriend, Reggie Wylie, MacDowell suggests to herself that Bloom might be a character worth saving, as only she could truly understand him. It is not long before MacDowell notices that Bloom is again engaged in furtive behavior, masturbating himself with a hand cloaked in his pocket. After a brief consideration, Gerty decides to "loves" him back, teasing Bloom by displaying her garters as he masturbates. Soon after this, MacDowell and the Caffreys depart from the beach, having stayed for the display of the nearby Bazaar№s fireworks. After MacDowell№s flirtatious departure, Bloom's considers his wife Molly and at the end of "Nausicaa," our hero confesses that his nauseous post-orgasmic lassitude is a sure sign that he is aging.

Chapter 14: The Oxen of the Sun

"The Oxen of the Sun" begins no earlier than 10 pm and ends at approximately 11pm. After the "Nausicaa" episode, Bloom finally arrives at The National Maternity Hospital to visit Mina Purefoy who has been in labor for three days. Because Bloom is concerned that Purefoy has not been able to deliver the child, he waits in the hospital before briefly seeing Mrs. Purefoy, whose husband, Theodore, is not present. After a brief discussion with one of the midwives, Bloom decides to wait outside the maternity room, until he has received word that, with the aid of Dr Horne and midwives, Mina Purefoy has given birth to a healthy son.

While Bloom is waiting for information regarding Purefoy's labor, he meanders into a darkened waiting room where he encounters Stephen Dedalus, who is sitting at a long table, drinking absinthe in the company of several other young men who are also drinking. Apparently, Stephen№s acquaintances, including Buck Mulligan, are mostly medical students and interns at the hospital. When Bloom sits at the drinking table of the younger men, he is initiating the first union between the novel's principal characters (Bloom and Dedalus). Buck Mulligan is a menacing presence in the hospital and Bloom consciously assumes a paternal role, fearing that Mulligan has laced Stephen's drink with a harmful substance.

Even after Bloom joins the conversation of the semi-inebriated men, Mulligan remains as bawdy and irreverent as before, making crass references to contraception, sexual intercourse, masturbation and procreation. And Bloom№s paternal aura seems to only extend to Stephen, who he singles out as the one decent character in the group. Repeatedly, the young men are cautioned to lower the volume of their laughter and profanity. After Stephen separates from Mulligan at the chapter's end, Bloom worries for Stephen's safety and he decides to follow Stephen who has departed for "Baudyville," alongside his friend Vincent Lynch; presumably, the young men intend to visit a brothel.

Chapter 15: Circe

Bloom follows Stephen and Lynch out of the maternity hospital as they head to Bawdyville, a brothel in the red-light district of Dublin that Joyce refers to as Nighttown. The reader is presented with grisly scenes of street urchin and deformed children, rowdy British soldiers and depraved prostitutes. Bloom follows the young men by train but he gets off at wrong stop and has initial difficulty keeping track of them. He is then accosted by a stranger who refuses to let him pass and a "sandstrewer" runs him off the road.

As Bloom progresses deeper into Nighttown with the hopes of finding young Stephen, the frenetic pace of the red-light district provokes several hallucinations in Bloom and his secret thoughts and hidden fears are played out before us. A sober Bloom is greeted by the spirits of his dead parents as well as the image of his wife Marion (Molly) who speaks to him in "Moorish." The farce continues when Bloom's bar of lemon soap begins to speak and Mrs. Breen, the wife of the lunatic Denis, appears in the road and flirts with Bloom before mocking him for getting caught in the red-light district. Bloom is suddenly in a courtroom, charged with accusations of lechery. Several young girls recount sordid stories of his Bloom, the conspicuous voyeur, and the courtroom's roll includes various characters from earlier in the day including Paddy Dignam and Father Coffey, who presided over Dignam's funeral.

The narrative abruptly shifts when Bloom finally arrives at Bella Cohen's brothel. When Bloom finds Stephen inside, he immediately seeks to protect the young man from being swindled. Stephen continues his own descent into drunken madness and Bloom holds Dedalus' money to avoid any further losses. Stephen's despairing hallucinations reach their climax when he encounters the vengeful ghost of his mother who begs him to return to the Roman Catholic Church. Dedalus breaking his symbolic chains to past by smashing Cohen's cheap chandelier with his walking stick. Chaos ensues when Bella Cohen tries to overcharge Stephen for the damage and Bloom must defend Stephen's interests. Again, as they are leaving the brothel, Bloom comes to the defensive when Private Carr assaults Stephen. Carr attacks the intoxicated young man despite Bloom's insistence that Stephen is incapable of protecting himself. Stephen has lost his glasses, his hand wounded and he immediately faints after Carr's blow. Vincent Lynch deserts Dedalus in Nighttown and Bloom directs Stephen towards shelter. In the final scene of "Circe," Bloom is distracted by the vision of his dead son, Rudy, not as a newborn infant but at the age that he would have been had he lived.

Chapter Sixteen: Eumaeus

After Stephen is revived, Bloom directs him towards a "cabman's shelter," a coffeehouse owned by a man named "Skin-the-Goat" Fitzharris. As Stephen begins to slowly sober up, Bloom begins a conversation in earnest, discussing his ideas of love and politics. Bloom's desperation makes his desire for a "son" transparent and even when Stephen is sober, he does not seem to be particularly interested in Bloom's thoughts. The conversation between Bloom and Dedalus resembles the conversation in the Dignam funeral carriage, where Bloom appears as a man who is desperate for acceptance.

In his efforts to win Stephen№s favor, Bloom attempts to play the role of an intellectual. Upon entering the cabman№s shelter, Bloom hears a few Italians speaking their native language and he turns to Stephen, to proclaim his love of the Italian language, specifically its phonetics. Stephen (who knows Italian) calmly replies that the Italian melody that Bloom has heard, was a base squabble over money. Though Bloom soon realizes that he does not know the brooding young Dedalus very well, he believes that the student's company would be beneficial for the Blooms. He could perhaps be a singer like his father and his economic potential is all the more pleasant to Bloom because he considers Stephen to be an "edifying" partner in conversation. Later in the conversation, Bloom demonstrates his intellectual deficiencies as he attempts to discuss politics with Dedalus arguing a shallow and superficial Marxist Leninism. Bloom№s reform calls first, for all citizens to "labor" and second, for all citizen№s needs to be secured regardless of their varying abilities, provided that this reform is carried out "in installments." Perceiving Stephen№s negative reaction to be a non-intellectual aversion, Bloom seeks to immediately assuage Dedalus by explaining that poetry is "labor."

Bloom leaves the cabman's shelter and invites Stephen to his home at 7 Eccles Street and the young man grudgingly accepts. While inside the coffeehouse, Stephen's paid less attention to Bloom and more attention to a man named W. B. Murphy, a self-described world sailor who had just come home to see his wife after many years. The comic sea bard adds a comic note to the tiring chapter, with his stories of acrobats, conspiracies and tattoos. As he is leaving the cabman's shelter, Stephen sees his dissipated friend, Corley. When Corley explains that he is in need of work, Stephen suggests that Corley visit Mr. Deasy's school to apply for an opening, as Dedalus intends to vacate his post.

Chapter Seventeen: Ithaca

The novel's penultimate chapter marks the pre-dawn hours of June 17, 1904. Stephen returns with Bloom to his residence at 7 Eccles Street and after a strained conversation and a cup of cocoa, Dedalus departs, turning down Bloom's invitation to stay for the night. When the two gentlemen reach 7 Eccles, Bloom realizes that he does not have his key and he is forced to literally jump over a gate in order to gain entry into the house. After navigating his way through the dark house, Bloom retrieves a candle and returns to lead Stephen through the dark house. Their conversation is more spirited as Stephen is considerably more conscious and lucid than he was in the fourteenth and fifteenth chapters. And unlike his demeanor in the cabman№s shelter, Stephen is less sullen as he sits in the Bloom residence drinking cocoa. Bloom№s conversation eventually tires Dedalus though, and despite Bloom№s efforts, he departs without committing to Bloom№s offer for a future engagement for "intellectual" conversation. Dedalus does not know where he is going to go, as he declines returning to his father№s house and is locked out of Martello. Guiding Stephen outside of the house, Bloom lingers outside to stare at the multitude of early morning stars. Upon re-entering the house, Bloom retires for the night, focusing his thoughts on the untidy house.

There is visible evidence of Boylan's earlier visit and after briefly contemplating a divorce, Bloom silently climbs into bed, offering Molly a kiss on the rear end. It seems that Bloom is eager to forget the matter, and will sacrifice his self-respect for comforts of married stability. Bloom's submissiveness presents a sharp contrast to the triumphal actions of Homer's Ulysses. In the original "Ithaca" episode, Ulysses and his son Telemachus attack Penelope's suitors, executing them all before re-establishing Ulysses on his throne.

Chapter Eighteen: Penelope

"Penelope" is Ulysses' eighteenth and final chapter. Molly Bloom thinks on her life before marriage and she defends and regrets her affair with Boylan, while bemoaning the social restrictions on women. Mrs. Bloom catalogues the detriments of her married life, describing her nagging loneliness, the deceptive allures of adultery and the betrayals she has suffered on account of her emotionally absent "Poldy." Molly№s narrative quickly slides between the distant and recent past and we learn of her years as an unmarried and attractive young lady in Gibraltar, a British colony on the southernmost tip of Spain. Her years with her mother Lunita and her father, a military man named Tweedy, seem to offer her the most pleasure as she is largely displeased with Boylan№s rough manners and her husband№s effeminate deficiencies.

For all of the negative assessments of hearth and home, "Penelope" is emphatically braced with the word "Yes" at the beginning and conclusion, and we have every reason to believe that-at least for June 17-the Bloom's intend to preserve their marriage. Perhaps in irritation and gratitude for Bloom's "kiss on the rump," Molly intends to turn his servility on its head by waking up early to serve Bloom "his breakfast in bed with a couple of eggs." After analyzing Bloom№s faults, Molly suggests that she knows Bloom better than anyone else and that their shared memories represent an emotional wealth that she would be unable to duplicate in a relationship with Boylan.

Vanity Fair by W.Thackeray

Chapter 1. Chiswick Mall

Two young ladies-Amelia Sedley and Rebecca (Becky) Sharp are preparing to leave Miss Pinkerton’s finishing school. Amelia is the kind hearted, conventional beauty who is loved by all, while Rebecca is a defiant young woman, who is disliked by almost everyone, including Miss Pinkerton. Only Miss Pinkerton’s sister, Jemima, and Amelia seem to be fond of Becky. Becky is to leave with Amelia and spend some time at her home before she can take her job as a governess at Queen’s Crawley.

Owing to the difference in the social status as well as their temperaments, only Amelia is gifted a copy of Dr Johnson’s Dictionary, as per the tradition of Chiswick Mall, as a parting gift. Miss Pinkerton refuses to give Becky a copy. Just as their carriage is about to move, Miss Jemima runs to Becky and hands over a copy of the Dictionary to her, but Becky, in her defiance, flings the gift out of the carriage, leaving Miss Jemima shocked!

Chapter 2 In which Miss Sharp and Miss Sedley prepare to open the campaign.

Becky is wickedly satisfied with the heroic act she has just performed. She tells Amelia that she was treated with contempt and compelled to teach French at the mall and that she was glad to bid it goodbye.

Amelia, excitedly, shows Becky around her house and gifts her a Cashmere shawl (which her brother had brought for her from India), besides a lot of other things. The knowledge that Amelia’s brother, Joseph Sedley is rich and unmarried fills hope into Becky’s heart and she is determined to make an attempt to woo him.

Chapter 3 Rebecca is in presence of the Enemy.

Joseph Sedley is a very stout man, vain as a young girl usually is. He is greatly flattered, by the fact that Becky considers him to be handsome. Becky tries all her charms on him. She shows immense interest in tales about India and suffers the spicy Indian curries and the hot chillies to win Jos over.


Chapter 4 The Green Silk Purse

Rebecca is all set to please everyone at the Sedley House. She makes the right moves towards Jos. Amelia insists that Jos take her and Becky to Vauxhall. It is decided that Lieutenant George Osborne, the godson of Mr. Sedley, is to accompany Amelia while Jos is to lead Becky to Vauxhall. Mr. Sedley and Mr. Osborne are good friends and wish to see Amelia and George married.

Due to a thunderstorm, the young couples are prevented from going to Vauxhall that night and so they spend the evening indoors. George and Amelia sing songs, while a besotted Jos helps Becky in weaving a silk purse. Later he is in ‘a state of ravishment,’ when he hears Becky performing. Jos makes up his mind to ask Becky to marry him.

Chapter 5 Dobbin of ours

This chapter begins with a flashback. Years ago, at Dr. Swishtail’s famous school, a boy named Dobbin used to be constantly ridiculed because his father was a grocer and it was said that he paid for Dobbin’s education, not in money but in goods.

One day, Dobbin saw the dreadful school bully, Cuff, harassing a scared boy. Dobbin stood in support of the poor victim and as a result, had to fight with Cuff. At his victory over Cuff, Dobbin was made the hero of the school and the little boy, who was George Osborne, began to love him as a friend. Humbled by the love of George, Dobbin, since that day, became George’s shadow, his devoted friend.

Back to the present, the party prepares to go to Vauxhall and George requests them to take Dobbin along. Dobbin enters the Sedley House and notices the young, beautiful Amelia, singing happily, and instantly falls in love with her.

Chapter 6 Vauxhall

As the possibility of a match between Jos and Rebecca increases, Mr. Sedley becomes more and more indifferent towards his son. The five people, at their best, go to Vauxhall- Becky full of hope and expectations, with Jos and Amelia extremely happy with George. All Dobbin does at Vauxhall is, takes care of the shawls, and make payments at the gate.

When the time actually comes for Jos to propose marriage to Becky, he gets drunk, and in his nervousness creates such a riot that everyone is miserably embarrassed. Disappointed though, Rebecca does not leave hope. The next day, George pays a visit to Jos at his apartment and narrates to him all the foolish things he (Jos) had done the previous night. Thoroughly ashamed he flees to Scotland, in order to avoid Becky.

This completely crashes all of Becky’s attempts and with all her pretense at work she bids a tearful goodbye to a dejected Amelia and gifts the purse to Mr. Sedley. Becky is sure that George Osborne has a hand in her misery and is therefore determined to take her revenge.

Chapter 7 Crawley of Queen’s Crawley

The narrator traces the history of the Crawley family. Sir Pitt Crawley first marries Grizzel who bears him two sons-Pitt and Rawdon. Many years after her demise, Sir Pitt marries Rose Dawson. The job that Becky gets at Queen’s Crawley, is to look after the two daughters of Sir Pitt and Rose Dawson.

Rebecca, dusting off her disappointment at the Sedley’s, becomes excited at the prospect of living with a Baronet. Sir Pitt Crawley is a dirtily dressed, foul-mouthed old man. He has very crude manners and a heavy Hampshire accent. The old house too seems almost dilapidated. Sir Pitt is to take Becky to Crawley’s mansion the next day.

Chapter 8 Private and Confidential

Becky writes a detailed letter to Amelia, describing Sir Pitt Crawley; her adventures during her journey as she was made to sit outside in the rain, for a passenger wanted an inside place in Sir Pitt’s coach, the Crawley estate, and finally the old-fashioned, red-brick mansion. Becky also gives her an account of the family members: Lady Crawley, who constantly weeps for the loss of her beauty; Pitt Crawley who is lean with ‘hay colored whiskers’ and dresses with the pomp of an undertakes; the two girls Rose and Violet who are simple and nice and of course Sir Pitt who drinks in the company of Horrocks, his butler.

Chapter 9 Family Portraits

Sir Pitt Crawley with his taste for low life marries Rose, daughter of an ironmonger. He gets drunk more than often and beats his pretty Rose. He has a brother, a Rector, Bute Crawley, whose wife refused to call on Lady Crawley because she is the daughter of a petty tradesman. After giving birth to two daughters, Lady Crawley remains as a mere machine in the house. She is only faintly attached to Pitt Crawley who is a polite, gentle and disciplined man. He is also an ambitious and industrious person.

Sir Pitt gets great pleasure in making his creditors wait and go from court to court. He asks, "What is the good of being in Parliament if you must pay your debts?"

Sir Pitt has an unmarried half sister, Miss Crawley, who has a large fortune. She helps the Crawleys often, to pay their debts. The members of her family love and respected her because of her vast bank balance.

Chapter 10 Miss Sharp Begins to make friends.

Rebecca’s main aim is to make herself agreeable to her benefactors. She knows that to survive in the world she has to fend for herself. She easily pleases Lady Crawley and her daughters. Her respect and obedience towards Pitt Crawley wins her, his good opinion. She finds ways to be useful to Sir Pitt and within a year, she becomes indispensable to him. She becomes his constant companion.

Rawdon Crawley of the LifeGuards Green does not get along with his brother Pitt and pays a visit to the house, only when the aunt comes to stay with them. He is a favorite of his aunt and there is mutual contempt between Pitt and Miss Crawley.

Miss Crawley is a rich woman, who loves everything associated with France. She enjoys life (though Pitt considers her to be ‘godless’) and loves to pamper her nephew, Rawdon.

Chapter 11 Arcadian Simplicity

Bute Crawley and his wife form the nearest relatives and neighbors of Sir Pitt. The two brothers are entirely against each other. Mrs. Crawley keeps a close watch on the Crawley house for news. She is quite suspicious about Rebecca’s growing influence over the Crawleys. Therefore she writes to Miss Pinkerton to enquire about her past for which Miss Pinkerton gladly fills in the information that her parents had been disreputable.

Becky writes a letter to Amelia informing her about the perfect peace and happiness in the house due to the arrival of Miss Crawley. The two brothers make best chaperons for her while they wait for her to kick the bucket. Becky also gives an account of Rawdon Crawley who lives a lavish life under the favor of his aunt. She does not forget to mention how he constantly showers attention over her while he is around.

Besides charming Mrs. Bute Crawley, Rebecca also has Miss Crawley tied to her little finger in no time, (who is immensely impressed by her) and becomes her constant companion.

Chapter 12 Quite a sentimental chapter.

Sisters of George as well as of Dobbin believe that Amelia is not worthy enough for a charming man like George. They feel that George is making a great sacrifice in loving Amelia. George plays truant and in the evenings is neither at his own house nor at Amelia’s. Amelia is heartbroken waiting for George. She writes frantic letters to George, who replies in very few words - in a soldier like manner.

Chapter 13 Sentimental and otherwise

While Amelia suffers in George’s absence, George is busy enjoying in the company of other women. Unable to hear people talking about George and his lady in a light manner, Dobbin, to the great displeasure of George, blurts out the truth about George’s engagement with Amelia. Dobbin also rebukes George for neglecting the angelic Amelia. George, with some hesitation, accepts money from Dobbin to buy a gift for Amelia. But he is driven by self-love, and buys a diamond shirt pin for himself. Amelia is euphoric to see George.

George’s father, John Osborne, is worried about John Sedley’s business. He makes it clear to George that he is not to marry Amelia unless she brings along ten thousand pounds.

Chapter 14 Miss Crawley at Home

Miss Crawley falls severely ill and is transported back to her house. Rebecca nurses her throughout her illness. Miss Crawley refuses to be looked after by anyone else, not even her old loyals, like Miss Briggs and Mrs. Firkin. These two companions are greatly threatened by Becky’s presence. Rawdon comes regularly to ask Becky about the improvement in the patient.

After great caring and watching over on Becky’s part, Miss Crawley recovers. Becky keeps her entertained and accompanies her on drives. On one such drive they pay a visit to Amelia, which again Amelia returns after a few days. Amelia is invited for dinner in which George Osborne is also a guest. George tells Rawdon to be careful of a desperate flirt like Becky.

Sir Pitt becomes a widower again. Throughout the time of Miss Crawley’s convalescence, he writes frantic letters to Rebecca to return to Queen’s Crawley. One day, he personally comes to fetch her and proposes marriage to her. Rebecca has only tears to shed at this marriage proposal; she confesses between her sobs that she is already married.

Chapters 15 & 16 In which Rebecca’s husband appears for a short time and the letter on the Pincushion

Miss Crawley is astonished to know that Rebecca has turned down Sir Pitt’s proposal. After much explanation to Miss Crawley, Becky admits that she loves someone else. Becky is a little remorseful that she has missed the position of a Lady, but she has enough ‘resolution and energy of character,’ to not continue mourning for what is lost.

She writes a letter to her secret husband, who is none other than Rawdon, and plans an elopement. Becky is sure that Miss Crawley will be hysterical for a while and then forgive her two favorites. She runs away leaving a letter for Miss Briggs, who does not have a clue about how to break the news and sends for Mrs. Bute Crawley. Together they inform Miss Crawley, who is frantic. Sir Pitt is furious. All this while Becky and Rawdon, together, are hoping that Miss Crawley will sooner or later come around and forgive them.

Chapter 17 &18 How Capt. Dobbin bought a piano and who played on the piano Capt. Dobbin bought.

Mr. John Sedley goes bankrupt and the family moves to a modest house in Fulham Street. There is an auction in their old house where Rawdon and Becky buy a painting of Jos Sedley on an elephant and Dobbin buys the old piano and sends it to its previous owner, Amelia.

Jos arranges financial help for his parents but does not come down to meet them. After his marriage, Rawdon Crawley is a much-altered man. Becky just avoids the ruined Sedleys.

Everybody is sure that George Osborne will not marry Amelia and speaks ill about her. Aware of this fact, John Sedley asks the heartbroken Amelia to return all the gifts that George had given her and break the relationship. George is moved by Amelia’s letter and, on Dobbin’s insistence, goes to meet her.

Chapter 19 Miss Crawley at Nurse

Mrs. Bute Crawley tries every way to make Miss Crawley despise Rawdon and Becky. For this, she reminds Miss Crawley of every vice of Rawdon and takes Miss Crawley to Miss Pinkerton’s, who helps them trace Becky’s earlier life. Thus, she fortifies the Park Lane house against the enemy.

Seeing Miss Crawley weak, Mrs. Bute Crawley presses upon the old woman to alter her will but does not succeed. At a drive in a park, Miss Crawley’s carriage passes by Rawdon’s carriage, who acknowledges the party but is coldly spurned. For Mrs. Bute it is a sure triumph. She plans to take Miss Crawley to Brighton to avoid such encounters in the future.

Chapters 20 & 21 In which Capt. Dobbin acts as the messenger of Hymen and Quarrel about on heiress.

Dobbin volunteers to convince Mr. Sedley about Amelia’s marriage. Amelia is as happy as she can be. George tells Amelia that his parents and sisters have formed a new acquaintance with a Miss Swartz, who is an extremely beautiful and rich heiress. John Osborne plans to get George married to Miss Swartz and he keeps giving his son, hints about this wish of his.

Miss Swartz is invited home for dinner where George is ordered to be present. During the meetings instigated by the foul words of his sisters towards Amelia, George declares to Miss Swartz that he loves Amelia and even rises against his father to defend her. His father is enraged and warns him not to argue with him if he wants to remain in the family. George defies his father’s orders and tells Dobbin that he will marry Amelia the very next day.

Chapter 22 A marriage and part of a Honeymoon.

Like a typical patriarch, Old Osborne is sure that George will return the moment his supplies fall short. Amelia and George tie the knot at a chapel near Fulham Road. Immediately after the marriage, the couple leaves for Brighton. Dobbin stays back to overcome his depression caused due to Amelia’s marriage and also to inform Mr. Osborne.

At Brighton, the young couple, later joined by, Jos meets the Crawley couple, who is enjoying their stay. However, the Crawley couple is also worried about Miss Crawley’s acceptance as she still refuses to yield. Dobbin too joins them later, bringing the news that all the soldiers are ordered to Belgium.

Chapters 23 & 24 Capt. Dobbin proceeds on his canvass and in which Mr. Osborne takes down the family Bible.

Dobbin tries very hard to convince George’s sisters, to be supportive of his marriage to Amelia. Miss Osbornes are moved, but they dare not oppose their father. Sure about the fact that, George will lose his share of the property, Mr. Fredrick Bullock, a businessman, at heart becomes more interested in Miss Maria Osborne. This is because; he realizes that now she is worth thirty thousand pounds more.

Very gradually, Dobbin breaks the news about George’s marriage to Mr. Osborne, who is shattered, angry and deeply disappointed. He decides to disown George and disinherit him. He sends a letter for George through Dobbin.

Chapter 25 In which all the principal personages think fit to leave Brighton.

Before leaving town, Becky insists on getting back a sum lent to George, which he does, and appeasing Miss Crawley. The latter becomes easy as Mrs. Bute Crawley, the only great obstacle, rushes to her home because Mr. Bute Crawley had injured himself. Rebecca seizes the opportunity and sends feelers through honest Miss Briggs. Becky also dictates a letter to Rawdon for Miss Crawley. Miss Crawley refuses to see Rawdon. On further insistence, she asks him to see her lawyer. On following her instruction, Rawdon is shocked to see that she leaves a meager sum of twenty pounds for him!

Chapters 26, 27 & 28 Between London and Chatham, in which Amelia joins her Regiment, in which Amelia invades the Low Countries.

On their way to Brussels, George, Amelia, Jos and Dobbin stop at London. George keeps Amelia in the lap of luxury, but does not spend time with her. He is back to his vices, of gambling and flirting. A happy Amelia pays a visit to her parents. George meets his father’s solicitor for the final little sum of 2000 pounds that his father has spared for him.

At Chatham, Amelia meets George’s regiment. They are all impressed by Amelia’s sweet and kind nature and George feels proud of her. Amelia takes a liking for the garrulous and imposing Mrs. Peggy O’Dowd, who is the wife of Mayor O’Dowd, the commander of George’s regiment.

The regiment is transported by water to Ostend. Before the war can begin, there is great merriment in the regiment. In such parties, Amelia is extravagantly dressed, Jos, excessively drunk and George extremely flirtatious.

Chapter 29 Brussels

Following the others, the Crawley couple arrives at Brussels. George enjoys in their company but Amelia is jealous of the admiration Rebecca receives from George. George continuously loses his money to Rawdon, at gambling and loses his heart to Becky.

On June 15, 1815 a noble duchess hosts a lavish ball in which Crawleys, Osbornes and Dobbin are invited. Amelia, half- expecting what would happen, is quite without enthusiasm.

George, as usual, chaperones Rebecca, dances with her and in the end, gives her a piece of paper crumpled in her bouquet. Amelia, totally neglected, requests Dobbin to take her back to her room.

George Osborne is having a great time at the ball when Dobbin announces that their regiment is to march to the battlefront. George, the brave soldier, is excited. On his way to his room, he bitterly regrets his behavior towards Amelia and wonders what will happen to her and their unborn child if he were to die in the war. He feels guilty for his ingratitude towards his father and writes a farewell letter to him.

Chapter 30 "The girl I left behind me"

Major O’Dowd, Rawdon, George, and Dobbin prepare to leave for the battlefield. Rawdon is worried about the debts he is leaving behind and gives Becky all his savings and valuables out of which she can make a little fortune and live comfortably if he were to die. Rawdon is overwhelmed with emotions while Rebecca bears it all with ‘Spartan equanimity.’

Before leaving, Dobbin extracts a promise from Jos Sedley that he will not leave Amelia alone and will take care of her while George is away. After a brief parting with Amelia, George rushes to join the march, full of enthusiasm and overflowing with excitement.

Chapter 31 In which Jos Sedley takes care of his sister.

Jos is comfortable while Amelia is very ill and disturbed in George’s absence. Becky comes to pay Amelia a visit, but Amelia is furious at her and behaves rudely towards her. In a fit of rage and jealousy, she assures Becky that George loves only her (Amelia) and that none of Becky’s tricks would work. For the first time, Amelia gathers enough courage to confront Becky, who is stunned. She leaves Peggy to take care of Amelia.

Before this confrontation with Amelia, Becky flatters and praises an impressed Jos Sedley so that she can use him whenever she needs to. While Jos and Peggy are at dinner, they hear cannons being fired and it perturbs them.

Chapter 32 In which Jos takes flight and the war is brought to a close.

With the noise of cannons, there are rumors that the French will overpower the British army. Mrs. O’Dowd courageously consoles Amelia while Jos is mortally frightened. He puts forth his plan to flee to Ghent but his servant Isidor informs him that all the horses are gone. Pauline’s (the cook’s) lover, Regulus returns from the battlefield bringing the news of the war that, the British army was butchered. They are all scared. Jos plans to shave his moustaches so that no one will mistake him for an army man.

Like Jos, even the Bareacres are panic struck and wish to flee but a paucity of horses prevents them. Rebecca has two horses to sell but she doesn’t sell them to the Lady Bareacres, as she is angry with the Lady for ignoring her at the parties. She sells the horses to Jos at a very high price.

The news of victory arrives. Amelia is even more hysterical. She spots an injured ensign and mistakes him for George. This ensign, Tom Stubble, brings news that George and Dobbin are fine. He tells them how Capt. Dobbin had carried him to the surgeon and has sent him back with a message for Mrs. Osborne that her husband is well.

When all are at peace, they hear the cannons of Waterloo strike again and this scares Jos very much. Jos once more implores upon Amelia to leave with him, but when she refuses, he goes away with his servant. After the roaring of cannons all day, the British are finally triumphant. While Amelia is praying for George, he lies dead with a bullet through his heart.

Chapter 33 In which Miss Crawley’s relations are very anxious about her.

Miss Crawley reads about Rawdon’s bravery and learns that he has been honored with the title of Colonel. She receives a letter and tokens of war from his nephew Rawdon from Paris. Mrs. Bute Crawley is disappointed, for her absence has resulted in her losing her hold over Miss Crawley and her household.

After Becky leaves Queen’s Crawley, Sir Pitt does not care to mend his lifestyle. He drinks with the peasants and showers attention on his servant Miss Horrocks.

Mr. Pitt is to marry Lady Jane, daughter of Countess Southdown. Mr. Pitt Crawley, together with Lady Southdown and Lady Jane, decides that he must cultivate Miss Crawley’s friendship and win her favor as well as her fortune.

Chapter 34 James Crawley’s pipe is put out.

Miss Crawley instantly likes Jane and asks her to visit her often. Mrs. Bute Crawley, immensely jealous of the improvement Pitt is making with Miss Crawley, sends her son James Crawley to please the rich lady. Miss Crawley asks James to live in her house. Pitt is envious of James for Miss Crawley had never invited him to stay with her. So he tries various ways to make Miss Crawley fed up of James. One day, he instigates James to smoke a pipe in the house. This pollutes the atmosphere of the home and results in Miss Crawley bidding farewell to James.

Meanwhile, Becky creates a place for herself in the Parisian society. She delivers a boy and Miss Crawley immediately orders for the marriage of Pitt and Lady Jane. They come and stay with Miss Crawley and decide to give them (Pitt and Jane) a thousand pounds a year till she lives and all the bulk of her property after her death.

Chapter 35 Widow and mother.

Old Osborne and his family is wholly shaken and shattered at the news of George’s death. His heart melts, when he reads the letter that George had written to him on the eve of the battle. He goes to see his son’s tomb. He sees Amelia in her sorrowful widowhood but remains unmoved and refuses to accept her as his son’s widow.

Amelia lives a passive and melancholic life till the arrival of her son, which brings life back into her. Dobbin is the godfather of the little George and takes care that he does not lack anything. One day, Dobbin comes and informs Amelia that he is leaving and will not be back for a long time. She promises to write to him about little George.

Chapters 36 & 37 How to live well on nothing a year & the subject continued.

Rebecca and Rawdon live comfortably on debt, in Paris, for 3 - 4 years. Rebecca becomes a favorite in the aristocratic circle. Rawdon has a lucky hand at gambling but their rising debts compel them to return to England. Becky makes the scene pretty easy in England, by appeasing Rawdon’s old debtors. By promising them a fairly good dividend on the previous debt, Becky gets ten times more from them.

The news of Miss Crawley’s death arrives. In London, Becky and Rawdon stay in Raggles’ house at Curzon Street, Mayfair. Raggles is an old loyal of the Crawley family. He was their (Crawley’s) butler, who had spent all his hard-earned money to buy the apartment, which he now lends Becky. Becky and Rawdon never pay him anything, and in time, poor Raggles becomes a ruined man.

Miss Crawley leaves Bute Crawley five thousand pounds, Rawdon inherits only a hundred pounds, and the rest of the fortune is left to Pitt. Rebecca advises Rawdon to keep a friendly relationship with Pitt and his wife. Rebecca is a failure as a mother. In fact, she finds little Rawdon a great botheration, but father and son share a special bond.

Rebecca totally overshadows Rawdon. While Rawdon is busy with his son, Becky charms rich men like Lord Styne. One day, while playing at a park, Rawdon and his son meet John Sedley and Georgy.

Chapter 38 A Family in a small way

Jos Sedley goes to India, straight from Brussels, without meeting anyone. He sends his parents a small sum of money, which is their chief income. Amelia develops into a possessive mother and hurts her own mother by suspecting that she wants her Georgy to be poisoned. Reverend Mr. Binney, who offers to teach Georgy Latin, proposes marriage to Amelia, which she turns down kindly. She refuses to send her son away to school and creates havoc if he falls ill.

Dobbin writes frequently and sends numerous expensive gifts for Georgy, Amelia, and her parents. Her parents are sorry about the fact that she does not want to marry Dobbin. Georgy grows up to be pompous and proud like his father. Sometimes, Dobbin’s sisters take Georgy out for a ride in their carriage or to spend a day with the ladies. One day they inform Amelia that Dobbin is about to marry Glorvina O’Dowd at Madras. Amelia expresses a great deal of happiness at the news.

Chapter 39 A Cynical chapter

Lady Jane and Pitt pay a visit to Sir Pitt, soon after their wedding. Sir Pitt’s condition is lamentable, so is the state of his house. Miss Horrocks rules the entire home. Mrs. Bute Crawley, with her close eye on Queen’s Crawley, catches Miss Horrocks red handed as she is trying to steal. She brings along her husband and James to bear witness. While Miss Horrocks is busy robbing, her father and a doctor try to murder Sir Pitt, but Bute Crawley foils their plan and throws them out of Queen’s Crawley.

Chapters 40 & 41 In which Becky is recognized by the family and in which Becky revisits the halls of her ancestors.

The news of the death of Sir Pitt makes his son Pitt secretly delighted, as now he will be Sir Pitt Crawley with a seat in the Parliament. He quickly communicates the news to Rawdon. Rawdon and Rebecca rush to Queen’s Crawley, dressed correctly to the occasion, leaving little Rawdon with Miss Briggs who has been living with them since Miss Crawley’s demise.

Becky and Rawdon’s homecoming is warm. Pitt notices that marriage to Becky has made Rawdon a better person. Pitt volunteers to pay for little Rawdon’s education. Becky is touched by the goodness of Lady Jane. Knowing that Pitt is at odds with Bute Crawley and his family, Becky gladly blames Mrs. Bute Crawley for her marriage to Rawdon and their eventual falling out of Miss Crawley’s favor.

Becky and Rawdon leave for London with many gifts from Lady Jane. During their short stay Rebecca pleases everyone at the house, while Rawdon misses his beloved son and keeps track of his activities back home.

Chapters 42 & 43 Which treats of the Osborne family and In which the reader has to double the cape.

Maria Osborne is married to Fredrick Bullock, the greedy materialistic man, and they are almost cut off from the family due to their social superiority. Miss Jane leads a monotonous life with her tyrannical father. One day, she meets Georgy and gifts him a gold watch and a chain. Her father begins to flush up and tremble at the news.

Amelia writes to Dobbin wishing him and his wife all the best. It is believed that, Dobbin will marry Glorvina, sister of Peggy O’Dowd, but he is too involved with Amelia to even think about the match. So he is deeply hurt to read Amelia’s letter, blessing the couple, and yearns to go back to England. Soon, he receives his sister’s letter informing him that Amelia may be marrying a Reverend Mr. Binney. With this knowledge, Dobbin rushes to England.

Chapters 44 & 45 A roundabout chapter between London and Hampshire and between Hampshire and London.

Becky is to take care of the renovation of the Great Gaunt House of Sir Pitt. Sir Pitt comes for a short stay with them, during which Becky impresses him with everything she does. Sir Pitt realizes that, Rawdon was supposed to inherit the money that he has, and so helps him with small sums every now and then. The frequent visits of men like Sir Pitt and Lord Styne helps Becky to extract more credit, for the creditors believe that if she stays in such rich company, she can surely return their debts. During this time Rebecca gets more and more estranged from her son.

While Sir Pitt frequents Becky’s house, Rawdon and his son spend a happy time with Lady Jane and her children, who they are very fond of. Sir Pitt is elected as a Member of the Parliament. Becky dislikes Lady Jane for being a simple and good woman. Becky also introduces Sir Pitt to Lord Styne.

Chapter 46 Struggles and trials.

Amelia is too possessive to send Georgy to school, therefore she teaches him at home. After one of the rides in the Dobbin’s carriage, Georgy tells his mother that an old man had come to see him. Old Mr. Osborne sends his attorney to get Georgy in his custody with the following proposal: Amelia is to get a fair allowance, which will not be withdrawn, even if she marries again. She will be allowed to see her son sometimes but at her own residence. Amelia is furious at the attorney for bringing such a proposal.

The monetary condition of the Sedley family goes from bad to worse. Amelia has no money to gift Georgy on Christmas, so she sells one of the exquisite shawls that Dobbin had sent for her from India. She buys new clothes and books for Georgy from the money obtained. But her mother is thoroughly disappointed. According to her, Amelia should not spend lavishly on her son’s books and on providing him with other luxuries, when they don’t have enough money to live. The main reasons for this poor financial condition of the Sedleys are; the money sent by Jos does not arrive, Amelia’s pension is insufficient, and Mr. Sedley’s business always incurs losses.

Amelia soon begins to feel guilty for her selfishness. She knows that, Georgy will be provided for in a better manner in his grandfather’s house. She realizes that she cannot do very much for her son and is afraid that she may have to part with him.

Chapter 47 Gaunt House

Tom Eaves, an inhabitant of Vanity Fair, tells the narrator about the history of Lord Styne’s family. Lord Styne an extremely affluent man, has a brief unhappy married life and due to a low- spirited wife, he is lured by pleasures and merriment. His son George loses his mental balance due to a disease that runs in their family and of which Lord Styne is petrified. To escape his fears, he throws lavish balls and invites everyone. In spite of all his notorious and immoral escapades, everyone belonging to the high society attends his parties.

Chapter 48 In which the reader is introduced to the very best of company.

Becky is rewarded with a chance to go to Court with Sir Pitt and Lady Jane. She is dazzling in her best clothes and large diamonds which Sir Pitt secretly gives her. Rawdon goes in his old shabby uniform, which is now too tight for him. Becky therefore achieves her aim in life.

Lord Styne is a frequent visitor at Rebecca’s place, but he feels uneasy in the presence of Miss Briggs. He asks Becky to send her away, but Becky replies that she will not be able to do so, as she owes Miss Briggs some money. Becky then quotes almost double the amount. Later, Lord Styne sends her a check and an invitation for dinner. Rebecca buys Briggs a beautiful, silk gown and pays Raggles and her coachman fifty pounds each to silence them for sometime. The rest she keeps for herself.

Chapter 49 In which we enjoy three courses and a Dessert.

Lord Styne receives great opposition from his family, for wanting to invite Rebecca Crawley for his party. His mother-in- law being Lady Bareacres, this opposition is not surprising. Rebecca is eventually invited. Though in the former part of the evening she is not very successful, she enchants Lady Styne by singing sweetly for her.

Chapter 50 Contains a vulgar incident.

After a lot of pondering, Amelia decides to send Georgy to his grandfather. At this decision, Mr. Osborne sends her a hundred pounds. Georgy is excited to go to his new lavish home. After he is gone, Amelia is sad and depressed. He comes often to meet her and on other days, she walks up to his house and watches the window of his room.

Amelia still does not know that it is not Jos who has stopped sending money, but it is her father who has already sold away Jos’s future allowances for his unsuccessful businesses.

Chapter 51 In which a charade is acted which may or may not puzzle the reader.

Becky gets more and more popular in the aristocratic circle. In a party at Gaunt House, Becky participates in the charades. The audience is spell bound with Becky’s performance. After the charade, Becky is placed at a grand exclusive table, with all the distinguished guests, and eats out of a gold plate.

At the end of the party, Becky leaves by carriage while Rawdon prefers to walk. On the way, he is arrested on account of an unpaid debt.

Chapter 52 In which Lord Styne shows himself a most amiable light.

This chapter is a flashback. Due to the generosity of Lord Styne, little Rawdon is sent to a very good school. His father misses him during his absence and longs for him to return home on Saturdays. Rawdon’s relationship with Becky is growing more and more estranged.

One day Lord Styne, in a conversation with Miss Briggs realizes that Becky had told him a falsehood and taken double the amount she needed, giving none of it to Miss Briggs. When he questions Becky about this, she tells him another lie, where she puts the entire blame on Rawdon’s greed and his constant bullying asking her to ask Styne for money.

Lady Jane warns Rawdon to keep an eye on Becky’s activities. Lord Styne gives Miss Briggs a better place, that of a housekeeper at Gauntly Hall. Rawdon orders Becky to refuse invitations, which are only for her and where he is not on the guest list. Becky agrees and they live in each other’s company and to Rawdon, this feels like the blissful days, just after their marriage.

Chapter 53 A rescue and a catastrophe

Rawdon, who has been arrested, writes to Becky asking her to arrange for a hundred pounds to bail him out (for he has only seventy pounds). Becky writes a sympathetic letter, in, which she makes an excuse of her bad health and puts off his rescue to the next day. A furious Rawdon sends a letter to Sir Pitt asking for help. Lady Jane comes to his rescue.

Rawdon rushes home and is enraged to see Becky and Lord Styne spending a great evening together. Becky is bedecked with numerous diamond trinkets, which Lord Styne has presented to her. Rebecca is mortally scared on being caught red handed. Rawdon strikes Lord Styne, who claims to have paid large sums of money to his wife. Rawdon makes Becky open her secret drawer and finds a thousand-pound note from Lord Styne. Becky only screams that she is innocent. Rawdon, in a fit of rage, goes away.

Chapters 54 & 55 Sunday after the battle and in which the same subject is pursued.

Fuming with anger, Rawdon goes over to Sir Pitt and informs him about what has happened. He assures Pitt that he has come just to request him to take care of his son whom he loves dearly.

Then he goes to Gaunt House and leaves his card for Lord Styne, expressing his wish to meet him. He goes to Captain Macmurdo (Mac) and asks him for help, which the latter gladly extends. Mac takes the responsibility of returning Styne’s note back to him.

At Curzon Street, Becky’s maid robs her of all her jewelry and her servants harass her for money. Now that they know that she is out of favor of both Lord Styne and Rawdon, they are worried about their repayments. Becky meets Sir Pitt and convinces him of her innocence by saying that she was entertaining Lord Styne so that she could acquire a good employment for Rawdon. Lady Jane is furious to see Becky in her house.

In the meanwhile, Rawdon is spending his time with Mac, when two acquaintances inform him about his appointment as the Governor of Coventry Island. He has obtained this position due to the patronage of Lord Styne. Rawdon meets his emissary, Mr. Wenham. Styne’s emissary tries to prove to Rawdon that Becky is innocent, but Rawdon refuses to believe him. Capt. Mac hands over the note (given by Lord Styne to Becky) to Wenham and the ex-col. accepts the job on the insistence of Mac and Sir Pitt. Sit Pitt however, is unable to bring about a reconciliation between Becky and Rawdon.

Rawdon fixes an annuity for his wife, writes regularly to his son and sends Lady Jane all the possible goodies Coventry Island has to offer. Rawdon also repays all his debts and takes Capt. Mac with him as his secretary.

Chapter 56 Georgy is made Gentleman

Georgy lives with his grandfather, in great comfort and luxury. He has the best of everything. Old Osborne is as proud of him as he was of his dead son. He exceedingly pampers Georgy and the little boy playfully bullies the entire household. He regularly comes to visit Amelia. One day, while Georgy is taking lessons, Dobbin and Jos Sedley come to meet him. Georgy instantly recognizes one to be Major Dobbin, about whom his mother had always spoken to him.

Chapters 57 & 58 Eцthen and our friend the major.

Amelia’s mother dies. She now looks after her ill father with the help of the money given by Old Mr. Osborne. Dobbin proceeds for England, but he falls seriously ill. His peers wonder if he would survive. Jos Sedley is traveling back
home on the same ship as Dobbin and, in one of his conversations, assures Dobbin that Amelia has no plans of marrying. After this assurance Dobbin begins to recover and becomes more and more excited at the prospect of seeing Amelia.

Amelia is very happy to see Dobbin and talks to him in very buoyant spirits about Georgy. He is greatly relieved to see Mrs. Binney (the wife of the man whom he thought Amelia was marrying). Dobbin also informs them of Jos’ arrival.

Chapter 59 The old Piano

While watching over the shifting of the Sedley household to a better place, Dobbin tells Amelia that he is glad that she has still kept her old piano. Amelia does not realize at first, but later it strikes her that, perhaps it was not George but Dobbin who had sent it for her. She apologizes to Dobbin for attributing the kind deed to her dead husband.

Dobbin tells her how much he loves her and has loved her since the first time he saw her. She reminds him that George is and would always be her husband. But at the same time, she requests Dobbin to be a friend to both her and Georgy.

Chapters 60 & 61 Returns to the genteel world and In which two lights are put out.

Amelia’s good fortune makes her friends happy for her. Georgy is very fond of Dobbin, while there is no great attachment between Jos and Georgy. Jos and Amelia become a part of the genteel society. Jos invites his friends home for frequent parties and himself goes to Court.

John Sedley dies after a prolonged illness, during which he was loved and cared for by Amelia. He too is very fond of Amelia in his last days, even more than when she was a little girl. After Mr. Sedley’s death, Osborne invites Jos to his house, saying that he has nothing against him. Dobbin also implores Mr. Osborne to reconcile with Amelia and he agrees for a meeting. Unfortunately, the old patriarch dies soon but he leaves half his property to Georgy, an annuity of 500 pounds for Amelia and restores Georgy to his mother. Dobbin too is left a sum, sufficient to buy him his commission as Lieutenant Colonel. Affluent people from all quarters, including the haughty Maria Bullock, (nee Osborne) come to pay a visit to Mrs. Osborne owing to the knowledge of her newly acquired nobility. Jos, Amelia, Georgy, and Dobbin plan a foreign trip.

Chapter 62 Am Rhein

Jos Sedley, Amelia, Georgy, and Dobbin leave for Pumpernickel for a pleasure trip. They enjoy themselves and
most of all Amelia begins to brim with excitement and radiance of happiness. Dobbin is glad to see her so. She sketches the beautiful mountains and is enchanted by musical performances, which they attend.

Chapter 63 In which we meet an old acquaintance.

Lord Tapeworm, the heir and nephew of one of Major Dobbin’s late Marshal, accompanies Jos and the rest of the party as their friend. Tapeworm suggests a doctor for Jos to loose weight, who plans to stay and get treatment. They move in aristocratic society and attend their festivities.

One day, Georgy meets a mysterious woman at a gambling house, for whom he plays and wins. Jos recognizes her to be Rebecca. Dobbin extracts a word from Georgy that he will never gamble again.

Chapter 64 A vagabond chapter.

After separating from Rawdon, Becky is left with a bad reputation, which compels her to leave the country. Before quitting England, she writes to little Rawdon, to which he replies as per his duty. First she goes to Bologne. Soon she feels the pangs of loneliness. She is driven out of the hotel in which she lives, as she is deemed unfit to stay there.

Every time Becky makes her little circle of friends, some past acquaintance pours cold water on her efforts. She begins again from square one. She realizes that Amelia and the other people she knew are kind people. Bored of all her show of being a respectable lady, she throws all her guard and her taste for low life grows more remarkable. She travels all over Europe and mingles with coarse men. At Rome, she finds Lord Steyne at a ball and hopes to reestablish their acquaintance, but a warning from his confidential man forces her to flee to save her life, as Steyne is livid about his confrontation with Rawdon.

The news comes later, that Lord Steyne has died is Naples, due to a series of fits, as a result of the downfall of French Monarchy at the French Revolution.

Chapter 65 Full of business and pleasure.

Jos goes to see Becky at her dingy room in the ‘Elephant’ Hotel. Becky succeeds in winning his favor and tells him the saddest story of her life, which is absolutely false. Jos, much affected, reports about her condition to Dobbin and Amelia. Initially, Amelia is unmoved, but as soon as she learns that Becky’s son was torn from her arms, she instantly leaves to see her dear friend. Becky watches Amelia and Dobbin approach, yet pretends to give a shriek the moment she sees them at her door.

Chapter 66 Amantium Irae

In spite of repeated polite warnings from Dobbin, Amelia and Jos are determined to bring Becky home with them. Dobbin is opposed to this view because he overhears the two boys with whom she comes from Leipzig, talk very lightly about her. Dobbin is the only one who can see through all of Becky’s pretensions. Finally, Dobbin tries to remind Amelia of Becky’s behavior with George, before the battle. This infuriates her and she refuses to see Dobbin anymore. Dobbin too, angry with her for the first time, admits to himself as well as her that, she is and never was worth all the devotion he has given her, and he leaves, never to return. Georgy is very sad to hear that Dobbin is leaving. When he goes to bid Dobbin goodbye, Becky sends him a note imploring upon him to stay, which Dobbin tears in spite.

Chapter 67 Which contains births, marriages, and deaths

While Amelia is silent and depressed due to her behavior towards Dobbin, Becky takes charge of the house. She becomes popular in society because of her wit and talents. The news of Dobbin re-joining the service arrives. The party (Amelia, Becky, Jos and Georgy) moves to Ostend on Jos’ health grounds. Becky has many low acquaintances there, who forcefully impose themselves upon her and pay tipsy comments on Amelia. Amelia yearns to go back, but Jos cannot discontinue his treatment. Amelia writes to Dobbin. When Becky’s luggage arrives from Leipzig, she impresses Jos by showing him his portrait, which she has preserved, and the letter, asking Becky to elope, which George had written to her and given her at the ball just before the war. Amelia is even more determined to marry Dobbin and she does. Becky roots her anchor on Jos and follows him wherever he goes. After his marriage to Amelia, Dobbin leaves the service and they live in Hampshire, close to Queen’s Crawley. Lady Jane and Amelia become great friends and Georgy and Rawdon study together and both fall in love with Lady Jane’s daughter. Dobbin and Amelia have a daughter who is named after her godmother Lady Jane.

Jos Sedley dies, leaving half of his money to Mrs. Crawley, who is suspected as the cause of his death. Col. Rawdon Crawley dies of yellow fever in Coventry Island, six weeks before the death of Sir Pitt. As Sir Pitt’s son had died in infancy, Rawdon is made the next Baronet. He makes his mother a liberal allowance but does not meet her. Becky calls herself Lady Crawley and becomes engaged in charity activities.

William Shakespeare

Extremely Short Summaries. Good for Seminars

A Midsummer Night's Dream

Act I: Theseus, Duke of Athens, is preparing to marry Hippolyta in his palace. He is solving a dispute between Egeus (who wants his daughter, Hermia, to marry Demetrius) and Lysander, who has Hermia's love. Theseus declares that Hermia must marry D emetrius as the law specifies, or marry no one. Hermia and Lysander plan to escape to the woods and elope, and they tell Helena. Helena loves Demetrius, and plans to impress him by telling him of the lovers' plans. In the wood, six laborers meet to arrang e the production of a play for Theseus's wedding.

Act II: In the wood, a Fairy talks with Robin Goodfellow about how Oberon, King of the Fairies, is mad that his wife Titania has stolen an Indian child from him. To get him, Oberon tells Puck to find and use a magic flower's juice to make Titania f all in love with a beast. Meanwhile, Oberon pities Helena's grief at Demetrius hating her, and tells Puck to also use the juice to make Demetrius love Helena.

Act III: Puck (Robin) accidently puts the juice on Lysander instead of Demetrius. He then turns Bottom's head into that of an ass, for Titania. Oberon sees Puck's mistake, tells him to anoint Demetrius, and now both are following Helena, leading he r to believe they are mocking her. Hermia does not know what to think, as the two men begin to fight. Titania is so entranced with Bottom that she freely gives up the Indian boy. Now Oberon tells Puck to release her from the spell and fix the lover's quad rangle.

Act IV: Theseus and Hippolyta enter the woods for their marriage. They find the lovers, and despite Egeus' request, Theseus declares that since all four are happy (Demetrius with Helena and Lysander with Hermia), they shall all be married on the sa me day. Bottom finds himself restored, and so the play be performed.

Act V: At the wedding, Theseus asks for the play "Pyramus and Thisbe," and it is performed. It is awful. The married people retire to bed, and Puck ends the play with a nice anecdote.

The Merchant of Venice

Act I: Antonio, the Merchant of Venice, discusses his sadness with Salerio and Solanio. Bassanio asks him for a loan, and Antonio says he may borrow on his credit because his money is at sea. In Belmont, Portia discusses her distaste with her suito rs with Nerissa. Back in Venice, Bassanio gets money from Shylock on the condition that if Antonio does not repay in three months, he gets a pound of his flesh.

Act II: The Prince of Morocco arrives to try for Portia's hand. Bassanio and company plan their dinner. In Venice, Shylock tells his daughter Jessica not to go out, but she loves Lorenzo and they escape that evening with her father's valuables. Mor occo picks the Golden Casket, which is wrong, and leaves. Salerio and Solanio, the gossipers, talk of Shylock's anger at finding his daughter and money taken. The Prince of Aragon arrives and tries to win Portia's hand, but incorrectly chooses the silver casket.

Act III: The gossipers reveal that one of Antonio's ships has sunk and that he may be in trouble. Bassanio correctly picks the leaden casket, but later finds out that Antonio owes a pound of flesh to Shylock. Because he will die, he wants to see Ba ssanio again. Bassanio goes to Venice to see him.

Act IV: Shylock rejects an offer from Portia for three times the initial loan because he wants his enemy Antonio dead. Portia and Nerissa disguise themselves as doctor and clerk and go to help Antonio. Portia points out that because the 'bond' they made said Shylock could not have Antonio's blood, he cannot take the flesh and also loses all of his possessions.

Act V: Lorenzo and Jessica are enjoying the night, when Portia and Nerissa return just ahead of Bassanio, Graziano, and Antonio. The wives reveal themselves and the rings they had deceitfully taken.

The Tragedy of Richard II

Act I: The play begins with a dispute between Bolingbroke and The Duke of Norfolk. Richard wants John of Guant, Bolingbroke's father, to solve the matter, but when he cannot he says they will fight it out. Then, Richard cancels this idea and instea d banishes Mowbray for life and Bolingbroke for ten years.

Act II: Gaunt dies after insulting Richard, and the King claims his wealth to help finance his war with Ireland. Northumberland reveals that Bolingbroke is returning to England with an army to overtake Richard. He, with York and Willoughby, join hi m. Richard's troops under the Earl of Salisbury dispurse because they think Richard is dead.

Act III: Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Green, both loyal to the King. Richard returns to England happily after defeating the Irish, but loses that zest when he finds out that he has lost his troops and Bolingbroke will surely defeat him. Bolingbro ke discovers that Richard is nearby in Berkeley Castle, goes and asks him to surrender, and Richard does.

Act IV: The Bishop of Carlisle reluctantly lets Bolingbroke, who has been questioning Bagot about whether the King ordered an execution or not, overtake his castle. After some dramatic speech, Richard is sent to the Tower by Bolingbroke, now known as King Henry IV.

Act V: Richard's loving and grief-stricken wife sees him on his way to detention. A plot is hatched against Bolingbroke by Aumerle and others, but his father York finds out and tells. Aumerle is spared but the other rebels are not. Richard is kille d by Exton, news the new king says he is not happy to hear, and so he decides to launch a crusade to ease his conscience.

Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Act I: Guards on duty discuss seeing the Ghost of Hamlet's late father, the dead King, and then see him again. Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, has remarried to Hamlet's uncle Claudius, putting the King's murderer on the throne. The courtier Polonius pre pares his son Laertes for a journey to Paris. He then orders his daughter to stay away from Hamlet, her love, because he fears Hamlet is going mad. The Ghost appears to Hamlet and tells him he wants revenge on Claudius.

Act II: After a time lapse, Hamlet feigns madness, but cannot as easily fool Claudius as he does others. The two both want to kill each other, but both need a reason to justify it. The attacking Fortinbras is reported to have called off his strike on Denmark, but that remains to be seen. Polonius and Claudius try to trick Hamlet, but he stays ahead of them. Hamlet meets his old friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and is at first delighted to see them. But, he immediately realizes they are there to spy on him. Hamlet devises to use a play which show's Claudius's crime to prove him guilty.

Act III: Hamlet contemplates suicide, but Claudius is still not fooled and decides to send Hamlet to England, most likely to kill him. The play is done, and Claudius knows he must act or he will fall. Foolish Plonius asks Gertrude to question Hamle t. While the two are talking, Hamlet begins to grow angry at his mother, but the Ghost reappears and tells Hamlet to remember who it is that he is after. Inadvertently, Hamlet kills Polonius who was listening in from behind the curtain.

Act IV: Laertes is angry at Claudius because he thinks he killed his father, but the king consoles him. Claudius hatches a plan to kill Hamlet, who is back in Denmark because he escaped death in England via some wit and some pirates.

Act V: Hamlet finds out from a gravedigger that Ophelia is dead, and upon seeing her funeral, announces his love for her. Laertes challenges him to a match, but they do not fight just yet. They go back to the castle for a jousting match where...the Queen drinks a poisoned glass meant for Hamlet, Laertes wounds Hamlet, Hamlet kills Laertes, Laertes announces Claudius's evil intentions, Hamlet kills Claudius, and then Hamlet dies because Laertes was fighting with a poisoned sword. Before his death, H amlet tells Horatio to give authority to the approaching Fortinbras.


Act I: Iago is discussing his desire for revenge against Othello (for his passing over of the lieutenant position that was given to Michael Cassio) with the idiot Roderigo, who desires Desdemona (Othello's wife). Iago tells Desdemona's father that she has eloped with Othello. He then tells Othello to take heed of Brabantio's hostility, a warning the Moor shrugs off. The two almost fight, but both are summoned by the Duke.

Act II: The scene shifts to Cyprus, and news comes that a tempest has elimated a Turkish war threat. Othello declares a holiday and Iago uses this to get Michael Cassio drunk. Iago cleverly sets the scene for a trashed Cassio to chase Roderigo and wound Montano, followed by Othello conveniently being woken and forced to discharge Cassio.

Act III: Now Iago tries to break up Othello and Desdemona by telling Cassio to try and earn reinstatement by getting Desdemona to like him and talk to Othello for him. Iago cleverly puts people in the right places so that Othello begins to think Ca ssio is pursuing Desdemona. He also steals a hankerchief Othello gave to Desdemona and puts it in Cassio's possession. He lies some more and gets Othello to order Cassio's assassination, question Desdemona, begin to lose rational thought, and ultimately d estroy his noble record.

Act IV: Ludovico and other Venetian officials arrive, saying they want Othello back. Desdemona speaks well of Cassio in hopes that he might succeed the Moor, and for that Othello slaps and degrades her. Ludovico wonders if Othello is sane, and Iago seizes the moment to cast Othello in a bad light. Roderigo starts to realize that the jewels he has been giving Iago to give to Desdemona have not been making it past Iago, and he threatens to kill him. But Iago uses his rhetoric to convince Roderigo to just wait a little longer.

Act V: Roderigo attacks Cassio, both are wounded, and Iago comes upon them and kills Roderigo. Othello decides to kill Desdemona by strangling her in her bed. Emilia then enters and tells him the news. She screams at seeing Desdemona and the others come into the room as well. Emilia tells about how she gave the hankerchief to Iago, and the truth starts to come out. Othello realizes what Iago has done, and although he cannot kill him, Iago is captured. Othello kills himself.

King Lear, 1594

Act I: King Lear announces that he wants to give his kingdom to his three daughters. He has them all tell him they love him, but when Cordelia refuses to pour on the compliments, she gets nothing. Kent is banished for trying to tell the King he is making a mistake, but returns disguised and serves the King again. Regan and Goneril discuss their problems with their father. Burgundy loses interest in Cordelia, but France does not. The Earl of Gloucester's bastard son, Edmund, tricks his father into t hinking that his other son, Edgar, plans to kill him. Edmund then makes Edgar flee by telling him that he is in danger.

Act II: Regan and Cornwall arrive at Gloucester's castle. Edmund fools his father into thinking Edgar has struck him and left. Kent insults Oswald for his refusal to respect the King and is thrown in the stocks by Cornwall as an insult to the King. Lear continues to lose his sanity along with his authoritative presence. After running to Regan, Lear finds that she, too, will not be hospitable to him.

Act III: Lear rages out at a storm. The fool continues his important commentary. Kent finally brings the King to safety in a rock sheltering. Edmund turns his back on his father by informing Cornwall that France is coming with Cordelia to restore t he King's power. A disguised Edgar meets the King and Co. in their shelter. Gloucester then comes by and sends them all to Dover. Gloucester returns to his castle, is tied up by Regan and Cornwall, has his eyes plucked out, and is thrust outside towards D over.

Act IV:Edgar meets a suicidal Gloucester and agrees to help him. Albany shows his nobility, Cornwall dies, and Edmund moves closer to control of the English army. Cordelia longs for her father as France prepares for a battle. Regan discloses to Osw ald her affection for Edmund and tells him to kill Gloucester. Edgar saves Gloucester by tricking him into believing he survived a huge fall, and then by killing Oswald. Lear remorsely meets Cordelia.

Act V: France loses to England and Lear and Cordelia are taken prisoners by Edmund. Edgar kills Edmund. Goneril poisons Regan and then kills herself. Lear is unable to save Cordelia from Edmund's ordered execution and then dies himself after a touch ing moment of remorse.

The First Part of King Henry IV

Act I: This follows Richard II, and King Henry begins by again putting off his promised crusade because of Westmoreland's reports of battles at home. Shakespeare introduces the conflict between Hotspur and Prince Hal. Prince Hal is the son of King Henry and Hotspur the son of Westmoreland, who will eventually try to take down the King. In a tavern, Hal and Falstaff engage in a battle of wits, and then Poins enters and plans with Hal to use a robbery to embarrass Falstaff. Back at Windsor Castle, Ho tspur will not give the King prisoners he has captured because the King will not agree to ransom his brother-in-law Mortimer. Worcester and others plan out how to overtake the King.

Act II: Falstaff and others rob the traveling pilgrims and are then robbed by a disguised Poins and Hal. Falstaff returns to the tavern and exaggerates what happened to Poins and Hal, not knowing they are playing a trick on him. Hal hides Falstaff from the sherriff, who comes looking for him. Hotspur receives news of when the rebellion will occur, but does not tell his curious wife.

Act III: An exuberant Hotspur makes his fellow conspirators angry with his brash statements. Meanwhile, the King gives Hal a scolding for his behavior, and Hal promises to shape up, for he had originally intended to be bad so that he could eventual ly look all the better. Hal gives Falstaff a post in the royal forces.

Act IV: The confident conspirators receive a blow when they learn that the Earl of Northumberland is sick and they will not have his forces. Also, the royal army is now swiftly approaching them and Glendower's forces are also unavailable to the reb ellion. Falstaff admits he has wasted his money and hired beggars for his battalion, surely leading them to their deaths.

Act V: The rebels forces will surely lose, and the King offers Worcester amnesty for all if they will surrender. But he does not trust the King and tells Hotspur they will fight. Prince Hal saves the King from death, and his own reputation, by kill ing Douglas. Then the climax - Hal fights Hotspur. Hotspur falls. Falstaff takes credit for this killing, which takes the hope away from the rebels. They dispurse, but the rebellion carries on into part two.

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar

Act I: Caesar has just emerged victorious in a series of Roman civil wars. The populous swarms to see his homecoming, but tribunes question the celebration. A Soothsayer foreshadows the play by giving Caesar a warning, which he ignores. Cassius beg ins to subtly sway Brutus against Caesar. The conspirators meet and decide they need Brutus to join them, for tomorrow they must kill Caesar before he becomes king.

Act II: Brutus joins, but Cicero is left out. Brutus foolishly decides they should not kill Mark Antony. Calpurnia tells her husband Caesar to stay home that day, but Caesar still goes to the senate.

Act III: The conspirators pretend to petition for a recall so that they may crowd around him, and then stab him to death. Caesar fights back at first, but when Brutus takes his turn, Caesar gives in dramatically. As the conspirators try to calm the city, Mark Antony steps in and wins Brutus over with flattery. Cassius fears him, but Brutus foolishly lets him speak to the crowds. At the funeral, Brutus gives a short but well-put speech and then his mistake proves costly. Antony riles up the crowd ag ainst the conspirators with a magnificent oration. Antony agrees to join Octavius Caesar and General Lepidus in a three-man government.

Act IV: Civil war now erupts between the new government and the conspirators. In Asia Minor, Cassius' army comes to join Brutus' army. Cassius and Brutus argue and make up. Brutus finds out that Portia is dead, along with many senators including Ci cero. Caesar's ghost visits Brutus and says they will meet again.

Act V: The armies sit opposite each other near Philippi, waiting for battle. Antony tells Cassius things might be better had he been in charge instead of Brutus. Cassius and Brutus exchange good-byes, knowing they may never see each other again. Br utus poorly leads his men, and turns a sure victory into a possible defeat. Cassius mistakenly thinks he is prisoner when in fact the conspirators are winning, and commits suicide. Brutus continues to mislead, avoiding a sure victory, and eventually it co sts him. He commits suicide in the face of defeat. Antony's forces win.


Act I: The Witches foreshadow the evil in Macbeth. King Duncan decides to kill the traitorous Thane of Cawdor. Back to the witches - after some junk-talk, they are encountered by Macbeth with Banquo, and they say that he is now Thane and will be Ki ng. However, the King tells Macbeth he will make Malcolm the next king. Macbeth plans to kill the King when he dines at his house that night, and Lady Macbeth helps convince him to go ahead with that plan.

Act II: Lady Macbeth drugs the guards, Macbeth kills the king, and then the guards are framed. Macduff arrives with Lennox at the door, goes to get the king, and discovers his murder. Macduff is suspicious, but Macbeth is in the clear for now. Malc olm and Donalbain flee, fearing their lives since they are prime suspects. Macbeth has killed the servants, and the nobility feels they were the murderers. Macbeth is now king, but the tragedy is starting to unfold.

Act III: Macbeth makes arrangements to have Banquo and his son killed. At dinner, Macbeth is told the Banquo was killed but his son escaped. Banquo's ghost then appears, but only Macbeth can see it. Hecate, the witch queen, scolds the witches for d ealing with Macbeth without her. With Banquo dead, Lennox joins Macduff in increasing suspiscion.

Act IV: Macbeth visits the sisters and three apparitions are shown to him: an armed head (signifying war), a bloody child (showing that no man born of a woman shall harm Macbeth), and a crowned child with a tree (saying that "Macbeth shall never va nquished be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill Shall come against him"). Macduff has gone to England to get Malcolm.

Act V: Lady Macbeth is now unstable and walks and talks in her sleep. The Scottish noblility has mostly joined the English against Macbeth, but he is not scared because of the witches' prophecy. Lady Macbeth kills herself. Macbeth then learns that the enemy is walking towards the castle with trees from Birnam Wood, and that Macduff was ripped from his mother's womb early, both explaining the witches' apparitions. Macduff kills Macbeth and Malcolm is now King of Scotland.

Romeo and Juliet

Act I: Chorus gives a play overview. Sampson and Gregory fight with Abraham and Balthasar. Benvolio breaks it up, fights with Tybalt, and a riot erupts. Escalus, joined by the Capulets and Montagues, enters and stops the fight. Afterwards the Monta gues speak with Benvolio about Romeo. Romeo follows his parents exit with an entrance and talks with Benvolio about his love life. Paris works on his hopes for a marriage to Juliet. He is invited to a ball, which Romeo and Benvolio find out about from Cap ulet's Servant. Juliet finds out about Paris' offer. Romeo and Co. head to the Capulet's masked ball. At the ball, Romeo and Juliet meet each other, and the Nurse tells them who each other is.

Act II: Chorus explains the problems Romeo and Juliet face. After climbing into a back orchard and hearing Benvolio and Mercutio mock him, Romeo finds Juliet speaking out of her window. The reveal their love and decide to marry. Friar Lawrence agre es to marry them. With help from the Nurse, arrangements are made and the two are wed.

Act III: Tybalt taunts Romeo, battles Mercutio and kills him, and is then killed by Romeo. Romeo flees, Benvolio reports what happened, and Escalus exiles Romeo. Juliet weeps, but gets a visit from Romeo that night. Romeo goes to Mantua. Juliet doe s not want to marry Paris, but sees no way to disobey her father.

Act IV: Friar Lawrence hatches a plan in which Juliet will fake her death: he gives her a potion that will put her to sleep for a few days. Found to be dead, everyone mourns the loss.

Act V: Friar John was supposed to tell Romeo that Juliet is not really dead, but he reveals that he could not do it. Romeo visits the tomb and finds Paris already there. Romeo kills him. Romeo kills himself after kissing Juliet. Juliet awakes, sees Romeo dead, kisses him, and stabs herself. Everyone comes after the watchmen send for Escalus. Friar Lawrence explains his mistake. Montague and Capulet put aside their strife.


Full Summaries of Some Shakespeare's Works


Act One, Scene One

Francisco, a soldier standing watch outside the gates of Elsinore Castle in Denmark, is met by Barnardo who has arrived to replace him. They are soon joined by Marcellus, another guard, and Horatio. Horatio is a scholar who speaks Latin, and he has been brought along because Barnardo and Marcellus claim they have seen a ghost. While Barnardo describes to Horatio exactly what he has seen, the ghost appears in front of them. Horatio tries to speak with the ghost in Latin, saying, "Stay, speak, speak, I charge thee speak" (1.1.49), but the ghost remains silent and then leaves.

Horatio tells Barnardo that the ghost looks like the deceased King Hamlet, also known as Old Hamlet. Horatio sees that the ghost was dressed the same way as King Hamlet was when he defeated King Fortinbras of Norway. The story is that King Hamlet went to Norway and fought Fortinbras in single combat. The loser agreed to yield all his land to the other king. However, in the time since King Hamlet died, the son of King Fortinbras, known as young Fortinbras, has been gathering together troops and is threatening to attack Denmark.

The ghost enters a second time and Horatio again begs it to speak to him. Just as it seems the ghost is about to say something, a cock crows and the ghost disappears. Horatio tells Marcellus that he will inform young Hamlet, the Prince of Denmark and the son of King Hamlet, that a ghost keeps appearing in the shape of his father. Marcellus knows where young Hamlet is and leaves with Horatio to find him.

Act One, Scene Two

King Claudius, who has assumed the throne since his brother King Hamlet died, is accompanied by Queen Gertrude and other lords and attendants in Elsinore Castle. He addresses the people, telling them that although his brother's death is fresh in their minds, it is time for them to celebrate his royal marriage to Queen Gertrude, who was also his brother's former wife. He further informs the people that young Fortinbras of Norway has assembled armies against Denmark. In response to this threat, Claudius sends two men, Valtemand and Cornelius, as messengers to the uncle of young Fortinbras with a letter in which he asks the older uncle to stop young Fortinbras from attempting to attack Denmark.

Claudius next asks a young nobleman named Laertes why he has requested an audience. Laertes informs him that although he has been fulfilled his duties and attended the coronation in Denmark, he would rather return to France. Claudius asks Polonius, Laertes' father, if he has given permission for his son to go. Polonius assents, and Laertes is allowed to leave Denmark.

Turning to Hamlet, Claudius asks his nephew why he is still in mourning for his father's death, hinting that Hamlet might only be pretending to be grief-stricken. Hamlet's mother, Queen Gertrude, also asks him why he still dresses in black clothing. Hamlet replies that his grief is quite real and that he will continue grieving. Claudius tells him it is unnatural for a man to remain sorrowful for such a long time. Both Claudius and Gertrude then beg Hamlet to stay with them in Denmark instead of returning to Wittenberg where his university is located. Hamlet agrees to stay, and watches as everyone leaves the hall to celebrate his uncle's and his mother's marriage.

He is upset about the fact that his mother married Claudius within less than two months after the death of King Hamlet. Hamlet says, "O most wicked speed, to post / With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!" (1.2.157). He is interrupted by the arrival of Horatio, Barnardo, and Marcellus, who have come to tell him about the ghost they have seen.

Horatio tells Hamlet about seeing the ghost of King Hamlet. Hamlet asks them if they have the watch again that night, and Barnardo says they do. At this information, Hamlet agrees to join them that night in order to see the ghost and hopefully to speak with it.

Act One, Scene Three

Laertes, about to leave for France, says farewell to his sister Ophelia. He warns her to beware of Hamlet, whom he tells her is insincere. "For Hamlet and the trifling of his favour, / Hold it a fashion and a toy in blood, / ...sweet not lasting" (1.3.5-6, 8). Laertes then lectures Ophelia, telling her that Hamlet will say anything to win her heart. He tells her to hold off, and if Hamlet still loves her after he has been made king, only then should she consider marrying him. Ophelia agrees to remember what he has told her.

Polonius then arrives and tells Laertes to hurry up and catch his ship before it leaves the harbor. As he walks Laertes towards the ship, Polonius gives his son fatherly advice. "Be thou familiar but by no means vulgar. / The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, / Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel" (1.3.61-63). Laertes promises to obey his father, and leaves after he reminds Ophelia to remember what he has said.

Polonius asks Ophelia what advice Laertes gave her. Ophelia tells him, and Polonius gets mad at her for believing what Hamlet has told her. He orders her to give less of her time to Hamlet in the future, saying, "From this time, daughter, / Be somewhat scanter of your maiden presence" (1.3.120-121). Ophelia tells her father she will do what he commands: "I shall obey, my lord" (1.3.136).

Act One, Scene Four

Hamlet and Horatio are outside waiting for the ghost to arrive. They hear a cannon go off, and Hamlet tells Horatio that the cannon is fired whenever the king empties a draught of Rhenish wine. Hamlet is upset about the custom, because he thinks it makes Denmark appear to be a land of drunkards. The ghost arrives and Hamlet tries to speak to it, but it only beckons him to follow it. Horatio and Marcellus try to make him stay, but Hamlet tells them to let go of him. Marcellus and Horatio watch him leave and decide to follow him. Marcellus remarks, "Something is rotten in the state of Denmark" (1.4.67).

Act One, Scene Five

Hamlet follows the ghost, who finally speaks and informs Hamlet that he is the spirit of Old Hamlet, Hamlet's father. The ghost indicates that he is in purgatory, "I am thy father's spirit, / Doomed for a certain term to walk the night / And for the day confined to fast in fires / Till the foul crimes done in my days of nature / Are burned and purged away" (1.5.9-13). The ghost then tells Hamlet to listen to him closely.

Old Hamlet orders his son to revenge his murder. Hamlet is confused, not understanding what the ghost is speaking about. The ghost tells him that "sleeping in mine orchard, / A serpent stung me" (1.5.35-36), alluding to the fact that he was murdered. He goes on to say that the serpent is his brother, Claudius, who entered the garden where he was sleeping and poured poison into his ear. He died without having a chance to confess his sins, and is therefore forced to suffer in Purgatory until his sins are burned away.

The ghost leaves Hamlet with the words, "Adieu, adieu, Hamlet. Remember me" (1.5.91). Hamlet wonders about what he has heard, and decides that he believes the ghost. He makes Marcellus and Horatio swear to never reveal what they have seen. He then makes them swear a second time, this time on his dagger which is shaped like a cross. He tells Horatio, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in our philosophy" (1.5.168-169). They all swear yet again and return to the castle.

Act Two, Scene One

Polonius is in his apartments with his servant Reynaldo. He is sending Reynaldo to France with instructions to keep tabs on the behavior of Laertes. Polonius tells Reynaldo to first inquire what other Danes are in the area, and then to tell them that he knows Laertes. He wants Reynaldo to hint to the other Danes that Laertes has a reputation for gambling, drinking, or whoring. The purpose of this lie is to see if the other Danes agree with Reynaldo and tell him about real things that Laertes has done. Polonius is careful to insist that Reynaldo does not harm his son's honor in the process, saying, "none so rank / As may dishonour him, take heed of that" (2.1.20-21). Reynaldo leaves the room to depart for France.

Ophelia arrives and tells Polonius that she thinks Hamlet has gone mad. She claims that while she was sowing he came to her looking completely disheveled. Hamlet took her by the wrist and looked at her for a long time. He then turned to walk away, all the while keeping his eyes on Ophelia and even walking through the doors without averting his gaze. Polonius is upset when he hears this, and he concludes that her refusal to see Hamlet anymore has driven the young prince mad. Polonius takes Ophelia to go see King Claudius and tell him what has happened.

Act Two, Scene Two

Claudius and Gertrude meet with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two former friends of Hamlet. Claudius informs them that he has summoned them to Denmark due to Hamlet's madness. He wants them to spend time with Hamlet and find out what the reason for the madness is. They both agree to do this, and leave to find Hamlet.

Polonius arrives and informs Claudius that the ambassadors he sent to Norway have returned. Claudius tells him that he always brings good news. Polonius, delighted by the compliment, further tells him that he thinks he knows the cause of "Hamlet's lunacy" (2.2.49). Claudius is excited by this news as well, but orders the ambassadors to enter first.

Valtemand, one of the ambassadors, tells Claudius that Old Norway, the uncle of Fortinbras, was unaware that his nephew was raising an army against Denmark. He informs Claudius that Old Norway summoned Fortinbras to meet him as soon as he heard about his nephew's plans. Fortinbras complied with the summons and was forced to vow to never attack Denmark. His uncle, believing him, immediately gave him an annual income of three thousand crowns and also gave him permission to attack Poland instead. Old Norway further wrote a letter to Claudius asking him to allow Fortinbras a safe passage through Denmark on the way Poland.

Claudius is very pleased with the way things appear to have turned out, and heartily agrees to allow Fortinbras to march through Denmark. After the ambassadors leave, Polonius turns to Claudius and Gertrude and tells them that Hamlet is mad. They both become impatient to hear what he is saying, and Polonius finally produces a letter from Hamlet to Ophelia in which Hamlet professes his love to her. Gertrude then asks Polonius how Ophelia received Hamlet's overtures of love. Polonius is forced to tell them that at his request she ignored Hamlet or rebuked his love. Claudius is not completely convinced that this is the full cause of Hamlet's insanity. He and Polonius decide to put Ophelia into the hall where Hamlet is known to spend hours pacing each day. They plan to hide behind a tapestry and watch what happens.

Hamlet arrives at this moment dressed as if he is mad and reading a book. Polonius asks the king and queen to leave so that he may speak with Hamlet alone. Hamlet pretends not to recognize Polonius, whom he calls a fishmonger. He then asks Polonius if he has a daughter, and tells him to keep her out of the sun. When Polonius, thoroughly convinced that Hamlet is deranged, asks what he is reading, Hamlet tells him, "Words, words, words" (2.2.192). Polonius gives up trying to reason with Hamlet and leaves.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive and are greeted warmly by Hamlet who immediately drops all pretense of madness. He recognizes them and asks them what brings them to Denmark, referring to it as a "prison". They refuse to give him a straight answer, and Hamlet infers from this that "you were sent for, / and there is a kind of confession in your looks which your modesties have not craft enough to colour" (2.2.271-272). Guildenstern finally admits that Hamlet is correct in his assumption that they were sent for. Hamlet tells them that he has been extremely melancholy during the past few months.

The two friends of Hamlet inform him that some players, a theatrical group, arrived in Denmark with them that day. Hamlet discusses the actors with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern until a trumpet announces the arrival of the performers. He then personally goes to greet them and welcome them to Denmark. Polonius arrives at that moment and, still thinking that Hamlet is mad, tells Hamlet that the best actors in the world have arrived. Hamlet plays word games with Polonius until he starts to ignore him.

Hamlet asks one of the players to perform a speech for him. The player asks him which speech he is so keen to hear, and Hamlet begins to recite lines from Dido and Aeneas, taken from Virgil's Aeneid. Finally he stops and asks the actor to continue the speech. The man does, describing how Pyrrhus kills Priam (the king of Troy). Polonius starts to get bored and soon Hamlet is forced to stop the actor. He orders Polonius to take care of the actors and ensure their comfort for the night. Hamlet also asks the actors whether they can perform a play about the murder of Gonzago. They tell him they can, and he then asks them whether they can also perform some lines he wishes to write for them. They agree to do this as well and then leave, following Polonius. Hamlet tells Guildenstern and Rosencrantz that he will see them that night.

Left alone onstage, Hamlet speaks to himself. He wishes that he were able to act as eloquently as the actor who performed the speech. Hamlet is still torn with indecision about revenging the murder of his father on Claudius or keeping silent due to uncertainty about whether Claudius really killed his father. He decides to try and make the player's enact the murder scene as it was described to him by the ghost. Hamlet is hoping that Claudius, when he sees the scene, will reveal himself as the true murderer of King Hamlet. "I have heard that guilty creatures sitting at a play / Have by the very cunning of the scene / Been struck so to the soul that presently / The have proclaimed their malefactions" (2.2.566-569). By watching Claudius when the actors perform this scene, Hamlet expects to discover whether the ghost told him the truth.

Act Three, Scene One

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are reporting to Claudius and Gertrude what they have noticed about Hamlet. They tell the king and queen that Hamlet has not revealed to them why he acts mad some of the time, but that he also seems distracted. They mention that Hamlet seemed much happier when the actors arrived and that he ordered them to perform for the court that very night. Polonius interrupts and mentions that Hamlet had asked him to invite Claudius and Gertrude to the evening's performance. Claudius happily accepts the invitation.

Claudius then asks Gertrude to leave, telling her that they will put Ophelia alone in the room so that she and Hamlet may "accidentally" meet. She agrees to depart and wishes Ophelia luck in bringing Hamlet out of his supposed madness. Claudius and Polonius proceed to hide themselves behind a curtain or tapestry in order to spy.

Hamlet enters the room giving his famous soliloquy, "To be, or not to be; that is the question" (3.1.58). He is grappling with the difficulty of taking action against Claudius and the fact that he has not been able to revenge his father's murder yet. Hamlet's introspective commentary is interrupted when he sees Ophelia.

Ophelia greets Hamlet and tries to hand him back some of the tokens of his affection he previously gave her. Hamlet tells her that she should never have believed him when he told her he loved her, and that she was deceived. He tells her, "Get thee to a nunnery. Why wouldst thou be a breeder of sinners?" (3.1.122). Hamlet then says that women are liars and should not be allowed to marry, unless the men they marry are fools. He is likely alluding to the fact that Ophelia rejected him after he proclaimed his love for her.

Ophelia is upset by his reactions, and says, "O what a noble mind is here o'erthrown!" (3.1.149). Claudius and Polonius emerge from their hiding-place and tell her they heard everything. Polonius still thinks the cause of Hamlet's misery is Ophelia's rejection of his love. Claudius, however, is convinced that Hamlet is not mad, merely deeply depressed and possibly dangerous. He tells Polonius that he will send Hamlet to England as soon as possible.

Act Three, Scene Two

Hamlet has written a scene for the actors and he is instructing them on how to perform it. He tells them not to be overdramatic, but also "Be not too tame, neither" (3.2.15). The actors tell him they can perform it exactly as he desires it to be.

Polonius, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz arrive and Hamlet sends them all to make the actors hurry up and get ready. Horatio soon shows up and Hamlet tells him that one scene in the play that night directly mimics the murder of his father. He asks Horatio to, "observe mine uncle" (3.2.73) in order to determine whether the ghost was lying or not. They plan to meet afterwards and compare their separate judgments as to what the reaction of Claudius means.

Horatio goes to find a seat, and Claudius enters along with the rest of the court. He greets Hamlet and asks him how he is. Hamlet gives a nonsensical answer and then asks Polonius if he was an actor during his university days. Polonius says he was a good actor, and that he played Julius Caesar.

Gertrude asks Hamlet to sit by her, but he says, "No, good-mother, here's mettle more attractive" (3.2.99) and sits next to Ophelia instead. He proceeds to make bawdy comments to her, all of which Ophelia tries to respond to appropriately.

The actors come out onto the stage and proceed to perform a dumb show, a silent scene in which they enact the murder of a king through poisoning. Ophelia is confused by the show, but assumes it foretells the actual plot. The players emerge a second time and start to perform the actual play. They pretend to be a king and queen. The queen protests her love for the king, telling him that she will never consider marrying a second man. The king tells her that such vows are quickly forgotten, but the queen continues to swear she will never marry a second time.

Hamlet turns to Queen Gertrude and asks her what she thinks of the play. Gertrude tells him that the queen "protests too much" (3.2.210). Claudius is worried that the play may be offensive, and asks Hamlet what the play is called. Hamlet says, "The Mousetrap" (3.2.217), alluding to the fact that he wants to catch Claudius.

An actor named Lucianus arrives onstage, and Hamlet tells them that he is meant to portray the nephew of the king. Lucianus pours poison in the king's ears, and Hamlet comments that he kills the king in order to steal his estate. Ophelia informs Hamlet that Claudius has stood up out of rage, thereby stopping the performance. Hamlet happily replies, "What, frighted with false fire?" (3.2.244). Claudius demands light to shone on him and leaves the room, followed by everyone except Hamlet and Horatio.

The two friends remain behind and Hamlet gleefully tells Horatio, "O good Horatio, I'll take the Ghost's word for a thousand pound" (3.2.263-264). Horatio agrees with him that Claudius is guilty. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive and tell Hamlet that the king is in a terrible mood and that Gertrude has sent for him. He agrees to meet with his mother soon, but they continue to ask him why he is so "distempered" (3.2.308). Hamlet gets mad at them for their insistence and grabs a recorder from one of the actors. He shows it to them and demands that Guildenstern play it. When he refuses, saying he does not know how, Hamlet says,

Why, look you now, how unworthy a thing you make of me! You would play upon me, you would seem to know my stops...do you think I am easier to be played on than a pipe?" (3.2.334-335,339-340).

Polonius enters and Hamlet immediately pretends to be crazy again. Polonius also tells Hamlet that his mother wants to see him in her private chamber. Hamlet plays with him a little, pointing to the clouds and pretending to see various animals. Finally he makes Polonius leave, and tells Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to depart as well. In a soliloquy, Hamlet indicates that he will be "cruel, not unnatural. / I will speak daggers to her, but use none" (3.2.365-366). He wants to make his mother aware of the fact that Claudius murdered her former husband, but not physically harm her in the process.

Act Three, Scene Three

Claudius meets with Guildenstern and Rosencrantz. He tells them that Hamlet has become too dangerous to keep in Denmark, and that he is therefore sending him to England. He orders the two young men to prepare to accompany Hamlet on the voyage, to which they readily assent.

Polonius informs Claudius that Hamlet will meet with his mother in her private chamber. Polonius decides to conceal himself behind a tapestry in order to overhear their conversation. He promises to tell Claudius everything that happens.

Claudius, finally alone, states, "O, my offense is rank! It smells to heaven" (3.3.36). He then admits to killing his brother and laments the fact that he cannot repent his crime. He prays to the angels to help him. Hamlet enters behind him and draws his sword, preparing to kill Claudius. However, when he realizes that Claudius has been praying, and therefore would be absolved of all his sins, he decides not to kill him. "A villain kills my father, and for that / I, his sole son, do this same villain send to heaven.../ When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage.../ At gaming, swearing, or about some act / That has no relish of salvation in't, / And that his soul may be as damned and black / As hell whereto it goes" (3.3.76-78,89,91-92,94-95). Hamlet chooses to wait and kill Claudius when he is sure that Claudius will be sent to hell.

Act Three, Scene Four

Polonius admonishes Gertrude to rebuke Hamlet for the way he has acted. He quickly hides himself as soon as he hears Hamlet coming. Hamlet arrives and is immediately rude to his mother; he mentions her incestuous marriage to Claudius and tells her she has offended his father. He promises to hold up a mirror to her face so that she can see what she has become. "You go not till I set you up a glass / Where you may see the inmost part of you" (3.4.19-20). Queen Gertrude becomes afraid of her life and cries for help, a cry that Polonius foolishly answers.

Hamlet, having heard Polonius make a sound behind the curtain, pulls out his sword and thrusts it through the curtains, killing him. Hamlet asks Gertrude if it is the king, but then realizes he has instead killed Polonius. Gertrude is upset, but Hamlet comments that his act is, "A bloody deed - almost as bad, good-mother, / As kill a king and marry with his brother" (3.4.27-28). Gertrude does not understand what Hamlet means, and he is forced to explain to her. He pulls out two miniatures of King Hamlet and Claudius and compares them for her, telling her that Claudius killed King Hamlet in order to seize the throne.

Gertrude is upset and confused, struggling to believe Hamlet. The ghost reappears at that moment and Hamlet speaks to it, saying, "What would you, gracious figure?" (3.4.95). Gertrude, who is unable to see the ghost, believes that Hamlet has gone completely mad. The ghost tells Hamlet to keep speaking to Gertrude and to convince her, but she becomes even more convinced that Hamlet is mad as she watches him speak to empty air. Hamlet points to his father and urges her to look, but she cannot see anything and finally exclaims, "this is the very coinage of your brain" (3.4.128).

Hamlet shows her that his pulse is constant, convincing her that it is not a hallucination. She finally asks him what she must do. Hamlet tells Gertrude to go to bed that night, but to avoid sleeping with Claudius. He further tells her to let Claudius know that he is not mad, but rather merely cunning. Hamlet then leaves to get ready to go to England, tugging Polonius out of the room behind him.

Act Four, Scene One

Claudius asks Gertrude to tell him what the matter is. She informs him that Hamlet is completely mad and describes how he killed Polonius behind the curtain. Claudius decides to pardon Hamlet's life, but calls Guildenstern and Rosencrantz into the chamber. He orders them find Hamlet and Polonius' body, and to bring the body into the chapel.

Act Four, Scene Two

Hamlet hears someone calling for him and responds to them. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern run onstage and demand to know where Polonius' body is. Hamlet riddles with them, and tells them that they are like sponges who soak up the king's favors. He refuses to reveal where he has hidden Polonius and runs away from them.

Act Four, Scene Three

Claudius is upset that Hamlet is running around the palace but cannot order Hamlet killed because the populace likes him. Rosencrantz arrives and tells Claudius that he cannot find the body, but that Guildenstern is holding Hamlet. Claudius orders Guildenstern to bring in Hamlet, and then asks him where Polonius is. Hamlet riddles some more, telling Claudius to seek for Polonius in heaven or possibly hell.

Hamlet finally gives them a hint, and says, "you shall nose him as you up the stairs into the lobby" (4.3.35-36). Rosencrantz immediately goes to seek the body. Claudius tells Hamlet that because of his "deed", the murder of Polonius, he must leave Denmark for England. Hamlet walks out after calling Claudius his "mother" and is followed by Guildenstern. Claudius, now alone, prays that the King of England will obey his letters, which ask the King of England to kill Hamlet for him.

Act Four, Scene Four

Fortinbras has reached the Danish castle and orders a captain to inform Claudius that his army is there and that he requests safe passage through Denmark so that he may invade Poland. The Captain leaves to deliver the message.

Hamlet arrives, accompanied by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and approaches the captain. He asks the man whose army it is, and learns that Fortinbras has marched into Denmark on his way to "Poland". The captain is ambiguous about the exact location, saying only that they are fighting over a worthless piece of ground.

Hamlet sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on ahead and remains to ponder the fact that nearly twenty thousand men are in the army, all willing to die for nothing. He realizes that he has been unable to revenge his father's death, but decides that now is the time for decisive action. Hamlet says, "O, from this time forth / My thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth" (

Act Four, Scene Five

Horatio begs Queen Gertrude to come see what has happened to Ophelia. She reluctantly agrees, and Ophelia enters singing to herself. Ophelia has gone completely mad due to the death of her father and the loss of Hamlet, and she incoherently sings her songs rather than respond to Gertrude.

Claudius arrives and Gertrude shows him what has happened to Ophelia. She continues singing, the songs getting raunchier as she continues. Finally Ophelia tells them that Laertes must find out about the death of their father, and she leaves to go find him. Horatio follows her in order to keep an eye on her.

Claudius tells Gertrude that they made a mistake in trying to secretly dispose of Polonius. He further informs her that Laertes has secretly come from France to Denmark to avenge his father's death. A noise interrupts him, and a messenger rushes in telling Claudius to save himself. He asks what the problem is, and learns that Laertes has gathered a mob of citizens together and rushed the castle, breaking past all the guards. The mob wants to make Laertes king and is therefore fighting for him.

Laertes bursts through the doors and tells the mob to wait for him outside. He then demands that Claudius reveal to him why Polonius was killed. Gertrude intervenes and informs Laertes that Claudius did not kill his father. Laertes then demands to know who his real enemy is. Ophelia enters at that moment, completely mad, and gives them each some flowers. Claudius turns to Laertes after Ophelia leaves and tells him that he will personally arrange his revenge.

Act Four, Scene Six

Horatio receives a letter from Hamlet which tells him a strange story. The ship Hamlet was on was caught by pirates, and Hamlet alone boarded the pirate ship. After the battle was over he became their prisoner but was treated well because he could do them a favor. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz are still on their way to England.

Act Four, Scene Seven

Claudius has explained to Laertes that Hamlet killed Polonius. Laertes asks why Hamlet was not punished at the time and Claudius says that it was for his mother's sake. Laertes tells Claudius that his revenge will come soon.

Some messengers arrive and hand Claudius letters from Hamlet. He is surprised to receive the letters, and reads his out loud. The letter indicates that Hamlet is returning to Denmark alone. Laertes is excited by this because it means that he will be able to revenge his father's death. Claudius asks him to "be ruled" and listen to a plot which will make Hamlet's death seem like an accident, even though Laertes will be allowed to kill him.

Claudius proposes that Laertes fight Hamlet in a fencing match with rapiers. Laertes agrees to this provided he be allowed to put poison on the tip of his rapier so that even the slightest scratch will cause Hamlet to die. Claudius is uncertain as to whether they can trust the poison, and so he offers to also create a poison drink for Hamlet. That way, they will have two ways of killing Hamlet and will not fail.

Gertrude enters the room and informs Laertes that Ophelia has drowned herself while sitting on a willow branch over a brook. Laertes is overcome with grief and starts to shed tears for his sister. He leaves the room but Claudius urges Gertrude to follow him for fear that Laertes will erupt in rage again.

Act Five, Scene One

Two gravediggers (clowns) are digging out Ophelia's grave. They discuss the fact that Ophelia drowned herself, and therefore should not receive a Christian burial under Christian law. However, the one gravedigger points out that the coroner has declared it a natural death rather than a suicide, and therefore they must dig the grave for her.

Hamlet overhears the first gravedigger singing to himself and remarks on the fact that the man is so cheerful at his occupation. Horatio tells him that it must come from doing the job for such a long time. Hamlet approaches the man and asks him whose grave it is. The gravedigger, taking every word literally, tells him, "Mine, sir" (5.1.109). Hamlet finally gives up asking and instead inquires for news about Prince Hamlet while pretending to be someone else.

The gravedigger tells him that Hamlet was sent to England because he was mad. He then informs Hamlet that a body will last in the grave for eight or nine years at the most. He picks up a skull and shows it to Hamlet, telling him it has been in the earth for twenty-three years. Hamlet asks whose skull it is, and is shocked to learn that it is the skull of Yorick, a jester who entertained him as a youth. He comments that even parts of Alexander the Great's body might now be used as a flask stopper and they would never know it.

Hamlet and Horatio run and hide when they hear Claudius, Gertrude, Laertes, and other attendants arriving. Hamlet wonders whose corpse they are carrying with them to the grave. He overhears Laertes arguing with the priest about the last rites. Due to the strange manner of Ophelia's death, the priest will only allow the body to be buried in holy ground, but he refuses to read her the prayers. Hamlet soon realizes that the body is that of Ophelia.

Laertes is so overcome with emotion once the coffin has been placed into the grave that he leaps in after it. Hamlet, seeing this, reveals himself and jumps into the grave as well. Laertes immediately grabs Hamlet by the throat and starts to choke him. Claudius order the other men present to pull them apart and Hamlet shouts that he loved Ophelia more than forty thousand of her brothers combined. He tells Laertes that, "I loved you ever. But it is no matter. / Let Hercules himself do what he may, / The cat will mew, and dog will have his day" (5.1.275-278). Hamlet leaves and Horatio follows him.

Act Five, Scene Two

Hamlet tells Horatio what really happened on the way to England. He rose on night and stole the letters that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were taking to the King of England. The letters told the king to kill Hamlet and listed several reasons why this would benefit both nations. Hamlet immediately wrote out several new letters and sealed them using his signet. The new letters ordered that the two men accompanying him should be put to death.

Hamlet is not at all upset about ordering his two "friends" to die in England since, "they did make love to this employment" (5.2.58). Horatio warns Hamlet that Claudius will soon discover what has happened when news arrives from England.

A man named Osric arrives and tells Hamlet that he has news from the king for him. Hamlet plays a game with the man, telling him to alternately put on and take off his hat. Osric finally gets frustrated with the game and informs Hamlet that Laertes, whom he describes in glowing terms, has placed a wager with Claudius. Claudius has bet Laertes that he cannot beat Hamlet by at least three hits in a fencing match with twelve passes. Hamlet agrees to the match and orders Osric to have them bring out the foils.

A lord soon enters and tells Hamlet that everything is prepared and that they are waiting for Hamlet to come. He further tells Hamlet that Gertrude wishes that he would treat Laertes with respect and courtesy, to which Hamlet agrees. Horatio tells Hamlet that, "You will lose this wager, my lord" (5.2.147), but Hamlet tells him that he has been in continual practice since Laertes left for France. Horatio again tries to dissuade him from fencing with Laertes, and again Hamlet tells him that he will go and fight.

Claudius and the rest of the court arrive and Claudius orders Hamlet to greet Laertes. Hamlet offers Laertes an apology for killing Polonius and blames the act on his madness. Laertes stiffly asserts that his honor is still at stake and that he must therefore have his revenge. They then call for the foils and prepare for the match.

Claudius orders his attendants to bring him a cask of wine. He then announces that if Hamlet is able to score a hit in the first, second or third exchange then he will drink some wine and drop a pearl of exceptional value into the cup for Hamlet. Claudius then drinks to Hamlet as a salute for good luck and orders them to begin.

Hamlet and Laertes fight until Hamlet shouts, "One" (5.2.220). Laertes disputes the hit and Osric decides in favor of Hamlet. Claudius halts the match and drops a pearl into his wine cup. He then offers the cup to Hamlet, who refuses to take it and tells him that he would rather continue the match. They fight and Hamlet again claims a hit that Laertes grants him. Gertrude takes the cup with the pearl in it and offers to drink for Hamlet. Claudius begs her not to, but she ignores him and drinks anyway, thereby ingesting the poison that Claudius had planned to give to Hamlet.

Laertes meanwhile has poisoned his rapier's tip and in the next scuffle he manages to wound Hamlet. They continue fighting and Hamlet accidentally exchanges rapiers with Laertes after which he wounds him as well. Both men stop fighting when they realize that Gertrude has fallen onto the ground. She tells Hamlet, "The drink, the drink - I am poisoned" (5.2.253) before she dies. Laertes also falls to the ground from the poison he received when Hamlet wounded him. He tells Hamlet that both of them are poisoned to death and blames the king for everything.

Hamlet, realizing that the point of the rapier is envenomed, slashes at Claudius and wounds him with it. The courtiers cry out, "Treason, treason!" (5.2.265), but they cannot stop Hamlet who has also grabbed the poisoned wine and is making Claudius drink it. Claudius quickly dies from the poison. Laertes, still barely alive, tells Hamlet that he forgives him for Polonius' death before he too dies.

Hamlet orders Horatio to stay alive and report everything he knows to the public. Horatio instead has grabbed the cup and is preparing to commit suicide, but at Hamlet's plea he relinquishes the poison. Osric enters the room and tells them that Fortinbras has arrived with his army. Hamlet gives Fortinbras his vote to become the next King of Denmark before he dies.

Fortinbras and the English ambassadors arrive together. Fortinbras looks over the scene of carnage and compares it too a massacre. The Englishmen inform Horatio that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been put to death. Horatio takes charge and tells Fortinbras and the ambassadors to put the bodies on a stage in view of the public so that he may tell the full story of what has happened. Fortinbras agrees with this and orders his men to obey Horatio. He compares the scene to a battlefield and ends the play by ordering the soldiers to shoot their guns in honor of Hamlet's death.

King Lear

Act I Summary: scene i:

Gloucester and Kent, loyal to King Lear, objectively discuss his division of the kingdom (as Lear is preparing to step down) and to which dukes, Cornwall and Albany, they believe it will equally fall. Kent is introduced to Gloucester's illegitimate son, Edmund. Gloucester nonchalantly admits that the boy's breeding has been his charge ever since impregnating another woman soon after his legitimate son, Edgar, was born. Kent is pleased to meet Edmund. Gloucester mentions that Edmund has been nine years in military service and will return shortly.

Lear enters and sends Gloucester to find France and Burgundy, Cordelia's suitors. He then begins to discuss the partitioning of Britain he has devised to each of his three daughters and their husbands. Lear decides to ask each of his daughters to express how much they love him before he hands over their piece of the kingdom. As oldest, Goneril speaks first, expressing her love as all encompassing. Regan adds that she is enemy to other joys. Lear gives each their parcel, wishing them well. Cordelia, as the youngest and most liked daughter, is saved the choicest piece of land. However, she responds to her father's request by saying she has nothing to add. She loves only as much as her obligation entitles and will save some of her love for a husband. Lear is enraged and hurt. After giving her a few chances, he strips Cordelia of any title or relation. Kent intercedes on her behalf but he too is estranged by Lear. Kent cries that honesty will continue to be his guide in any kingdom.

Cordelia's suitors enter. Lear apprises them of Cordelia's new state of non-inheritance. Burgundy cannot accept her under the circumstances, but France finds her more appealing and takes her as his wife. Cordelia is not unhappy to leave her sisters and leaves with France. Goneril and Regan conspire to take rule away from Lear quickly as he is becoming more unreasonable.

scene ii:

The scene centers around Edmund, at first alone on stage, crying out against his position as bastard to the material world. He is envious of Edgar, the legitimate son, and wishes to gain what he has by forging a treasonous letter concerning Gloucester from Edgar. Gloucester enters, amazed at the events which have occurred during the last scene. He wishes to know why Edmund is hiding a letter and demands to see it. He shrewdly acts as if he is embarrassed to show it to Gloucester and continually makes excuses for Edgar's apparent behavior. Gloucester reads the letter detailing "Edgar's" call to Edmund to take their father's land from him. Edmund asks that he not make too quick a judgment before they talk to Edgar as perhaps he is simply testing Edmund. He suggests forming a meeting where Edmund can ask Edgar about his proposals while Gloucester listens in secret. Gloucester agrees, musing on the effects of nature and its predictions. He leaves directly before Edgar enters. Edmund brings up the astronomical predictions he had discussed with Gloucester and alerts Edmund that Gloucester is very upset with him, though he knows not why. Edmund offers to take Edgar back to his lodging until he can bring he and Gloucester together and advises him to go armed. Edgar leaves and Edmund notes that he will soon take his due through wit.

scene iii:

Scene iii reintroduces Goneril, as she is outraged by the offenses she contends Lear has been showing her since moving into her residence. He has struck Oswald for criticizing his fool, his knights are riotous and so on, she claims. Lear is out hunting. Goneril commands Oswald to allow her privacy from Lear and to treat Lear with "weary negligence". She does not want him to be happy, hoping that he will move to Regan's where she knows he will face the same contempt. She demands Oswald to treat his knights coldly as well. She leaves to write Regan.

scene iv:

Kent enters, disguised and hoping to serve in secret as a servant to Lear so that he can help him though he is condemned. Lear accepts to try him as a servant.Oswald comes in quickly before exiting again curtly. A knight tells Lear that Goneril is not well and that Oswald answered him curtly as well. The knight fears Lear is being treated wrongly. Lear had blamed himself for any coldness but agrees to look into a problem in Goneril's household. Lear's fool has hidden himself since Cordelia's departure so Lear sends the knight for him. Oswald reenters, showing Lear the negligence Goneril had suggested. Lear and Kent strike him, endearing Kent in Lear's eyes. Oswald exits as Fool enters. Fool persistently mocks and ridicules Lear for his actions in scene i, his mistreatment of Cordelia, trust in Goneril and Regan, and giving up of his authority. He calls Lear himself a fool, noting he has given away all other titles. The fool notes that he is punished by Lear if he lies, punished by the household if he speaks the truth, and often punished for staying silent.

Goneril harps on the trouble Lear and his retinue are causing, such as the insolence of Fool and the riotous behavior of the knights. She states that he is not showing her the proper respect and consideration by allowing these actions to occur. Lear is incredulous. Goneril continues by adding that as Lear's large, frenzied train cannot be controlled she will have to ask him to keep fewer than his hundred knights. Outraged, Lear admits that Goneril's offense makes Cordelia's seem small. As Albany enters, Lear curses Goneril with infertility or, in its stead, a thankless child. He then finds that his train has already been halved and again rages against the incredible impudence Goneril has shown him. He angrily leaves for Regan's residence. Albany does not approve of Goneril's behavior and is criticized by her for being weak. Goneril sends Oswald with a letter to her sister, detailing her fear that Lear is dangerous and should be curtailed as soon as possible.

scene v:

Impatient, Lear sends the disguised Kent to bring letters to Gloucester. The Fool wisely warns that Regan will likely act no better than her sister had. He criticizes Lear for giving away his own home and place, using examples such as a snail carrying his shell. Lear recognizes he will have to subdue his fatherly instincts toward Regan as well. Fool points out that Lear has gotten old before he is wise. Lear cries out, praying that he will not go mad.

Act II Summary: scene i:

Act II begins with a return to the secondary plot of Edmund, Edgar, and Gloucester. Edmund speaks with the courtier, Curan, who advises him that Regan and Cornwall will arrive shortly at Gloucester's castle. He also passes on the gossip that there may soon be a war between Cornwall and Albany. After Curan leaves, Edmund expresses his delight over the news he has learned as he can use that in his plot. Edgar enters and Edmund cleverly asks if he has offended Cornwall or Albany. Edgar says he has not. Edmund cries that he hears Gloucester coming and forces Edgar to draw his sword with him. Telling Edgar to flee, Edmund then wounds himself with his sword before calling out to Gloucester for help. Gloucester arrives quickly and sends servants to chase down the villain. Edmund explains that he would not allow Edgar to persuade him into murdering their father causing Edgar to slash him with his sword. He continues that Edgar threatened him and by no means intended to permit Edmund, an "unpossessing bastard", to stop him from his evil plot. Gloucester is indignant and claims that Edgar will be captured and punished. He promises that Edmund will become the heir of his land.

At this point, Cornwall and Regan enter the scene, wondering if the gossip they had heard about Edgar is correct. Gloucester confirms it is. Edmund cleverly confirms Regan's fear that Edgar was acting as part of Lear's riotous knights. Cornwall acknowledges the good act Edmund has done for Gloucester and promises to take him into their favor. After Gloucester and Edmund thank them, Regan explains why she and Cornwall have come to Gloucester's castle. She had received a letter from Goneril and so had left home to avoid Lear. She asks for Gloucester's assistance.

scene ii:

Oswald, Goneril's servant, and Kent, still disguised as Lear's servant Caius, meet at Gloucester's castle after first trekking to Cornwall's residence with messages. Oswald does not first recognize Kent but Kent recognizes him and responds to him curtly with curses and name-calling. He claims that Oswald comes with letters against the King and sides with his evil daughter. He calls Oswald to draw his sword at which Oswald cries out for help. The noise brings in Edmund, Cornwall, Regan, Gloucester, and some servants.

When asked what the commotion is, Kent continues to insult Oswald, who is breathless. Oswald claims that he has spared Kent because of his grey beard at which Kent scoffs. He describes that Oswald is like a dog, ignorantly following a master. To Cornwall's incredulousness, Kent says that he does not like the look of his face. Oswald explains that Kent had no reason to strike him in Lear's company or to draw on him at Gloucester's. Kent refers to Cornwall and Regan as cowards and they call for the stocks. Regan comments that they should leave him not only until noon, as Cornwall had suggested, but for over a day. Gloucester protests but is overruled. After the others have exited, Gloucester apologizes to Kent and admits that the Duke is to blame. Alone, Kent muses over a letter he has received from Cordelia, implying that she knows he has taken disguise and promises to try to save her father from the evil of her sisters. Kent recognizes he is at the bottom of luck. He falls asleep.

scene iii:

Scene iii is solely a soliloquy by Edgar discussing his transformation into poor Tom, the beggar. He tells us that he has just missed being hunted as he heard them coming for him and hid in a hollow tree. In order to remain safe, he proposes to take on "the basest and most poorest shape", that of a beggar. He covers himself with dirt and filth, ties his hair in knots, strips off much of his clothing, and pricks his skin with pins and nails and so on. He no longer resembles Edgar.

scene iv:

Lear enters the scene with his fool and a gentleman, who tells him that he was not advised of Regan and Cornwall's removal to Gloucester's castle. They come upon Kent, still in the stocks. Lear does not believe that Regan and Cornwall would commit such an offense to Lear has to place his servant in the stocks but Kent reassures him that they have. He stresses that their punishment came only because he was angered enough by Oswald's presence and his letter to Regan to draw his sword upon Oswald. Fool comments on human nature, retorting that children are only kind to their parents when they are rich and that the poor are never given the chance for money. Lear feels ill and goes to look for Regan. Kent asks why Lear's train has shrunk to which Fool replies that many have lost interest in Lear as he has lost his riches and power. He advises all that are not fools to do the same.

Lear returns, amazed that Regan and Cornwall refuse to speak with him over weariness from travel. Gloucester attempts to excuse them by mentioning Gloucester's "fiery quality". Lear is enraged by this excuse. Although he momentarily considers that Gloucester may truly be ill, he is overwhelmed by anger and threatens to beat a drum by their door until they speak to him. Gloucester leaves to get them and shortly returns with them. They appear to act cordial at first to Lear and set Kent free. Lear is cautious toward Regan and tells her that if she is not truly glad to see him he would disown her and her dead mother. He expresses his grief to her over his stay with Goneril and Goneril's demands on him. Regan replies that he is very old and should trust their counsel. She advises him to return to Goneril and ask for her forgiveness as she is not yet prepared to care for him. Lear admits that he is old but pleads with Regan to care for him. She again refuses even with his arguments that Goneril has cut his train and his subsequent curses of Goneril. Regan is horrified. Lear pleads with her to act better than her sister. He finally asks who put Kent in the stocks.

Goneril arrives, as forecast in a letter to her sister. Lear calls on the gods to help him and is upset that Regan takes Goneril by the hand. He asks again how Kent was put in the stocks and Cornwall replies that that it was his order and Lear is appalled. Regan pleads again for him to return to Goneril's but he still holds hope that Regan will allow him all hundred of his train. However, Regan assures him that she has no room for the knights either and alerts him that he should only bring twenty-five with him after his month stay with Goneril. Lear replies that he has been betrayed after giving his daughter's his all, his land, authority and his care. He decides to go then with Goneril as she must love him more if she will agree to fifty knights. At this point, Goneril diminishes her claim, asking him if needs twenty-five, ten, or five? Regan adds that he does not even need one. Lear cries that need is not the issue. He compares his argument to Regan's clothes which are too scant for warmth. She wears them not for need but for vanity just as a King keeps many things he does not need for other reasons. He hopes that he will not cry and fears that he will go mad. He leaves with Fool, Kent, and Gloucester. A storm is heard approaching and Cornwall calls them to withdraw. Regan and Goneril discuss how it is Lear's own fault if they leave him out in the storm. Gloucester asks them to reconsider but is again overruled. Regan has the house boarded up.

Act III Summary: scene i:

As it continues to storm, Kent enters the stage asking who else is there and where is the King. A gentleman, one of Lear's knights, answers, describing the King as struggling and becoming one with the raging elements of nature. The King has been left alone except for his fool. Kent recognizes the gentleman and fills him in on the events he has learned concerning the Dukes and the news from France. He explains that a conflict has grown between Albany and Cornwall which is momentarily forgotten because they are united against Lear. He then mentions that French spies and soldiers have moved onto the island, nearly ready to admit openly to their invasion. He urges the gentleman to hurry to Dover where he will find allies to whom he can give an honest report of the treatment to the King and his declining health. Kent gives him his purse and a ring to confirm his honor and to show to Cordelia if he sees her. They move out to look for Lear before the gentleman leaves on his mission.

scene ii:

We meet Lear, raging against the storm, daring the storm to break up the Earth. Fool pleads with him to dodge his pride and ask for his daughters' forgiveness so that he can take shelter in the castle. Lear notes that the storm, unlike his daughters, owes him nothing and has no obligation to treat him any better. Still, the storm is joining to help his ungrateful daughters in their unnecessary punishing of him. The fool says he is foolish, nevertheless, to reside in the house of of the storm but Lear responds that he will say nothing to his daughters.

Kent enters, pleased to have found the King, and remarks that he has never witnessed a more violent storm. Lear cries that the gods will now show who has committed any wrongs by their treatment in the storm and Kent pushes him toward a cave where they can find a little shelter. Lear agrees to go, recognizing the cold which must be ravaging he and his fool. Before entering the hovel, Fool prophecies that when the abuses of England are reformed, the country will come into great confusion.

scene iii:

Gloucester and Edmund speak in confidence. Gloucester complains of the unnatural dealings of Cornwall and Regan, taking over his home and forbidding him to help or appeal for Lear. Edmund feigns agreement. Taking him further in confidence, Gloucester alerts him to the division between Albany and Cornwall. He then tells him that he has received a letter, which he has locked in the closet because of it dangerous contents, divulging that a movement has started to avenge Lear at home. Gloucester plans to go find him and aid him until the forces arrive to help. He tells Edmund to accompany the Duke so that his absence is not felt and if they ask for him to report that he went to bed ill. Gloucester notes that he is risking his life but if he can save the King, his death would not be in vain. After he departs, Edmund tells the audience that he will alert Cornwall immediately of Gloucester's plans and the treasonous letter. The young will gain, he comments, where the old have faltered.

scene iv:

Kent and Lear find their way to the cave, where Lear asks to be left alone. He notes that the storm rages harsher in his own mind and body due to the "filial ingratitude" he has been forced to endure. Thinking it may lead to madness, Lear tries not to think of his daughters' betrayal. Feeling the cruelty of the elements, Lear remarks that he has taken too little care of the poor who often do not have shelter from such storms in life. The fool enters the cave first and is frightened by the presence of Edgar disguised as poor Tom. Edgar enters, speaking in confused jargon and pointing to the foul fiend who bothers him greatly. Lear decides that Tom must have been betrayed by daughters in order to have fallen to such a state of despair and madness. Kent attempts to tell Lear that Tom has no daughters, but Lear can comprehend no other reason. Fool notes that the cold night would turn them all into madmen. Lear finds Tom intriguing and asks him about his life, to which Edgar replies that Tom was a serving man who was ruined by a woman he had loved. Lear realizes that man is no more than what they have been stripped to and begins to take off his clothes before Fool stops him.

Gloucester finds his way to the cave. He questions the King's company before remarking that he and Lear must both hate what their bodies have given birth to, namely Edgar, Regan, and Goneril. Although he has been barred from securing shelter in his own castle for Lear, Gloucester entreats the King to come with him to a better shelter. Lear wishes to stay and talk with Tom, terming him a philosopher. Kent urges Gloucester to plead with Lear to go, but Gloucester notes it is no surprise that Lear's wits are not about him when his own daughters seek his death. Lear is persuaded to follow Gloucester when they agree to allow Tom to accompany him.

scene v:

Cornwall and Edmund converse over the information Edmund has shared with him. Edmund plays the part of a tortured son doing his duty for the kingdom. Cornwall muses that Edgar's disloyalty is better understood in terms of his own father's betrayal. Handing over the letter Gloucester had received, Edmund cries out wishing that he were not the filial traitor. Cornwall makes Edmund the new Earl of Gloucester and demands he find where his father is hiding. In an aside, Edmund hopes he will find Gloucester aiding the King to further incriminate him although it would be greater filial ingratitude on his part. Cornwall offers himself as a new and more loving father to Edmund.

scene vi:

Gloucester finds the group slightly better shelter and then heads off to get assistance. Edgar speaks of the foul fiend and Fool tells the King a rhyme, concluding that the madman is the man who has too greatly indulged his own children. Lear pretends to hold a trial for his evil daughters, placing Edgar, the fool, and Kent on the bench to try them. Lear tries Goneril first and then Regan before crying that someone had accepted a bribe and allowed one to escape. Kent calls for him to remain patient as he had often been in the past and Edgar notes in an aside that he has nearly threatened his disguise with tears. He tells Lear that he will punish the daughters himself. Lear appreciates the gesture and claims that he will take Tom as one of the hundred in his train if he will agree to change his seemingly Persian garments. As Gloucester returns, he urges Kent to keep the King in his arms due to the death threats circulating. There is a caravan waiting which will take Lear to Dover and safety if they hurry. Edgar is left on stage and soliloquizes that the King's pains are so much greater than his own and he will pledge himself to helping him escape safely.

scene vii:

Cornwall calls for Goneril to bring the letter concerning France's invasion to her husband and calls to his servants to seek out the traitor, Gloucester. Regan and Goneril call for tortuous punishment. Edmund is asked to accompany Goneril so as not to be present when his father is brought in. Oswald enters and alerts the court to the news of Gloucester's successful move of the King to Dover. As Goneril and Edmund depart, Cornwall sends servants in search of Gloucester. Gloucester enters with servants and Cornwall commands that he be bound to a chair. Regan plucks his beard as he protests that they are his guests and friends.They interrogate him on the letter he received from France and his part helping King Lear. Gloucester responds that he received the letter from an objective third-party but he is not believed. He admits that he sent the King to Dover, explaining that he was not safe out in the terrible storm nor in the company of those who would leave him in such conditions. He hopes that Lear's horrific children will have revenge light upon them. Cornwall answers that he will see no such thing, blinding one of his eyes.

A servant speaks up in Gloucester's defense and is quickly stabbed by Regan using the sword Cornwall had drawn. Before the servant dies, he cries that Gloucester has one eye remaining to see harm come to the Duke and Duchess. Cornwall immediately blinds the other eye. Gloucester calls out for Edmund to help him in the time of peril to which Regan replies that it was Edmund who had alerted them to Gloucester's treachery. At this low point, Gloucester realizes the wrong he has shown Edgar if Edmund has done such evil. Regan has Gloucester thrown out of the castle and then helps Cornwall, who has received an injury, out of the room. Two servants discuss the incomprehensible evil of Cornwall and Regan, proposing to aid Gloucester in his blind stumbles. One of the servants leaves to find him while the other searches for ointments to sooth Gloucester's wounds.

Act IV Summary: scene i:

Edgar is alone on stage soliloquizing about his fate. He seems more optimistic than earlier, hoping that he has seen the worst. This changes when Gloucester and an old man enters, displaying to Edgar the cruelty of Regan and Cornwall's punishment. Gloucester urges the old man aiding him to leave him, noting that his blindness should not affect him as "I have no way, and therefore want no eyes;/ I stumbled when I saw" (IV.1.18-19). He then laments the fool he has been toward his loyal son, Edgar. The old man tells him a mad beggarman is present to which Gloucester replies that he cannot be too mad if he knows to beg. Ironically, he notes that his introduction to a madman the night before (who was poor Tom) had made him think of Edgar. This causes Edgar further pain. Gloucester again urges the old man to leave, commenting that poor Tom can lead him. He reasons that the time is such that madmen will lead the blind and tells the old man to meet them in a mile with new clothes for the beggar. The old man agrees to and leaves.

Edgar wishes he did not have to deceive his father but reasons that he must. He speaks in his poor Tom manner of all of the fiends whom have plagued him. Gloucester gives him his purse, hoping to even out some of the inequality which exists between them, and asks him to lead him to the summit of the high cliff in Dover and leave him there.

scene ii:

Goneril and Edmund are en route to Goneril's home when Goneril asks Oswald why her husband has not met them. Oswald answers that Albany is a changed man. To all events Oswald expects he would be pleased by, he is upset and vice versa. The examples Oswald gives are the landing of the French army at which Albany smiled and Edmund's betrayal of Gloucester to which Albany was very displeased. Goneril is disgusted and sends Edmund back to Cornwall's with a kiss, telling him that she will have to become master of her household until she can become Edmund's mistress.

After Edmund's departure, Albany enters and greets Goneril with disgust toward her character and the events with which she and Regan have been involved. He notes that humanity is in danger because of people like her. Goneril responds that he is weak, idly sitting by and allowing the French to invade their land without putting up protest or guarding against traitors. He lacks ambition and wisdom. The woman form she takes, Albany proclaims, disguises the fiend which exists beneath and if it were not for this cover, he would wish to destroy her.

A messenger enters, conveying the news that Cornwall has died from the wound given him during the conflict with the servant who had stood up for Gloucester after one of his eye's had been blinded. In this manner, Albany learns of the treatment and subsequent blindness imparted to Gloucester by the hands of Regan and Cornwall. Though horrified, Albany remarks that the gods are at least conscious of justice and have already worked toward avenging the death of Gloucester by killing Cornwall. The messenger then delivers a letter to Goneril from Regan. In an aside, Goneril comments that the news of Cornwall's death is bad for her in that it leaves Regan a widow so she could easily marry Edmund. However, it may be a positive event since it takes Cornwall's threat to her reign out of the picture. She leaves to read and answer the letter. Albany asks the messenger of Edmund's location when Gloucester was blinded. The messenger informs him that Edmund was with Goneril at the time but that Edmund knew of the events which were to take place because it was he who had informed on Gloucester's treason. Albany swears to fight for Gloucester who has loved the good king and received such horrible treatment.

scene iii:

We learn from Kent's conversation with a gentleman that the King of France has had to return to France for important business and has left the Marshal of France in charge. The gentleman informs him also of Cordelia's response to Kent's letter. She was very moved, lamenting against her sisters and their treatment of her father. Kent comments that the stars must control people's characters if one man and one woman could have children of such different qualities, like Cordelia and her sisters. Kent notifies the gentleman that Lear refuses to see Cordelia as he is ashamed of his behavior toward her. The gentleman confirms that Albany and Cornwall's powers are advancing. Deciding to leave Lear with him, Kent goes off to handle confidential business.

scene iv:

Pained, Cordelia laments the mad state of Lear and asks the doctor if there is a way to cure him. Rest might be the simple answer, the doctor replies, since Lear has been deprived of it. Cordelia prays for him and hopes that he will be revived. She must leave briefly on business for France.

scene v:

Regan and Oswald discuss how Albany's powers are afoot. Oswald points out that Goneril is the better soldier and informs Regan that Edmund did not have a chance to speak with Albany. Regan asks what the letter which Oswald brought from Goneril for Edmund says but Oswald knows only that it must be of great importance. Regan regrets blinding Gloucester because allowing him to live arouses sympathy which results in more parties turned against Regan and her company. Stating that Edmund has gone in search of Gloucester to put him out of his misery, she then claims that he is checking out the strength of the enemy forces. She urges Oswald to remain with her because the roads are dangerous. She is jealous of what she fears the contents of the letter may be, namely entreaties to Edmund for his love. Advising him to remind Edmund of the matters he had discussed with her considering their marriage, Regan allows Oswald to continue. Oswald agrees to halt Gloucester if he comes upon him and thus show to whom his loyalty lies.

scene vi:

Edgar leads Gloucester to Dover and pretends they are walking up the steep hill Gloucester wished to be taken to. Edgar says that it is steep and he can hear the ocean, noting that Gloucester's other senses must have grown dim as well if he cannot feel these things. Gloucester comments that poor Tom's speech seems much more elevated than before so Edgar attempts to drop back into his beggarman dialect. Edgar says they have reached the highest spot and Gloucester asks to be placed where he is standing. He then takes out another purse for Tom and requests to be left. Thinking Tom has gone, Gloucester prays to the gods to bless Edgar and then wishes the world farewell and falls forward of the cliff, he believes. Edgar approaches again as another man entirely, playing along with the idea that Gloucester has fallen off the high cliff and survived, calling it a miracle. Gloucester believes what the man says, though he cannot look up to verify. Edgar helps him up and questions the thing which left him at the top of the cliff, making it sound like it was not an actual man but a spirit. Gloucester is skeptical at first but realizes that would make sense for why he lived.

Stumbling onto the scene is Lear, still mad and wearing weeds. He rambles on about being king and then bitterly speaks of Goneril and Regan agreeing to all he said and then stabbing him in the back. Gloucester recognizes the voice and Lear confirms he is the King. He lectures about Gloucester's adultery being no cause to fear because his bastard son treated him better than Lear's own daughters. He then rages on the evil nature of women in his daughter's shapes, similar to Centaurs but fiends from the waist down instead of horses. Gloucester is saddened by this diatribe and wonders if Lear knows him. He does, but refuses to be saddened by Gloucester's blindness since one sees the world better through other venues than the eyes. In his ranting, Lear touches on such issues as the artifice of politicians and others in positions of authority who cover up their evil-doing and self-centered ambition with wealth and fashion. Edgar notices the sanity in his madness. Lear then identifies Gloucester and rages bitterly against the state of the world which has made them as they are.

A gentleman enters and, glad to find Lear, calls for them to put a hand upon him. Lear is afraid he is being taken prisoner but they are the attendants of Cordelia and happy to follow Lear as King. Still confused and mad, Lear runs out so they will not catch him. The gentleman informs Edgar that the army is approaching speedily, except for Cordelia's men who are on a special purpose and have moved on. When he leaves, Edgar assures Gloucester that he will lead him to a biding place. Oswald enters, pleased to have found Gloucester, and draws his sword upon him. Edgar interposes, using a rustic accent to play the part of a peasant. They fight and Oswald falls. Before dying, Oswald pleads with Edgar to take his purse and deliver his letter to Edmund, "Earl of Gloucester". Edgar reads the letter which is from Goneril, pleading with Edmund to slay Albany so Goneril can be free and they can be together. Edgar vows to defend Albany and defeat the lechers. Gloucester muses that he is self-centered to worry about his plight when Lear is mad. He wishes though that he too were mad in order to numb the pain he feels.

scene vii:

Cordelia thanks Kent for the goodness he has shown her father and the bravery he has espoused. She asks him to discard his disguise but he knows that he will be able to work better for Lear if he remains disguised. The Doctor remarks that Lear has slept for a long while so that they may try waking him. Lear is brought in, still sleeping. Hoping to resolve the horrors committed by her sisters, Cordelia kisses Lear and reflects on the vileness and ingratitude of her sisters, treating Lear worse than a dog by shutting their doors on him in the storm. Lear wakes and Cordelia addresses him. Lear feels awakened from the grave and wishes they had left him. Very drowsy at first, Lear thinks Cordelia is a spirit and then realizes he should know her and Kent (disguised) but has difficulty putting his memory together. Finally he recognizes Cordelia, to her delight, but thinks he is in France. The Doctor advises them to give Lear his space so Cordelia takes him for a walk. The gentleman remains and asks Kent if the rumors of Cornwall's death and Edgar's position in Germany with the Earl of Kent are true. Kent confirms the first, but leaves the latter unanswered. The gentleman warns that the battle to come will be bloody.

Act V Summary: scene i:

Edmund sends an officer to learn of Albany's plans since he has become so fickle. Regan approaches Edmund, sweetly asking him if he loves her sister and if he has ever found his way into her bed. He replies that though he loves in "honored love" he has done nothing adulterous or to break their vow. Warning him to stay away from Goneril, Regan threatens that she will not put up with her sister's entreaties to him. Goneril and Albany enter as Goneril tells the audience that her battle for Edmund is more important to her than the battle with France. Albany informs Regan of Cordelia and Lear's reunion. Regan wonders why he brings up the subject of the King and his grievances. Goneril points out that they must join together against France and ignore their personal conflicts.

As the two camps separate, Regan pleads with Goneril to accompany her instead of the other camp where Edmund will be present. Goneril refuses at first but then sees Regan's purpose and agrees. Edgar finds Albany alone and asks him to read the letter to Edmund from Goneril he had intercepted. Though he cannot stay while Albany reads it, he prays him to let the herald cry when the time is right and he will appear again. Albany leaves to read it when Edmund reenters to report of the oncoming enemy. In soliloquy, Edmund wonders what he will do about pledging his love to both sisters. He could take both of them, one, or neither. He decides to use Albany while in battle and after winning, to allow Goneril to kill him. Moreover, he plans to forbid any mercy Albany may show Cordelia and Lear because his rule of the state is his highest priority.

scene ii:

The army of France, accompanied by Cordelia and Lear, crosses the stage with their battle colors and drums and exits. Next, Edgar and Gloucester enter. Edgar offers Gloucester rest under a nearby tree while he goes into battle. The noises of the battle begin and end, at which time Edgar reenters the stage to speak with Gloucester. He calls for Gloucester to come with him as Cordelia and Lear have lost and been taken captive. Entertaining ideas of suicide again, Gloucester tries to remain but Edgar talks him into accompanying him, noting that men must endure the ups and downs of life.

scene iii:

Edmund holds Cordelia and Lear prisoner. Trying to keep Lear's spirits up, Cordelia tells him that they are not the first innocent people who have had to endure the worst and she will be happy to endure for the King. She asks if they will see Goneril and Regan but Lear rejects that notion. He wants them to spend their days in prison enjoying their company, conversing and singing and playing and debating the "mystery of things". As they are taken away at Edmund's command, Lear encourages Cordelia to dry her tears and enjoy their reunion as they will never again be separated. Edmund demands the subordinate captain follow Lear and Cordelia to prison and carry out the punishment detailed by his written instructions. Threatened with demotion, the captain agrees.

Albany praises Edmund for his work in the battle and in obtaining his prisoners. He then commands Edmund to turn Cordelia and Lear over into his protection. Edmund replies that he thought it best to send Lear and Cordelia into retention so that they did not arouse too much sympathy and start a riot, but he assures Albany that they will be ready the next day to appear before him. Albany warns Edmund to remember that he is only a subordinate to which Regan replies that Edmund is in fact her husband and thus an equal. Goneril proclaims that he is more honorable on his own merit than as Regan's partner. Not feeling well, Regan implores Edmund to accept all of her property and herself. Goneril asks if she means to be intimate with him to which Albany retorts that the matter does not relate to her. Edmund disagrees and Regan calls for him to take her title. Albany interrupts, arresting Edmund for treason and barring any relationship between Goneril and Edmund. He calls Edmund to duel, throwing down his glove. Edmund throws down his glove as well and Albany alerts him that all of his soldiers have been sent away. Feeling very ill, Regan is taken off.

The herald reads aloud Albany's notice, calling for anyone who holds that Edmund is a traitor to come support that claim. The trumpet is sounded three times and Edgar, still disguised, appears after the last. Asked why he has responded, Edgar states that he is a noble adversary who desires to fight with Edmund, a traitor to "thy gods, thy brother, and thy father". They fight and Edmund falls. Albany calls for him to be spared while Goneril supports Edmund for fighting an unknown man when not required, noting that he cannot be defeated. Albany quiets her with the letter she wrote desiring Edmund's hand but Goneril retorts that as she is the ruler, he can bring no punishment upon her. She leaves before he can take command over her. Dying, Edmund asks his conqueror to reveal himself. Edgar tells of his identity and their relation, noting that Edmund has rightly fallen to the bottom as a result of his father's adulterous act, which also cost Gloucester his sight. Edmund agrees that he has come full circle and Albany rejoices in Edgar's true identity, sorrowful that he had ever worked against him or his father. Edgar describes his disguise and how he led his blinded father, protecting him and sheltering him. He had never revealed his identity until a half hour before, telling his father the entire story. Gloucester was so overwhelmed by the news that his heart gave out. Furthermore, after learning who Edgar was, Kent revealed his identity to Edgar, embracing him and spilling all of the horrid details of Lear's state and treatment. Edgar then learned that Kent too was dying but was forced to rush off as he heard the trumpet call.

A gentleman runs onto the stage with a bloody knife, informing the company that it was just pulled from Goneril's heart. She had stabbed herself after admitting that she had poisoned Regan. Edmund notes that as he had been contracted to both sisters, now all three would die. Albany calls for the gentleman to produce the bodies and comments on the immediate judgment of the heavens. Kent enters, hoping to say goodbye to Lear. Realizing that he has forgotten about the safety of Cordelia and Lear in the excitement, Albany demands Edmund to tell of their circumstances. Edmund admits that he had ordered their murders but as he hopes to do some good, he sends an officer to try to halt Cordelia's hanging. He and Goneril had commanded it look like a suicide. Lear stumbles in, carrying the body of Cordelia. Overcome by grief, Lear rages against the senseless killing of Cordelia, admitting that he killed the guard who was hanging her. Lear recognizes Kent, though he can hardly see, and Kent informs him that he has been with him all along, disguised as his servant Caius. It is not clear if Lear ever understands. Kent tells him that his evil daughters have brought about their own deaths. A messenger enters to tell them that Edmund has died. Albany tries to set things right, reinstating Lear's absolute rule and Kent and Edgar's authority, promising to right all of the good and punish the evil. Lear continues to mourn the loss of Cordelia and then dies himself. Albany thus gives Kent and Edgar the rule of the kingdom to which Kent replies that he must move on to follow his master, leaving Edgar as the new ruler.


Act 1 Summary Act 1, scene 1

On a heath in Scotland, three witches, the Weird Sisters, wait to meet Macbeth amid thunder and lightning. Their conversation is filled with paradoxes; they say that they will meet Macbeth "when the battle's lost and won," when "fair is foul and foul is fair."

Act 1, scene 2

As the play opens, the Scottish army is at war with the Norwegian army. Duncan, king of Scotland, meets a soldier returning from battle. The soldier informs them of Macbeth and Banquo's bravery in battle, and describes Macbeth's attack on the castle of the traitorous Macdonwald, in which Macbeth triumphed and planted the severed head of Macdonwald on the battlements of the castle. The Thanes (lords) of Ross and Angus enter with the news that the Thane of Cawdor has sided with Norway. Duncan decides to strip the traitor Thane of his title and give the title of Thane of Cawdor to Macbeth.

Act 1, scene 3

The Weird Sisters meet on the heath and wait for Macbeth. He arrives with Banquo, confirming the witches' paradoxical prophecy by stating "So foul and fair a day I have not seen." The witches hail him as "Thane of Glamis" (his present title), "Thane of Cawdor" (which title Macbeth does not know he has been granted yet), and "king hereafter." Their greeting startles and seems to frighten Macbeth. Banquo questions the witches as to who they are, and they greet him as "lesser than Macbeth and greater," "not so happy, yet much happier," and a man who "shall get kings, though [he] be none." When Macbeth questions them further, the witches vanish like bubbles into the air. Almost as soon as they disappear, Ross and Angus appear, bearing the news that the king has granted Macbeth the title of Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth and Banquo step aside to discuss this news; Banquo is of the opinion that the title of Thane of Cawdor might "enkindle" Macbeth to seek the crown as well. Macbeth questions why good news like this causes his "seated heart [to] knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of nature," and his thoughts turn immediately and with terror to murdering the king in order to fulfill the witches' second prophesy. When Ross and Angus notice Macbeth's distraught state, Banquo dismisses it as Macbeth's unfamiliarity with his new title.

Act 1, scene 4

Duncan demands to know if the ex-Thane of Cawdor has been executed, and his son Malcolm assures him that he has. While Duncan muses about the fact that he mistakenly placed his "absolute trust" in the traitor Thane, Macbeth enters. Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for their loyalty and bravery, and announces his decision to make his son Malcolm the heir to the throne of Scotland (something he should not have done, since his position was elected, not inherited). Duncan then states that he plans to visit Macbeth at his home in Inverness. Macbeth leaves to prepare his home for the royal visit, pondering the stumbling block that the king has just placed in front of his ambitions with the announcement of his heir. The king follows with Banquo.

Act 1, scene 5

At Inverness, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth telling of his meeting with the witches. She fears that his nature is not ruthless enough, is "too full o' th' milk of human kindness," to murder Duncan and assure the completion of the witches' prophesy. He has ambition enough, she claims, but lacks the gumption to act on it. She then implores him to hurry home so that she can "pour [her] spirits in [his] ear," in other words, goad him on to the murder he must commit. When a messenger arrives with the news that Duncan is coming, Lady Macbeth calls on the heavenly powers to "unsex me here" and fill her with cruelty, taking from her all natural womanly compassion. When Macbeth arrives, she greets him as Glamis and Cawdor and urges him to "look like th'innocent flower, / but be the serpent under Œt," and states that she will make all the preparations for the king's visit and subsequent murder.

Act 1, scene 6

Duncan arrives at Inverness with Banquo and exchanges pleasantries with Lady Macbeth. He asks her where Macbeth is, and she offers to bring him to where Macbeth waits.

Act 1, scene 7

Alone, Macbeth agonizes over whether or not to kill Duncan, stating that he knows the king's murder is a terrible sin. He struggles not so much with the horrifying idea of regicide as with the actual fact and process of murdering a man ­ a relative, no less ­ who trusts and loves him. He would like the king's murder to be over and done with already. He hates the fact that he has "only / Vaulting ambition" without the motivation or ruthlessness to ensure the attainment of his ambitions. Lady Macbeth enters, and Macbeth tells her that he "will proceed no further in this business." Taunting him for his fears and ambivalence, she tells him he will only be a man when he commits this murder. She states that she herself would go so far as to take her own nursing baby and dash its brains out if she had to in order to attain her goals. She counsels him to "screw [his] courage to the sticking place" and details the way they will murder the king. They will wait until he is asleep, she says, then they will get his bodyguards drunk. Then they will murder Duncan and lay the blame on the two drunken bodyguards. Macbeth, astonished at her cruelty, warns her to "bring forth male children only," since she is too tough and bloodthirsty to bear girls. He resigns to follow through with her plans.

Act 2 Summary Act 2, scene 1

Banquo, who has also come to Inverness with Duncan and Fleance, wrestles with the witches' prophesy; unlike Macbeth, he restrains the desire to act on it that tempts him in his dreams. Macbeth enters and, when Banquo questions him, pretends to have forgotten the witches' prophesy. When Banquo and Fleance leave Macbeth alone, Macbeth imagines that he sees a bloody dagger pointing toward Duncan's chamber. Frightened by this "dagger of the mind," he prays that the earth will "hear not [his] steps" as he completes his bloody plan. The bell rings ­ a signal from Lady Macbeth ­ and he exits into Duncan's room.

Act 2, scene 2

Lady Macbeth waits for Macbeth to return from killing Duncan. Hearing the hoot of an owl ­ an omen of death ­ she assumes that he has done it, and waits fitfully for him to appear. She hears a noise within and worries that the bodyguards have awakened before Macbeth had a chance to plant the evidence on them. Macbeth enters, still carrying the bloody daggers with which he killed Duncan. He is shaken because as he entered Duncan's chamber he heard the bodyguards praying and could not say "Amen" when they finished their prayers. He takes this as a bad sign. Lady Macbeth counsels him not to think "after these ways; so, it will make us mad." Unheeding, Macbeth goes on to tell her that he also thought he heard a voice that said, "sleep no more! / Macbeth does murder sleep . . . . Glamis [Macbeth] hath murdered sleep, and therefore Cawdor [also Macbeth] / Shall sleep no more." Lady Macbeth warns him not to think of such "brainsickly things" but to wash the blood from his hand. Seeing the daggers he carries, she chastises him for bringing them in and tells him to plant them on the bodyguards according to the plan. When Macbeth, still horrified by the crime he has just committed, will not do it, Lady Macbeth herself takes the daggers and brings them into the guards' chamber.

While she is gone, Macbeth hears a knocking and imagines that he sees hands plucking at his eyes. He mourns the fact that not even an entire ocean could wash the blood from his hand. Lady Macbeth enters here and, hearing this, states that her hands are just as stained as his, but she is not a coward like him. She claims that "a little water clears us of this deed" ­ that washing the blood from their hands will wash the guilt from them as well. She, too, hears knocking, and tells Macbeth to retire with her to their chamber and put on their nightgowns; they cannot be out in the hall and in their clothes when the others enter.

Act 2, scene 3

Macbeth enters, and Macduff asks him if the king is awake yet. On hearing that the king is still asleep, Macduff leaves to wake him. While he is gone, Lennox tells Macbeth that the night was full of strange events in the weather ­ chimneys were blown down, birds screeched all night, the earth shook, and ghostly voices were heard prophesying bad fortune. A stunned Macduff returns with the news that the king is dead. He tells them to go see for themselves and calls to the servants to ring the alarm bell and wake the other guests.

Lady Macbeth and Banquo enter and Macduff informs them of the king's death. Macbeth and Lennox return and Macbeth laments the king's death, claiming that he witches he was dead instead of the king. Malcolm and Donalbain appear and ask who murdered their father. Lennox tells them that the bodyguards must have done it because they still had the king's blood on their faces and hands and the daggers on their pillows. Macbeth tells them that he has already killed the bodyguards in a grief-stricken rage. When Malcolm and Donalbain question this act, Lady Macbeth pretends to faint in order to distract them. Aside, Malcolm and Donalbain confer and decide that their lives are threatened and they should flee. As Lady Macbeth is being helped to leave, Banquo counsels the others to get together to analyze what just happened and figure out what to do next. Leaving Malcolm and Donalbain alone, they leave to meet in the hall. Malcolm decides that he will flee to England, and Donalbain says that he will go to Ireland.

Act 2, scene 4

Ross and an old man discuss the unnatural events that have taken place recently: days are as dark as nights, owls hunt falcons, and Duncan's horses have gone mad and eaten each other. Macduff enters, and Ross asks him who killed the king. Macduff tells him that the bodyguards did it, but that Malcolm and Donalbain's hasty flight from Inverness has cast suspicion on them as well. Ross comments that Macbeth will surely be named the next king, and Macduff says that he has already been named and has gone to Scone to be crowned. Ross leaves for Scone to see the coronation, and Macduff heads home to Fife.

Act 3 Summary Act 3, scene 1

At Macbeth's court, Banquo voices his suspicions that Macbeth has killed Duncan in order to fulfill the witches' prophesies. He muses that perhaps this means that the witches' vision for his future will come true as well, then pushes this thought from his mind. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth enter to the sound trumpets, along with Lennox and Ross. Macbeth announces that he will hold a banquet that evening, and that Banquo will be the chief guest. Banquo states that he must ride this afternoon, but he will be back in time for supper. Macbeth tells him that Malcolm and Donalbain will not confess to killing their father, and asks if Fleance will accompany Banquo on his trip (he will), then wishes Banquo a safe ride.

Left alone, Macbeth summons the two murderers he has hired. While he waits for them, he gives voice to his greatest worry of the moment ­ that the witches' prophesy for Banquo will come true, and that Banquo's children will inherit the throne instead of his own. He will put an end to that thought by killing Banquo and Fleance. The murderers enter. These men are not "murderers" by trade but poor men who are willing to do anything to make some money. Macbeth has evidently sent them letters stating that although they think Macbeth is the cause of their present poverty, the real cause is Banquo, and that he will reward them richly if they would kill Banquo for him. The Murderers respond that they are so "weary with disasters [and] tugged with fortune" that they are "reckless what / [they] do to spite the world." Macbeth tells them that Banquo is his own enemy as well as theirs, but that loyal friends of Banquo's prevent him from killing him himself. Macbeth tells them the particulars of the murder: they must attack him as he is coming back from his ride, at a distance from the palace in order to avert suspicion. They must also kill Fleance, and perform these murders at exactly the right time.

Act 3, scene 2

Alone, Lady Macbeth expresses her unhappiness: there seems to be no end to her desire for power, and she feels unsafe and doubtful. Macbeth enters, looking upset, and she again counsels him not to spend his time alone worrying about what they have done. Macbeth states that their job is not done, and that he spends every waking moment in fear and each night embroiled in nightmares. He says that he envies Duncan, who sleeps peacefully in his grave. Lady Macbeth warns him to act cheerful in front of their dinner guests, and Macbeth says that he will, and asks her to pay special attention to Banquo tonight, both in speech and looks. Lady Macbeth tries to comfort him by reminding him that although Banquo and Fleance live, they are not immortal, and he should not fear them. Macbeth responds elusively, telling her that "a deed of dreadful note" will be done tonight; he will not tell her more.

Act 3, scene 3

The two murderers are joined by a third, who says that he has also been hired by Macbeth. Horses are heard approaching, and Banquo and Fleance enter. The murderers attack Banquo, but Fleance flees. The murderers leave to report back to Macbeth.

Act 3, scene 4

At the banquet, Macbeth is just welcoming his guests when one of the murderers comes to the door. He informs Macbeth that Banquo is dead but Fleance has escaped. Shaken, Macbeth thanks him for what he has done and arranges another meeting the next day. The murderer leaves and Macbeth returns to the feast. Standing next to the table, he announces that the banquet would be perfect if only Banquo were there. At this point, unseen by any, Banquo's ghost appears and sits in Macbeth's seat. The guests urge Macbeth to sit and eat with them, but Macbeth says that the table is full. When Lennox points to Macbeth's empty seat, Macbeth is shocked to see Banquo sitting there. He addresses the ghost, saying, "Thou canst not say I did it. Never shake / Thy gory locks at me." The guests, confused by his behavior, think that he is ill, but Lady Macbeth reassures them, saying that he has had "fits" like this since youth, and that he will soon be well. She draws Macbeth aside and tries to talk some sense into him, telling him that this is just a hallucination brought on by his guilt, like the dagger he saw before he killed Duncan. Ignoring her, Macbeth charges the ghost to speak, and it disappears. Disgusted, Lady Macbeth scolds him for being "unmanned in folly." Turning back to his guests, Macbeth tells them that he has "a strange infirmity" that they should ignore.

Just as the party begins again and Macbeth is offering a toast to Banquo, the ghost reappears, and Macbeth again yells at it. Lady Macbeth again tries to smooth things over with the guests. The ghost exits again and Lady Macbeth scolds Macbeth him. This time Macbeth responds in kind, telling her that he is shocked that she can look on sights such as this and not be afraid. Ross asks what sights Macbeth means, and Lady Macbeth tells the guests that they should leave, because Macbeth's "illness" is getting worse.

The guests leave, and Macbeth, frightened, says that he takes this appearance as an omen. He decides that he will go back to the Weird Sisters the next day and ask to hear more.

Act 3, scene 5

On the heath, the witches meet Hecate, queen of witches, who chastises them for meddling in Macbeth's affairs without involving her or showing him any fancy magic spectacles. She tells them that Macbeth will visit them tomorrow, and that they must put on a more dramatic show for him.

Act 3, scene 6

Lennox and another lord discuss politics. Lennox comments sarcastically on the recent deaths of Duncan and Banquo, saying that it seems almost impossible for Malcolm and Donalbain to be inhuman enough to kill their father, and that Macbeth's slaying of the bodyguards was pretty convenient, since they would probably have denied killing Duncan. Lennox proposes that if Malcolm, Donalbain, and Fleance were in Macbeth's prison, they would probably be dead now too. He also reveals that since Macduff did not attend Macbeth's feast, he has been denounced. The lord with whom Lennox speaks comments that Macduff has joined Malcolm at the English court, and that the two of them have asked Siward to lead an army against Macbeth. Lennox and the lord send their prayers to Macduff and Malcolm.

Act 4 Summary Act 4, scene 1

The witches circle their cauldron, throwing into it the elements of their magic spell while chanting "double, double toil and trouble; / Fire burn, and cauldron bubble." Hecate appears, and they all sing together, then Hecate leaves again. Macbeth enters, demanding answers. The witches complete their magic spell and summon forth a series of apparitions. The first is an Armed Head (a head wearing a helmet), that warns Macbeth to beware the Thane of Fife (Macduff). The second apparition is a bloody child, who tells him that "none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth." Hearing this, Macbeth is bolstered, and states that he no longer needs to fear Macduff then. The third apparition is a child wearing a crown, with a tree in its hand, who says that "Macbeth shall never vanquished be until / Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill [Macbeth's castle] / Shall come against him." This cheers Macbeth even more, since he knows that nothing can move a forest. Macbeth now asks his last question: will Banquo's children ever rule Scotland?

The cauldron sinks, and a strange sound is heard. The witches now show Macbeth the "show of kings": a procession of eight kings, the eighth of whom holds a mirror in his hand, followed by Banquo. As Banquo points at this line of kings, Macbeth realizes that they are indeed his family line, and that the witches' words were true. The witches dance and disappear, and Lennox enters, with the news that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth resolves that from now on he will act immediately on his ambitions, and the first step he will take will be to seize Fife and kill Macduff's wife and children.

Act 4, scene 2

At Fife, Ross visits Lady Macduff, who is frightened for her own safety now that her husband has fled. He reassures her by telling her that her husband did what he had to do, and takes his leave, telling her that he will return soon. After he leaves, Lady Macduff engages her son in a conversation about his missing father. The little boy shows wisdom beyond his years in his side of the discussion. A messenger interrupts them with a warning to flee the house immediately. But before Lady Macduff can go anywhere, Macbeth's hired murderers attack the house and kill everyone in it.

Act 4, scene 3

Macduff has arrived at the English court and meets with Malcolm. Malcolm, remembering his father's mistaken trust in Macbeth, tests Macduff by confessing that he is a greedy, lustful and sinful man, who makes Macbeth look like an angel in comparison. Macduff despairs and says that he will leave Scotland forever if this is the case, since there seems to be no man fit to rule it. Hearing this, Malcolm is convinced of Macduff's goodness and reveals that he was merely testing him; he has none of these faults to which he has just confessed. In fact, he claims, the first lie he has ever told was this false confession to Macduff. He then announces that Siward has assembled an army of ten thousand men and is prepared to march on Scotland.

A messenger appears and tells the men that the king of England is approaching, attended by a crowd of sick and despairing people who wish the king to cure them. The king, according to Malcolm, has a gift for healing people with the laying on of hands.

Ross enters, just come from Scotland, and reports that the country is in a shambles. When Macduff asks how his wife is, Ross replies "Ay, well," meaning that they are now beyond Macbeth's grasp. Pressed further, he relates the story of her death. Macduff is stunned speechless, and Malcolm urges him to cure his grief by acting, and getting revenge on Macbeth. Macduff replies "he has no children," meaning perhaps that Malcolm does not know what it feels like to lose a child, or that Macbeth could never have killed another man's children if he had children of his own. He is overcome with guilt that he was gone from his house when it happened. Again Malcolm urges him to put his grief to good use and seek revenge, and all three men leave to prepare for battle.

Act 5 Summary Act 5, scene 1

Back at Dunsinane, the Scottish royal home, a gentlewoman who waits on Lady Macbeth has summoned a doctor because Lady Macbeth has been walking in her sleep. The doctor reports that he has watched her for two nights already and has not seen anything strange. The gentlewoman describes how she has seen Lady Macbeth rise, dress, leave her room, write something on a piece of paper, read it and seal it, and return to bed, all without waking up. When the doctor asks if the Lady said anything while sleepwalking, the gentlewoman says that what the Lady said she does not dare to repeat. They are interrupted by the sleepwalking Lady Macbeth, who enters carrying a candle. The gentlewoman reports that Lady Macbeth asks to have light by her all through the night. The doctor and the gentlewoman watch as Lady Macbeth rubs her hands as if washing them and says " yet here's a spot . . . . Out, damned spot, out I say!" As she continues to "wash" her hands, her words betray her guilt to the watchers. She seems to be reliving the events of the nights of Duncan and Banquo's deaths. She cannot get the stain or smell of blood off her hand: "will these hands ne'er be clean? . . . . All the perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand." The doctor is shocked and understands that Lady Macbeth's words have heavy implications. The sleepwalking lady imagines she hears knocking at the gate and returns to her chamber. The doctor concludes that Lady Macbeth needs a priest's help, not a physician's, and takes his leave, warning that he and the gentlewoman had better not reveal what they have seen and heard.

Act 5, scene 2

Menteith, Caithness, Angus, and Lennox march with a company of soldiers toward Birnam Wood, where they will meet up with Malcolm and the English army. They claim that they will "purge" the country of Macbeth's sickening influence.

Act 5, scene 3

At Dunsinane, Macbeth tires of hearing reports of nobles who have fled from him to join the English forces. He recalls the witches' prophesy that he has nothing to fear until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane or until he meets up with a man not born of woman, and since these events seem impossible, he feels unstoppable. A servant enters with the news that then thousand men have gathered to fight against them, and Macbeth sends him away, scolding him for cowardice. He calls for his servant Seyton to help him put on his armor, and asks the doctor who has been treating Lady Macbeth how she is. The doctor replies that she is not sick but troubled with visions, and that she must cure herself of these visions (presumably by confessing the crimes she has committed). Macbeth is not pleased with this answer. As his attendants begin to arm him, he facetiously asks the doctor if it he could test the country's urine to find out what disease ails it, and give it a purgative medicine to cure it. Fully armed, Macbeth begins to leave the room. As he goes, he professes that he will not be afraid of anything until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane. Aside, the doctor confesses that he would like to be as far away from Dunsinane as possible.

Act 5, scene 4

Malcolm, Siward, Young Siward, Macduff, Mentieth, Caithness, and Angus march toward Birnam Wood. When they approach the forest, Malcolm instructs each soldier to cut a branch from the trees and carry it in front of him as the group marches on Dunsinane, in order to disguise their numbers. Siward informs Malcolm that Macbeth confidently holds Dunsinane, waiting for their approach. Malcolm comments that Macbeth must be incredibly optimistic, since almost all of his men have deserted him. The army marches on toward Dunsinane.

Act 5, scene 5

Macbeth confidently orders his men to hang his banners on the outer walls of the castle, claiming that his castle will hold until the men who attack it starve of famine. If only the other side was not reinforced with men who have deserted him, he claims, he would not think twice about rushing out to attack the English army head-on. He is interrupted by the sound of women screaming within, and Seyton leaves to see what the trouble is. Macbeth comments that he had almost forgotten what fear felt and tasted like. Seyton returns and announces that Lady Macbeth is dead. Seemingly unfazed, Macbeth comments that she should have died later. He stops to muse on the meaning of life, which he says is "but a walking shadow, a poor player / That struts and frets his hour upon the stage / And then is heard no more. It is a tale / Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, / Signifying nothing."

A messenger enters and reports that he has seen something unbelievable: as he looked out toward Birnam Wood, it looked like the forest began to move toward the castle. Macbeth is stunned and begins to fear that the witch's words may come true after all. He instructs his men to ring the alarm.

Act 5, scene 6

Malcolm tells his soldiers that they are near enough to the castle now to throw down the branches they carry. He announces that Siward and Young Siward will lead the first battle, and that he and Macduff will follow behind. He tells his trumpeters to sound a charge.

Act 5, scene 7

Macbeth waits on the battlefield to defend his castle. He feels like a bear that has been "baited": tied to a stake for dogs to attack. Young Siward enters and demands his name. Macbeth responds that he will be afraid to hear it: it is Macbeth. The two fight, and Macbeth kills Young Siward, commenting, as he does, that Young Siward must have been born "of woman." He exits. Macduff enters and shouts a challenge to Macbeth, swearing to avenge his wife and children's deaths. He asks Fortune to let him find Macbeth, and exits. Malcolm and Siward enter, looking for the enemy, and exit.

Act 5, scene 8

Macbeth enters, contemplating whether or not he should kill himself, and resolving that he is too brave to do so. Macduff finds him and challenges him. Macbeth replies that he has avoided Macduff until his point, but now he will fight. Macduff unsheathes his sword, saying that his sword will speak for him. The men fight. As they fight, Macbeth tells him that he leads a charmed life; he will only fall to a man who is not born of woman. Macduff replies that the time has come for Macbeth to despair: "let the angel whom thou still hast served / Tell thee Macduff was from his mother's womb / Untimely ripped" (Macduff was born through the medieval equivalent of a caesarian section)! Hearing this, Macbeth quails and says that he will not fight. Macduff replies by commanding him to yield, and allow himself to be the laughing stock of Scotland under Malcolm's rule. This enrages Macbeth, who swears he will never yield to swear allegiance to Malcolm. They fight on, and exit fighting.

Malcolm, Siward, and the other Thanes enter. They have won the battle, but Malcolm states that Macduff and Young Siward are missing. Ross reports that Young Siward is dead, and eulogizes him by stating that "he only lived but till he was a man, / The which no sooner had his prowess confirmed / In the unshrinking station where he fought, / But like a man he died." Siward asks if his son's wounds were in his front (in other words, did he fight until the end, instead of running away), and when he learns that they were, he declares that he will mourn no more for him then, because he died a hero's death, and Siward could not wish for a better death for any of his sons.

Macduff enters, carrying Macbeth's severed head, and shouts "Hail, King of Scotland!" All the men return this shout and the trumpets flourish as Malcolm accepts the throne. He then announces that he will make the thanes earls now ­ up until then they had only been called thanes. He will call back all the men whom Macbeth has exiled, and will attempt to heal the scars Macbeth has made in the country. All exit, headed toward Scone to crown Malcolm King of Scotland.

The Merchant of Venice

Act I, Scene One

Antonio, a merchant, is in a melancholic state of mind and unable to find a reason for his depression. His friends Salerio and Solanio attempt to cheer him up by telling him that he is only worried about his ships returning safely to port. Antonio, however, denies that he is worried about his ships and remains depressed. His two friends leave after Bassanio, Graziano and Lorenzo arrive. Graziano and Lorenzo remark that Antonio does not look well before exiting, leaving Bassanio alone with Antonio.

Bassanio informs Antonio that he has been prodigal with his money and that he currently has accumulated substantial debts. Bassanio reveals that he has come up with a plan to pay off his obligations by marrying Portia, a wealthy heiress in Belmont. However, in order to woo Portia, Bassanio needs to borrow enough money so that he can act like a true nobleman. Antonio tells him that all his money is invested in ships at sea, but offers to borrow money for him.

Act I, Scene Two

Portia, the wealthy heiress, discusses her many suitors with her noblewoman Nerissa. She points out the faults that each of them has, often stereotyping each suitor according to the country from which he has arrived. Nerissa, a gentlewoman who works for Portia, asks her if she remembers a soldier who stayed at Belmont several years before. Portia recalls the man, and says, "Yes, yes, it was Bassanio" (1.2.97). Portia's servingman then arrives with news that four of her suitors are leaving, but another, the Prince of Morocco, has arrived.

Act I, Scene Three

Bassanio in engaged in conversation with Shylock, a Jew who makes his living as a moneylender. Bassanio has asked him for a loan of three thousand ducats, a very large sum at the time, for a period of three months. He further tells Shylock that Antonio is to "be bound," meaning that Antonio will be responsible for repaying the loan.

Shylock knows Antonio's reputation well, and agrees to consider the contract. He asks Bassanio if he may speak with Antonio first, and Bassanio invites Shylock to dinner. Shylock responds that he will never eat with a Christian.

Antonio arrives at that moment and Bassanio takes him aside. Shylock addresses the audience and informs them that he despises Antonio. He bears an old grudge against Antonio which is not explained, but Shylock is further upset that Antonio lends out money without charging interest, thereby lowering the amount he is able to charge for lending out his own money. Shylock turns to Antonio and tells him why interest is allowed in the Hebrew faith by quoting a biblical passage in which Jacob receives all the striped lambs from his father-in-law. Antonio asks him if the passage was inserted into the bible to defend interest charges. He states, "Was this inserted to make interest good, / Or is your gold and silver ewes and rams?" (1.3.90-91). Shylock replies that, "I cannot tell. I make it breed as fast" (1.3.92).

Antonio is upset that Shylock is considering charging him interest on the loan, and asks Shylock to loan the money without any interest. Shylock tells him that, "I would be friends with you, and have your love" (1.3.133). He offers to seal the bond, "in a merry sport" (1.3.141) without charging interest, but as collateral for the loan demands a pound of Antonio's flesh. Antonio thinks Shylock is only joking about the pound of flesh, and is happy to seal the contract. He remarks that, "The Hebrew will turn Christian; he grows kind" (1.3.174).

Act II, Scene One

The Prince of Morocco meets with Portia and tells her that he is often considered very handsome on account of his black skin. She tells him that unfortunately she does not have the right to choose the man who will marry her. Instead, her father created three caskets from among which each suitor must choose. Portia warns the Prince that if he chooses the wrong casket, he must swear to never propose marriage to a woman afterwards. The Prince of Morocco agrees to this condition and joins Portia for dinner before attempting to choose.

Act II, Scene Two

Lancelot, referred to as a clown, is the servant to Shylock. He tells the audience that he is thinking about running away from his master, whom he describes as a devil. However, he cannot make up his mind about whether to run away or not because his conscience makes him guilty when he thinks about leaving Shylock.

Lancelot's father, and old man named Gobbo, arrives with a basket. He is nearly completely blind and cannot see Lancelot clearly. Gobbo asks his son which way leads to the Jew's house, meaning Shylock's house. He mentions that he is searching for his son Lancelot. Lancelot decides to have some fun with his father, and so he pretends to know a "Master Lancelot" (a term for a gentleman's son, not a servant). He informs Gobbo that "Master Lancelot" is deceased.

Gobbo is clearly upset by this, and Lancelot kneels down in front of him and asks his father for his blessing. Gobbo at first does not believe that Lancelot is really his son, but then he feels his head and recognizes him.

Lancelot tells his father that he is wasting away serving Shylock and that he will turn into a Jew himself if he stays there much longer. Gobbo has brought a present for Shylock, but Lancelot instead convinces his father to give it to Bassanio, whom Lancelot hopes to have as his new master. Bassanio, coming onto stage at that moment, accepts the gift of doves and tells Lancelot that he may leave Shylock and join his service. He then orders one of the men to get Lancelot a new uniform to wear, and sends Lancelot away.

Graziano arrives and tells Bassanio that he wants to join him on the trip to Belmont, where Bassanio plans to go and woo Portia. Bassanio feels that Graziano is too loud and rude and asks him if he will be able to act more appropriately. Graziano says that he can, and that he will "put on a sober habit" (2.2.171). Bassanio then agrees to take him to Belmont.

Act II, Scene Three

Jessica, the daughter of Shylock, meets with Lancelot and tells him that she will miss him after he leaves to go work for Bassanio. She hands him a letter to take to Lorenzo, who is supposed to be a guest of Bassanio's that night. After Lancelot leaves, Jessica remarks,

"Alack, what heinous sin is it in me
To be ashamed to be my father's child!
But though I am a daughter to his blood,
I am not to his manners. O Lorenzo,
If thou keep promise I shall end this strife,
Become a Christian and thy loving wife.

Jessica thus informs the audience that she is in love with Lorenzo, a Christian. She intends to meet him soon and run away from her father's house in order to marry Lorenzo.

Act II, Scene Four

Lorenzo, Graziano, Salerio and Solanio are preparing for a masque that night. Lancelot arrives with the letter from Jessica and hands it to Lorenzo. Lorenzo reads it and tells Lancelot to inform Jessica that he will not fail her. Lancelot leaves to bring the news to Jessica, and also to invite Shylock to Bassanio's house for dinner.

After the other two men leave, Lorenzo shows Graziano the letter from Jessica. He tells his friend that he and Jessica plan to steal away from her father's house that night, along with a great deal of her father's gold and jewels.

Act II, Scene Five

Shylock informs Lancelot that he will have to judge for himself whether Bassanio is a better master. He then calls Jessica, hands her the keys to the house, and tells her that he must leave for dinner that evening. Lancelot tells Shylock that there will likely be a masque that night. At this news, Shylock orders Jessica to lock up the house and not look out the windows. He says, "Let not the sound of shallow fopp'ry enter / My sober house" (2.5.34-35).

As Shylock gets ready to depart, Lancelot privately tells Jessica that Lorenzo will come for her that night. She is grateful for the message, and after Shylock leaves she comments that, "I have a father, you a daughter lost" (2.5.55).

Act II, Scene Six

Salerio and Graziano are part of the masquers partying through the street of Venice. They stop and wait for Lorenzo, who has asked them to meet him at a certain spot. Lorenzo arrives and thanks them for their patience. He then calls out to Jessica, who appears in the window of Shylock's house dressed as a man. She throws out a casket to Lorenzo filled with much of her father's gold and jewels. Jessica then goes back inside and steals even more ducats (golden coins) before joining the men on the street.

Everyone departs except for Bassanio, who unexpectedly meets Antonio. Antonio tells him to get to the ship heading for Belmont, because the wind has started blowing the right way and the ship is ready to depart.

Act II, Scene Seven

The Prince of Morocco is brought into a room containing three caskets, gold, silver and lead. Portia tells him to make his choice. The Prince reads the inscriptions on all the caskets. Gold reads: "Who chooseth me shall gain what many men desire" (2.7.5). The silver casket has, "Who chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves" (2.7.7). Finally, the dull lead casket bears the inscription, "Who chooseth me must give and hazard all he hath" (2.7.9).

Portia tells the Prince that the correct casket, or the one that will allow him to marry her, contains a miniature picture of her likeness. The Prince looks over all the inscriptions a second time, and decides that lead is too threatening and not worth risking anything for. He also spurns the silver, which he feels is too base a metal to hold such a beautiful woman as Portia. The Prince therefore chooses gold.

Portia hands him the key, and he opens the casket to reveal a golden skull. The skull holds a written scroll that poetically indicates that he chose superficially. The Prince departs after a hasty farewell. Portia watches him go, and remarks, "A gentle riddance. Draw the curtains, go. / Let all of his complexion choose me so" (2.7.78-79).

Act II, Scene Eight

Salerio and Solanio meet in the street and discuss the hasty departure of Bassanio and Graziano for Belmont. They further tell the audience that Shylock returned home and discovered his daughter had run away with Lorenzo. Shylock then woke up the Duke of Venice and tried to stop Bassanio's ship, which had already set sail. Antonio assured Shylock that Jessica was not on board the ship, but rather had been seen in a gondola with Lorenzo. However, Shylock continues to blame Antonio for the loss of his daughter and his money.

Solanio informs Salerio that Shylock was later seen in the streets crying,

"My daughter! O, my ducats! O, my daughter!
Fled with a Christian! O, my Christian ducats!
Justice! The law! My ducats and my daughter!
A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats,"

Solanio is worried about Antonio, whom he says had better repay his bond with Shylock on time, because Shylock is furious about losing his daughter and his money and blames Antonio for it. Salerio indicates that a Frenchman mentioned a Venetian vessel had sunk in the English Channel the day before. Both men hope that it is not Antonio's ship.

Act II, Scene Nine

The Prince of Aragon arrives in Belmont and decides to choose from among the three caskets. Portia takes him into the room and makes him recite the oath never to reveal which casket he chooses, and further to promise never to marry should he choose the incorrect casket. The Prince of Aragon agrees and starts to read the inscriptions.

He rejects lead because of the ominous warning, and thinks that gold refers to the foolish populace. Instead he chooses silver which indicates he will receive what he deserves. The Prince takes the key and opens the casket to reveal a "blinking idiot" (2.9.53). The scroll indicates that those who are self-loving deserve to be called idiots, and would not make good husbands for Portia. The Prince is upset by his choice, but is forced to leave.

Portia is happy that the Prince has chosen the wrong casket. Her messenger comes into the room at that moment and informs her that a young Venetian has just arrived. Portia goes to see who it is, while Nerissa secretly wishes that it might be Bassanio.

Act III, Scene One

Solanio and Salerio discuss the rumor that Antonio has lost yet a second ship. Shylock enters and complains that both Solanio and Salerio had something to do with his daughter's flight. They do not deny it, but instead ask Shylock if he has heard about Antonio's losses.

Shylock tells them that Antonio should "look to his bond" and make sure he repays the money, or else Shylock is planning on taking his pound of flesh. Shylock is furious with Antonio, whom he blames for the loss of Jessica, and also bears an older grudge against the man. He then delivers his famous soliloquy, "Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions..." (3.1.49-50). The speech concludes with Shylock saying that he will be revenged for all the times he has been treated badly by Christians.

One of Antonio's servants arrives and bids Solanio and Salerio to go to Antonio's house. They leave, and Tubal, another Jew, arrives to speak with Shylock. Tubal has been in Genoa, where he tried to locate Jessica. He tells Shylock that Jessica had been in the city, and had spent over eighty ducats while there. She had also traded a turquoise ring for a monkey, a ring which Shylock regrets losing because he had received it from his wife Leah. However, Tubal also brings Shylock news that Antonio has lost yet a third ship, and is almost certain to go bankrupt in the near future. Shylock is excited by this news, since he has decided that he would rather exact revenge on Antonio than receive his three thousand ducats back.

Act III, Scene Two

Portia tells Bassanio that she wants him to wait a month or two before choosing from the caskets so that she may be guaranteed his company for a while longer. Bassanio tells her that he is desperate to choose, and feels like he is being tortured the longer he waits. Portia finally agrees to take him into the room with the caskets.

Portia orders music to be played for Bassanio, and one of her servants starts to sing a song in which the rhymes all rhyme with lead. Bassanio speaks directly to the audience and tells them that too many things are gilded and coated with ornaments. He therefore decides to do away with gold, comparing it to Midas' greed. The silver casket he also ignores, saying it resembles money and is therefore too common. He thus chooses the lead casket and finds Portia's picture inside.

Bassanio is overjoyed by the picture and remarks that it is a beautiful "counterfeit". He then takes the scroll and reads it: "You that choose not by the view / Chance as fair and choose as true" (3.2.131-132). Bassanio goes over to Portia with the note, and she offers him everything she owns, including herself. Portia then hands Bassanio a ring as a token of her love and commitment and tells him never to lose it. He promises, telling her that if he ever stops wearing the ring it will be because he is dead.

Graziano then informs them that he would like to be married as well. He tells Bassanio and Portia that he and Nerissa (the chambermaid to Portia) are in love. Bassanio is thrilled for his friend and agrees to let them get married as well.

Jessica, Lorenzo and Salerio arrive at Belmont. Bassanio is happy to see all of them, but Salerio then hands him a letter from Antonio. Bassanio turns pale at the news that Antonio has lost his fortune and his ships, and he asks Salerio if it is true that all of Antonio's ventures have failed. Salerio tells him it is true, and that Shylock is so excited about getting his pound of flesh that even if Antonio could repay him he would likely refuse it.

Portia asks what amount of money Antonio owes to Shylock, and then orders Bassanio to return to Venice and offer Shylock six thousand ducats to destroy the contract. She informs Bassanio and Graziano that she and Nerissa will live like widows in their absence. They all agree to get married first and then go straight to Venice to rescue Antonio.

Act III, Scene Three

Shylock has come to watch Antonio be taken away by a jailer. Antonio pleads with Shylock to listen to him, but Shylock says, "I have sworn an oath that I will have my bond," (3.3.4) and refuses to listen to any of the pleas for mercy. After Shylock departs, Antonio tells Solanio that Shylock hates him because he used to loan money to men who were in debt to Shylock, thus preventing Shylock from collecting the forfeiture. Antonio is prepared to pay his "bloody creditor" the next day in court, but prays that Bassanio will arrive in time to watch him die.

Act III, Scene Four

Portia and Nerissa, worried about their new husbands, tell Lorenzo that they are going to stay at a local monastery for a few days in order to pray. After Lorenzo and Jessica leave, Portia sends her servant Balthasar to her cousin Doctor Bellario with instructions that Balthasar should bring anything Bellario gives him to Venice. Portia then informs Nerissa that they are going to dress up as men and go to Venice in order to help their husbands.

Act III, Scene Five

Lancelot and Jessica are in an argument over whether she can be saved by God since she was born a Jew. Lancelot tells her that since both her parents are Jews, she is damned. She protests that she can be saved once she becomes a Christian because her husband Lorenzo is a Christian. Lancelot then makes a joke, and says that Lorenzo is a bad man because by converting all the Jews he is raising the price of pork (since Jews do not eat pork, but Christians do). Lorenzo then arrives and orders Lancelot to go inside and prepare the table for dinner. He and Jessica praise Portia for being such a wonderful hostess before entering the house to get their dinner.

Act IV, Scene One

Antonio is brought before the Duke and the magnificoes of Venice to stand trial for failing to pay off his obligation to Shylock. The Duke is upset about the penalty, a pound of Antonio's flesh, but cannot find any lawful way of freeing Antonio from his bond. Shylock enters the court and the Duke tells him that all of the men gathered there expect him to pardon Antonio and forgive the debt.

Shylock replies that he has already sworn by his Sabbath that he will take his pound of flesh from Antonio. He is unable to provide a good reason for wanting to punish Antonio in this manner, other than to say, "So can I give no reason, nor I will not, / More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing / I bear Antonio" (4.1.58-60).

Bassanio then comes forward and offers Shylock the six thousand ducats as repayment for the loan. Shylock tells him that even if there were six times as much money offered to him, he would not take it. The Duke asks Shylock, "How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring none?" (4.1.87). Shylock responds that he is doing nothing wrong, and compares his contract with Antonio to the Christian slave trade. He tells the Duke that he does not demand that the Christians should free their slaves, and therefore the Christians should not demand that he free Antonio.

The Duke threatens to dismiss the court without settling the suit brought by Shylock if Doctor Bellario fails to arrive. Salerio tells him that a messenger has just come from Bellario, and Nerissa enters dressed as a man and informs the Duke that Bellario has sent a letter to him. Shylock whets his knife on his shoe, confident that he will receive his pound of flesh.

The letter from Bellario recommends a young and educated doctor to arbitrate the case. The Duke asks where the young doctor is, and Nerissa tells him that he is waiting outside to be admitted into the court. The Duke orders him to be brought in, and Portia enters dressed as a man, pretending to be a doctor named Balthasar.

Portia tells the Duke that she has thoroughly studied the case and then asks, "Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?" (4.1.169). Antonio and Shylock both step forward, and Portia asks Antonio if he confesses to signing the contract. He does, and Portia then says that Shylock therefore must be merciful. She delivers a short speech on mercy, but Shylock ignores it and demands the contract be fulfilled. Portia then asks if no one has been able to repay the amount, but since Shylock has refused the money there is nothing she can do to make him take it. She comments that she must therefore side with Shylock.

Shylock, impressed that Portia is supporting his case, says, "A Daniel come to judgment, yea, a Daniel!" (4.1.218). Portia rules that Shylock has the right to claim a pound of flesh from next to Antonio's heart according to the bond. Antonio's bosom is laid bare and Shylock gets ready to cut. Portia asks him if he has a surgeon ready to stop the bleeding once he has taken his pound of flesh. Shylock says, "I cannot find it. 'Tis not in the bond" (4.1.257).

Just as Shylock is about to start cutting again, Portia says that the bond does not give him permission to shed Antonio's blood. The laws of Venice are such that if any Venetian's blood is shed, all the goods and lands of the perpetrator may be confiscated by the state. Shylock realizes that he cannot cut the flesh without drawing blood, and instead agrees to take the money instead. However, Portia is not willing to back down and instead only gives him the pound of flesh, further saying that if he takes a tiny bit more or less he will be put to death himself. Shylock, unable to comply with this stipulation, decides to withdraw his case.

Portia tells Shylock to remain in the court. She says that Venice has a further law which says that if any foreigner tries to kill a Venetian, the foreigner will have half of his property go to the Venetian against whom he plotted, and the state will receive the other half. In addition, the life of the foreigner will be in the hands of the Duke, who may decide to do whatever he wants to. Shylock is forced to kneel on the ground before the court, but the Duke pardons his life before he can beg for mercy.

Shylock instead asks the Duke to kill him, saying, "Nay, take my life and all, pardon not that. / You take my house when you do take the prop / That doth sustain my house; you take my life /When you do take the means whereby I live" (4.1.369-373). Antonio intervenes on Shylock's behalf, and asks the Duke to allow Shylock to keep half of his wealth. He further offers to take care of the half he was awarded as a form of inheritance for Jessica and Lorenzo. The only requirements Antonio puts on his offer are that Shylock must convert and become a Christian, and further that he must give everything he owns to Lorenzo upon his death.

Shylock, wretched and having lost everything he owns, tells the court that he is content to accept these conditions. The Duke leaves and tells Antonio to thank the young doctor who has saved his life. Bassanio and Graziano go to Portia and thank her profusely, and Bassanio offers the young doctor anything he wants. Portia decides to test her husband's trustworthiness, and asks him for the engagement ring, the ring which she made him vow never to part with. He refuses, and Portia and Nerissa leave. However, at Antonio's urging, Bassanio takes off the ring and gives it to Graziano, telling him to take it to Portia and invite her to dinner that night at Antonio's.

Act IV, Scene Two

Portia gives Nerissa the deed by which Shylock will pass his inheritance to Lorenzo. She tells Nerissa to take it to Shylock's house and make him sign it. At the moment Graziano catches up with the two women and gives the ring to Portia. She is surprised that Bassanio parted with it after all, and Nerissa decides to test Graziano in the same way. Nerissa takes the deed and asks Graziano to show her the way to Shylock's house.

Act V, Scene One

Lorenzo and Jessica, still at Belmont, sit outside and enjoy the night. They compare the night to the stories of Troilus and Cressida, Pyramus and Thisbe, and Dido and Aeneus, and then extend the analogy to their own love affair. They are interrupted by Stefano, who tells them that Portia is returning home with Nerissa. Lancelot then arrives and informs Lorenzo that Bassanio will also be back by morning. Both Lorenzo and Jessica return to the house and listen to music.

Portia and Nerissa, dressed as themselves again, return home and enter the building. Lorenzo recognizes Portia's voice and comes to greet her. She orders the servants to pretend as if she had never left, and asks Lorenzo and Jessica to do the same. Soon thereafter Bassanio, Graziano and Antonio arrive.

Nerissa demands that Graziano show her the ring he gave away to Portia's "clerk" in Venice. They start to argue over it, with Graziano defending his action as a form of kindness for Antonio. Portia overhears them and pretends to "discover" what happened. She then demands that Bassanio show her his ring, which he of course cannot do. Portia and Nerissa then berate their husbands for giving away the rings, and even tell them that they would prefer to sleep with the doctor and his clerk rather than with their unfaithful husbands.

Antonio offers his assurance that neither Bassanio nor Graziano will ever give away their wives' gifts again. Portia thanks him and asks him to give Bassanio another ring to keep. Bassanio looks at the ring and recognizes it as being the same ring he gave away. Portia then tells him that the doctor came back to Belmont and slept with her. Bassanio is amazed and does not know how to respond.

Portia finally clears up the confusion by informing Bassanio that she and Nerissa were the doctor and the clerk. She further has good news for Antonio, namely a letter that indicates that three of his ships arrived in port safely. Nerissa then hands Lorenzo the deed from Shylock in which he inherits everything after Shylock dies. The play ends with Graziano promising to forever keep Nerissa's ring safe.


Act I, scene i:

Othello begins in the city of Venice, at night; Roderigo is having a discussion with Iago, who is bitter at being passed up as Othello's lieutenant. Though Iago had greater practice in battle and in military matters, Cassio, a man of strategy but of little experience, was named lieutenant by Othello. Iago says that he only serves Othello to further himself, and makes shows of his allegiance only for his own gain; he is playing false, and admits that his nature is not at all what it seems. Iago is aware that the daughter of Brabantio, a Venetian nobleman of some stature, has run off with Othello, the black warrior of the Moors. Desdemona is Brabantio's daughter, and Brabantio, and many others, know nothing of this coupling; Iago decides to enlist Roderigo, who lusts after Desdemona, and awaken Brabantio with screams that his daughter is gone.

At first, Brabantio dismisses these cries in the dark; but when he realizes his daughter is not there, he gives the news some credence. Roderigo is the one speaking most to Brabantio, but Iago is there too, hidden, yelling unsavory things about Othello and his intentions toward Desdemona. Brabantio panics, and calls for people to try and find his daughter; Iago leaves, not wanting anyone to find out that he betrayed his own leader, and Brabantio begins to search for his daughter.

Act I, scene ii:

Iago has now joined Othello, and has told Othello about Roderigo's betrayal of the news of his marriage to Brabantio's daughter. He tells Othello that Brabantio is upset, and will probably try to tear Desdemona from him. Cassio comes at last, as do Roderigo and Brabantio; Iago threatens Roderigo with violence, again making a false show of his loyalty to Othello. Brabantio is very angry, swearing that Othello must have bewitched his daughter, and that the state will not decide for him in this case. Othello says that the Duke must hear him, and decide in his favor, or else all is far from right in Venice.

Act I, scene iii:

Military conflict is challenging the Venetian stronghold of Cyprus; there are reports that Turkish ships are heading toward the island, which means some defense will be necessary. Brabantio and Othello enter the assembled Venetian leaders, who are discussing this military matter, and Brabantio announces his grievance against Othello for marrying his daughter. Othello addresses the company, admitting that he did marry Desdemona, but wooed her with stories, and did her no wrongs. Desdemona comes to speak, and she confirms Othello's words; Brabantio's grievance is denied, and Desdemona will indeed stay with Othello. However, Othello is called away to Cyprus, to help with the conflict there; he begs that Desdemona be able to go with him, since they have been married for so little time. Othello and Desdemona win their appeal, and Desdemona is to stay with Iago, until she can come to Cyprus and meet Othello there.

Roderigo is upset that Desdemona and Othello's union was allowed to stand, since he lusts after Desdemona. But Iago assures him that the match will not last long, and at any time, Desdemona could come rushing to him. Iago wants to break up the couple, using Roderigo as his pawn, out of malice and his wicked ability to do so.

Act II, scene i:

A terrible storm has struck Cyprus, just as the Turks were about to approach. This might mean that the Turkish attack will not happen; but it also bodes badly for Othello's ship. A messenger enters, and confirms that the Turkish fleet was broken apart by the storm, and that Cassio has arrived, though Othello is still at sea. They spot a ship coming forth; but Iago, Desdemona, and Emilia are on it, not Othello. Cassio greets them all, especially praising Desdemona; somehow, Iago and Desdemona enter into an argument about what women are, and Iago shows how little praise he believes women deserve. Othello arrives at last, and is very glad to see his wife arrived, much earlier than expected; he and Desdemona make public signs of their love, and then depart. Iago speaks to Roderigo, convincing him that Desdemona will stray from Othello, as she has already done with Cassio. He convinces Roderigo to attack Cassio that night, as he plans to visit mischief on both Othello and Cassio.

Act II, scene ii:

Othello's herald enters, to proclaim that the Turks are not going to attack, all should be joyful, and Othello is celebrating the happiness of his recent marriage.

Act II, scene iii:

Iago and Cassio are on the watch together; Iago gets Cassio to drink a bit, knowing that he cannot hold his liquor at all. Iago also tries to get Cassio's feelings about Desdemona, and make her seem tempting to him; but his intentions are innocent and friendly, so this approach fails. Cassio leaves for a bit, and Iago says that he intends to get Cassio drunk, that will hopefully cause a quarrel between Cassio and Roderigo, who has been stirred up against Cassio. Iago wants to see Cassio discredited through this, so that he might take Cassio's place. Montano and others come, and Iago entertains them with small talk and song; soon, Cassio is drunk, and Roderigo has approached. Cassio fights offstage with Roderigo, and comes forth, chasing him; Montano tries to hinder Cassio, but Cassio just ends up injuring him. All the noise wakes Othello, who comes down to figure out what has happened. Montano tells what he knows of it all, and Iago fills in the rest‹making sure to fictionalize his part in it all too. Cassio is stripped of his rank, and all leave Cassio and Iago alone.

Cassio laments that he has lost his reputation, which is very dear to him. Iago tries to convince him that a reputation means little; and, if he talks to Desdemona, maybe he can get her to vouch for him with Othello. This will help Iago get the impression across that Desdemona and Cassio are together, which will make Othello very angry if it works. Iago then gives a soliloquy about knowing that Desdemona will speak for Cassio, and that he will be able to turn that against them both.

Act III, scene i:

The third act begins with a little bit of comic relief; a clown is mincing words with a few musicians, then has a little wordplay with Cassio, who bids the clown to go and see if Desdemona will speak with him. Iago enters, and Cassio tells him that he means to speak to Desdemona, so that she may clear things up with Othello. Emilia comes out, and bids Cassio to come in and speak with Desdemona about his tarnished reputation.

Act III, scene ii:

Othello gives Iago some letters that need to be delivered back to Venice, which Iago is in turn supposed to give to a ship's pilot who is sailing back to Venice.

Act III, scene iii:

Desdemona decides that she wants to advocate for Cassio. She tells Emilia so, and that she believes Cassio is a good person, and has been wronged in this case; she pledges to do everything she can to persuade her husband to take Cassio back. Cassio speaks with her briefly, but leaves just as Othello enters because he does not wish for a confrontation. Iago seizes on this opportunity to play on Othello's insecurities, and make Cassio's exit seem guilty and incriminating. Othello then speaks to Desdemona, and Desdemona expresses her concern for Cassio; she is persistent in his suit, which Othello is not too pleased about. Othello says he will humor her, and the subject is dropped for a while.

Iago then plays on Othello's insecurities about Desdemona, and gets Othello to believe, through insinuation, that there is something going on between Desdemona and Cassio. Othello seizes on this, and then Iago works at building up his suspicions. Soon, Othello begins to doubt his wife, as Iago lets his insinuations gain the force of an accusation against her. Othello begins to voice his insecurities when it comes to Desdemona, and himself as well. Desdemona enters, and they have a brief conversation; Othello admits that he is troubled, though he will not state the cause.

Desdemona drops the handkerchief that Othello gave her on their honeymoon; Emilia knew that her husband had wanted it for something, so she doesn't feel too guilty about taking it. Emilia gives it to Iago, who decides to use the handkerchief for his own devices. Othello re-enters, and tells Iago that he now doubts his wife; Othello demands "ocular proof" of Desdemona's dishonesty, so Iago sets about making stories up about Cassio talking in his sleep, and says that Cassio has the handkerchief that Othello gave to Desdemona. Iago knows how important this handkerchief is to Othello; it was his first gift to Desdemona, and was given to him by his mother. Othello is incensed to hear that Desdemona would give away something so valuable, and is persuaded by Iago's insinuations and claims to believe that Desdemona is guilty. Othello then swears to have Cassio dead, and to be revenged upon Desdemona for the non-existent affair.

Act III, scene iv:

Desdemona asks the clown where Cassio is; the clown goes off to fetch him. Desdemona is looking everywhere for the handkerchief, very sorry to have lost it; she knows that her losing it will upset Othello greatly, although she claims he is not so jealous that he will think ill of the loss. Othello enters, and asks for Desdemona's handkerchief; she admits that she does not have it, and then Othello tells her of its significance and alleged magical powers. Desdemona does not like Othello's tone; he seems obsessed with this object, and Desdemona is so frightened by him that she wishes she had nothing to do with it. She interrupts Othello's inquiry by bringing up Cassio's attempt to get back into Othello's favor; Othello becomes angry, and storms out. Desdemona and Emilia both note that Othello is much changed; he is unkind and seems jealous, and they are suspicious of the change in him.

Cassio then enters, with Iago; he laments that his suit is not successful, and that Othello does not seem likely to take him back. Desdemona is sorry for this, since she knows that Cassio is a man of worth; she tells Cassio and Iago that Othello has been acting strange, and is upset, and Iago goes to look for him, feigning concern. Emilia thinks that Othello's change has something to do with Desdemona, or Othello's jealous nature; they still cannot fathom what has happened, and exit, leaving Cassio.

Bianca comes in, and Cassio asks her to copy the handkerchief that he found in his room; it is Desdemona's handkerchief, though Cassio has no idea. He claims he does not love her, and gets angry at her for allegedly suspecting that the handkerchief is a gift of another woman. But, Bianca is not disturbed, and leaves with the handkerchief.

Act IV, scene i:

Othello is trying, even after swearing that Desdemona was unfaithful, not to condemn her too harshly. He is talking with Iago about the handkerchief still, and its significance in being found; but, soon, Iago whips Othello into an even greater fury through mere insinuation, and Othello takes the bait. Othello falls into a trance of rage, and Iago decides to hammer home his false ideas about his wife. Iago calls Cassio in, while Othello hides; Iago speaks to Cassio of Bianca, but Othello, in his disturbed state, believes that Cassio is talking of Desdemona, which is the last "proof" he needs before declaring his wife guilty. Bianca comes in, and gives the handkerchief back to Cassio, since she swears she will have nothing to do with it.

Othello is incensed by Cassio, still believing that he was speaking of Desdemona, rather than Bianca. Now, Othello is resolved to kill Desdemona himself, and charges Iago with murdering Cassio. Ludovico, a noble Venetian whom Desdemona knows, has recently landed; Desdemona and Othello welcome him there. But, when Desdemona mentions Cassio, Othello becomes very angry and slaps her in front of everyone; she rushes off, very upset. Ludovico especially is shocked at this change in Othello, and has no idea how such a noble man could act so cruelly.

Act IV, scene ii:

Othello questions Emilia about Desdemona's guilt, or the chance she has had an affair with Cassio. Emilia admits to having seen nothing, though Othello does not believe her. Emilia swears that she has seen and heard all that has gone on between Cassio and Desdemona, and that Desdemona is pure and true. Othello believes that Emilia is in on all this too; he accuses Desdemona, and her insistence that she is innocent only infuriates him further. Othello leaves, and Desdemona and Emilia try to figure out what has happened to Othello, and what they can do; Desdemona feels especially helpless, and Emilia is very angry. Emilia thinks that someone has manipulated Othello into accusing Desdemona, and has poisoned his mind; however, Iago is there to dispel this opinion, so that Emilia does not inquire further into her theory. Upon leaving the women, Iago comes across Roderigo; he is not pleased with how Iago has handled things, and knows that although Iago is promising him Desdemona's favor, he has done nothing to indicate that he has worked to achieve this. Iago quiets him by making him believe that if he kills Cassio, then he will win Desdemona; Roderigo decides to go along with it, but Iago is coming dangerously close to being revealed.

Act IV, scene iii:

Othello tells Desdemona to go to bed, and dismiss Emilia; Emilia regrets Desdemona's marriage, although Desdemona cannot say that she does not love Othello. Desdemona knows that she will die soon; she sings a song of sadness and resignation, and decides to give herself to her fate. Desdemona asks Emilia whether she would commit adultery to win her husband the world. Emilia, the more practical one, thinks that it is not too big a price for a small act; Desdemona is too good, and too devout, to say that she would do so.

Act V, scene i:

Iago has Roderigo poised and ready to pounce on Cassio, and kill him; if either of them is killed, it is to Iago's benefit, although he would like to have both of them disposed of, so that his devices might not be discovered. Roderigo and Cassio fight, and both are injured; Othello hears the scuffle, is pleased, and then leaves to finish off Desdemona. Iago enters, pretending that he knows nothing of the scuffle; Gratiano and Ludovico also stumble upon the scene, having no idea what has happened. Roderigo is still alive, so Iago feigns a quarrel, and finishes him off. Bianca comes by, and sees Cassio wounded; Iago makes some remark to implicate her; Cassio is carried away, and Roderigo is already dead. Emilia also comes in, and pins more blame on Bianca; she has done nothing, but Iago has some quick work to do if he is to exonerate himself in this mess.

Act V, scene ii:

Othello enters Desdemona's room while she is asleep; and though she is beautiful, and appears innocent, he still is determined to kill her. He justifies this with images, metaphors, and ideas of her rebirth after death, and though his rage is softened, he is still much mistaken about her. Desdemona awakens, and he tells her to repent of any sins before she dies; she believes there is nothing she can do to stop him from killing her, and continues to assert her innocence. Othello tells her that he found her handkerchief with Cassio, though Desdemona insists it must not be true; she pleads with Othello not to kill her right then, but he begins to smother her. Emilia knocks, curious about what is going on; Othello lets her in, but tries to conceal Desdemona, who he thinks is already dead. Emilia brings the news of Roderigo's death, and Cassio's wounding.

Emilia soon finds out that Desdemona is nearly dead, by Othello's hand; Desdemona speaks her last words, and then Emilia pounces on Othello for committing this horrible crime. Othello is not convinced of his folly until Iago confesses his part, and Cassio speaks of the use of the handkerchief; then, Othello is overcome with grief. Iago stabs Emilia for telling all about his plots, and then Emilia dies; the Venetian nobles reveal that Brabantio, Desdemona's father, is dead, and so cannot be grieved by this tragedy now. Othello stabs Iago when he is brought back in; Othello then tells all present to remember him how he is, and kills himself. Cassio becomes temporary leader of the troops at Cyprus, and Lodovico and Gratiano are supposed to carry the news of the tragedy back to Venice. Iago is taken into custody, and his crimes will be judged back in Venice.

Richard III

Act One, Scene One

Richard gives a short speech detailing his plot against his brother Clarence, who comes before him as heir to the throne of England. Richard has just succeeded in having Clarence arrested and it as a prisoner that Clarence walks onto the stage, guarded by Sir Robert Brackenbury.

Richard asks Clarence what the reason for his arrest is. Clarence replies that someone told King Edward that a person with a name starting with the letter "G" would cause his family to lose the throne. Since Clarence's full name is George, Duke of Clarence, he was considered to be the primary suspect. Richard complains that this arrest is the result of the women plotting against Clarence, most notably Queen Elizabeth and possibly also Mrs. Shore.

Brackenbury tells the men he is not allowed to let anyone converse with the prisoner, and takes Clarence into the Tower of London. Richard comments that he will soon remove Clarence permanently and thus clear the path to the throne for himself.

Lord Hastings, also known as Lord Chamberlain, emerges from the Tower, having just been freed. Lord Hastings tells Richard that King Edward IV is sickly and ailing, and cannot hope to live much longer. After he departs, Richard remarks that he will first have Edward kill Clarence. This will put Richard into a position where upon Edward's death he can assume the throne. He also plots to marry Lady Anne Neville, who is the widow of Edward, Prince of Wales and the daughter-in-law of Henry VI, whom Richard just killed.

Act One, Scene Two

Lady Anne enters the stage accompanied by halberdiers who are carrying an open coffin with King Henry VI in it. She asks the men to stop, during which time she laments the death of the king. Lady Anne then curses any future children which Richard might have, and prays that after Richard's death his future wife will know even more grief than Lady Anne currently feels.

Richard enters and is immediately cursed by Lady Anne for his role in the death of her husband. Richard tries to woo her by telling how lovely he thinks she it, but Lady Anne scorns him after each attempt. He finally tells her that he killed her husband so that he alone could love her. In a moment of decision, Richard bends down on his knees and tells her to kill him if she cannot forgive him. She replies, "I will not be thy executioner" (1.2.172)

Richard stands up and proposes marriage to her, succeeding in making Lady Anne wear his ring. He tells her to go wait for him in one of his London residences while he mourns the death of Henry VI. Lady Anne leaves after saying farewell to Richard, who delivers a soliloquy in which he expresses surprise about the fact that she seems to like his looks.

Act One, Scene Three

Queen Elizabeth enters the stage with Lord Rivers and Lord Gray. They discuss the fact that King Edward is ill. Queen Elizabeth is apprehensive about her future if he should die. She remarks that Richard Gloucester becomes her son's Protector if Edward passes away, and that Richard does not like her or her companions.

The Duke of Buckingham and Lord Stanley arrive. They have just been to see the king, and they inform Queen Elizabeth that he is looking well. Buckingham informs her that the king want to meet with her brothers and with Richard in order to get them to make peace.

Richard and Lord Hastings enter the room, with Richard complaining bitterly about the lies which "they" tell the king. When asked who "they" are, Richard implicates the queen's brother, Lord Rivers, and her two sons. He then blames them for the recent imprisonment of Lord Hastings, and for the current jailing of his brother Clarence. Queen Elizabeth is outraged at these suggestions, and threatens to tell the king.

Queen Margaret arrives, she is the widow of Henry VI and the mother of Edward whom Richard killed. She speaks directly to the audience, without the other characters hearing her. She remarks that Queen Elizabeth has her to thank for the throne, and calls Richard a devil for the murders he committed.

Richard defends himself vehemently, pointing out his fierce loyalty to his brother Edward. He then points out the fact that the Queen and her brother fought against his brother in the war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York, to which Richard belongs.

Queen Margaret, fed up with the arguments and accusations, steps forward and addresses them all. She plans to tell them once again about how Richard killed her son Edward, but all of the gathered characters attack her for having killed Rutland. This refers to a previous play in which Margaret crowns the Duke of York with a paper crown and waves a handkerchief dipped in his son Rutland's blood in front of his eyes. She tells them that because her Edward died, so too must the current Edward, Prince of Wales meet his death.

Following several curses made by Margaret, most of which are directed at Richard, the entire company is summoned into King Edward's chambers. Richard remains behind and meets with two murderers whom he sends to kill Clarence. A revealing quote is when Richard says, "And thus I clothe my naked villainy / With odd old ends, stol'n forth of Holy Writ," meaning he hides his crimes with Christian behavior.

Act One, Scene Four

Clarence and Brackenbury enter the stage. Clarence has had a terrible nightmare in which he breaks free of the Tower and attempts to cross to Burgundy accompanied by his brother Richard. While on the ship, Richard stumbles. When Clarence tries to help support him, he is flung into the ocean by Richard, where he slowly drowns.

Clarence falls asleep with Brackenbury sitting next to him for protection. The two murderers sent by Richard arrive and hand Brackenbury their commission. He acknowledges the paper which says to hand his prisoner over to the two men.

The first murderer has a sudden attack of conscience. He is able to overcome this by remembering the large reward which Richard is paying him. The second murderer tells his companion to drive the devil out of his mind, since the devil is only confusing him. Clarence wakes up and asks for a cup of wine.

The murders engage Clarence in conversation, and inform him that he will die. He pleads to their sense of Christianity, at which they list his many sins, most notably the killing of Henry VI's son Edward. Clarence then begs the men to talk to Richard, whom he promises will reward them well. They inform him that Richard is the man who sent them, a fact that Clarence cannot believe. He seems about to overcome them with his persuasive words when the first murderer stabs and kills him. The second murderer refuses to participate, and even declines to receive his part of the reward.

Act Two, Scene One

King Edward enters, followed by most of court who previously went to his chambers. He carefully orchestrates a scene of friendship after ordering them to forgive each other. His orders to each man tell them exactly how he wants them to behave, including whose hand to shake, or who should kiss the hand of the queen.

Richard enters this farce and is ordered to forget his hatred of the Queen and her family. He does this, but when the Queen tells him to bring Clarence back to court, he immediately destroys the entire scene. Richard replies, "Who knows not that the gentle Duke is dead?" (2.1.80), at which all the other actors are shocked.

King Edward delivers a brief speech lamenting the fact that his brother Clarence has been killed by his orders. He recalls the many times that Clarence saved his life or helped him attain the throne. King Edward then departs. Richard asks Buckingham if he noticed how guilty the Queen's kindred looked when the news of Clarence's death was announced.

Act Two, Scene Two

The old Duchess of York, the mother of King Edward, Clarence and Richard, enters with Clarence's two children. She is mourning the death of Clarence, but for the children's sake instead pretends to be upset about Edward's bad health. However, after a few moments Queen Elizabeth enters with her hair disheveled, and announces that King Edward has also died.

The Duchess of York remarks that all she has left is Richard, about whom she says, "And I for comfort have but one false glass" (2.2.53). The children tell the Queen that since she did not grieve for their father, they will not grieve for King Edward. The Duchess tells them all that she accepts all of their suffering and will lament for them.

Richard enters and convinces them to travel to Ludlow where the young Prince Edward is staying. They all agree that it is safer for them all to go, before leaving the stage. Buckingham tells Richard to go with them, so that no one will think that he is plotting to seize the throne.

Act Two, Scene Three

Some citizens discuss the fact that King Edward is dead. They are afraid of a fight to seize the thrown, with one of them commenting, "Woe to the land that's governed by a child" (2.3.11). Their fear is that Richard or the sons and brother of the Queen will attempt to overthrow the young monarch.

Act Two, Scene Four

Queen Elizabeth, the Duchess of York, the Lord Cardinal, and the young Duke of York discuss the the stories of Richard's childhood. Shakespeare alludes to a myth that he was born with teeth. Dorset enters the room with bad news.

He tells them that Buckingham and Richard have imprisoned Lord Rivers and Lord Gray. The Queen is frightened for her family, which she clearly sees being wiped out if Richard can get his way. She decides to go into sanctuary, meaning a church, with the young Duke of York so that they will have protection. The sanctuary is initially for forty days.

Act Three, Scene One

The young Prince Edward, accompanied by Richard and Buckingham and several other men, has arrived in London. He immediately asks where his mother and brother York are, and why they have not come to see him. Hastings tells the prince that his mother sought sanctuary. Buckingham cleverly argues that the young York may not have sanctuary since he is only a child and therefore has not reason to hide, since he has obviously not committed any crimes.

Richard then asks the prince if he is willing to spend the night in the Tower of London, which is the traditional place for kings to stay on the night before their coronation. Edward, however, fears the Tower as a prison and is reluctant. Richard convinces him it is better to stay there since it is so well protected.

The young York arrives and he and Prince Edward depart for the Tower. Richard tells Catesby to see whether Lord Hastings can be won over to his side, rather than supporting Prince Edward. Catesby thinks that Hastings will defend Prince Edward, and Richard indicates that he will kill him if that is the case. Richard also mentions that there will be "divided councels" the next morning, meaning a public council for Edward's coronation, and a private council to plot for Richard.

Act Three, Scene Two

Lord Hastings is rudely awakened at four in the morning by a messenger. He is told that Lord Stanley is there to see him, having had a bad dream in which he was beheaded by a boar (Richard's emblem is the boar). Catesby arrives before Stanley and tells Hastings that Richard wants the crown of England, but Hastings announces that he will die before Richard be allowed to wear the crown.

Catesby then tells Hastings that his enemies, the Queen's sons and her brother, are to be executed that day. Stanley arrives and announces that he is upset about the fact that there are two separate councils. He and Catesby leave for the Tower of London. A pursuivant (basically, a messenger with the authority to serve an arrest warrant) enters and receives some money from Hastings. Buckingham then enters and Hastings tells him that he will eat lunch at the Tower. Buckingham indicates to the audience that Hastings will also eat supper there, although he does not yet know it.

Act Three, Scene Three

Gray and Rivers are forced onto stage as prisoners, while Ratcliffe watches over them. The two condemned men remark that it is Margaret's curse which has condemned them to die. Rivers remarks, "Then cursed she Hastings; then cursed she Buckingham; Then cursed she Richard." (3.3.16) The men then embrace and agree to meet again in heaven.

Act Three, Scene Four

A council meets in the Tower to discuss when the coronation day for Edward should be held. Richard enters late, bids the men a good day, and calls Buckingham aside. Buckingham tells Richard that Hastings will never support him.

Hastings says that it is a good thing that Richard is in such good spirits, because it means he does not dislike any of the men present. Buckingham and Richard reenter the room. Richard asks what the punishment for traitors should be, to which Hastings replies that they deserve death. Richard then blames the Queen and Mrs. Shore (who is the mistress of Hastings) with having caused his malformed arm. He accuses Hastings of protecting Shore, and orders the council to behead Hastings. Richard then leaves, followed by most of the council.

Act Three, Scene Five

The Lord Mayor of London arrives at the Tower. Catesby delivers Hastings' head, at which point both Buckingham and Richard must try to mollify the Lord Mayor. They tell him that Hastings was plotting against them both, and that he confessed as much in the Tower. They ask the Lord Mayor to inform the people of what happened, since he is better placed to placate the masses then they are.

Richard then sends Buckingham to follow the Lord Mayor. He wants Buckingham to tell the people that the children of Edward are illegitimate, which would require that the eldest illegitimate child should take the throne. Richard then wants Buckingham to convince the people that he is also an illegitimate child of Edward, and thus he should receive the throne.

Act Three, Scene Six

A scrivener enters, with a paper that fully details the treachery of Lord Hastings. The paper is meant to support Richard and Buckingham, but the scrivener points out that it took eleven hours to write, during which time Hastings was still alive. The scrivener asks who is so foolish that they cannot see the discrepancy in times, but he answers his own question by remarking, "Yet who so bold but says he sees it not?" (3.6.12)

Act Three, Scene Seven

Buckingham informs Richard that his speech to the crowd went over very badly. He says that having told the crowd everything, he asked them to shout out their support of Richard. Since not a single person responded, he then had the Recorder tell them again, at which point only a few of his own men threw up their caps and yelled, "God save King Richard!"

In order to overcome this problem, Buckingham and Richard plan to stage a silent play. Richard grabs a prayer book and goes to stands between two churchmen on the balcony. The Lord Mayor arrives with some aldermen and citizens. Buckingham tells them that Richard is currently meditating, and does not wish to speak with anyone.

Buckingham finally speaks to Richard, who remains on the balcony, and offers him the throne in front of all the assembled masses. Richard declines, saying it is better for Edward to be the king. Buckingham pleads with him, and Richard again turns him down. Buckingham then exits. A citizen tells Richard that the land will fall into chaos if he does not accept his position. Richard then calls them back, saying, "Call them again. I am not made of stone" (3.7.214) He accepts the throne and begs the Lord Mayor to tell everyone how reluctant he was to become the king.

Act Four, Scene One

Queen Elizabeth, the Duchess of York and Lady Anne (now Richard's wife) ask to be let into the Tower to see Prince Edward and young York. Brackenbury forbids them to enter, saying, "The King hath strictly charged the contrary" (4.1.17). He realizes his slip of the tongue and corrects himself by saying, "I mean, the Lord Protector."

Stanley enters and orders Lady Anne to Westminster Abbey, where she is to be crowned queen. Queen Elizabeth, realizing that Richard has succeeded at seizing the throne, orders her son Dorset to go to Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond. Stanley agrees with her and sends the young man away. Elizabeth decides to return to sanctuary, while the other women choose to flee to Richmond.

Act Four, Scene Two

King Richard asks Buckingham if he will support him in killing Prince Edward. Buckingham is reluctant, and begs for a while to consider the issue. Richard thinks that Buckingham is too ambitious, and becomes suspicious of him.

Richard then calls a page over, and asks if the man know anyone willing to kill for a sum of money. The page tells him that a man named Tyrell would be happy to serve him. Richard then tells the audience that he is plotting to kill Buckingham.

Next he speaks with Catesby, telling him to start rumors that Lady Anne is ill. Richard also plans to marry Clarence's daughter to a non-nobleman, but will let her brother Edward live since he is "simpleminded."

Tyrell is being dispatched to kill the two young boys still living in the Tower when Buckingham arrives. Buckingham asks Richard for the Dukedom he was promised earlier in the play. Richard instead talks about the fact that Richmond is prophesied to become the king, and that he was told he would not live long after seeing Henry Tudor's face. Buckingham continues asking, but Richard then remarks that he is not in the "giving vein." Buckingham realizes his life is in danger, and prepares to flee.

Act Four, Scene Three

Tyrrell, the murderer sent by Richard to kill the Edward's children, returns having done the deed. He tells Richard that they are dead, and is invited to dinner that night in order to tell how he killed them.

Ratcliffe enters running, and informs Richard that the Bishop of Ely has fled to join Richmond, while Buckingham has started raising an army. Richard is shaken by the fact that all of his top lieutenants are either dead or have fled from him. He orders his armies to be quickly assembled so that he can overcome his traitors.

Act Four, Scene Four

Old Queen Margaret emerges and says that she has patiently watched the destruction of her enemies. She informs the audience of her plan to go to France where she hopes to see the few remaining enemies die tragic deaths. She then tells Queen Elizabeth that her curse is coming true, and that she is being revenged for her losses. Elizabeth begs Margaret to teach her how to curse, so that she too may have revenge.

Richard enters and is immediately abused by the women present. His mother, the Duchess of York, demands that he listen to her, which he unwillingly does. She finishes her remarks with a curse on Richard, namely that he should die in the battles he is about to fight.

Richard then speaks with Queen Elizabeth. He tells her that he wants her daughter Elizabeth to be his queen. She scorns his suggestion, and tells him to write her daughter a letter describing all of her relatives that he has killed. Richard does not like the way she mocks him, and continues pleading with her to help him win her daughter's hand. She finally agrees to go talk with her daughter, and Richard assumes that he is victorious.

Ratcliffe enters and tells Richard that Richmond is already arriving with ships on the western shore. Richard, in the first moment of confusion he has ever shown, hastily issues orders and then is forced to contradict himself. He states, "My mind is changed" (4.4.387)

Stanley enters and informs Richard that Richmond is almost upon them. Richard accuses him of treachery, and orders him assemble an army. Stanley, in order to prove his trustworthiness, allows Richard to keep his son.

Several messengers arrive and give both mixed good and bad news. Richmond manages to finally land at Milford, a relatively unpopulated area which is ideal for and invading army. However, Catesby enters the scene to tell Richard that Buckingham has been captured.

Act Four, Scene Five

Stanley tells a priest to go to Richmond and inform him that Stanley is unable to join his side because Richard is holding Stanley's son in custody. He also mentions that Queen Elizabeth has agreed to let Richmond marry her daughter once he defeats Richard.

Act Five, Scene One

Buckingham, having been captured, is led on stage and gives his last speech. He comments that it is All-Souls' Day, a day when all executions are normally postponed, and also a day when spirits are supposed to walk on the earth, as will happen in the next scenes. Buckingham then recalls Margaret's curse on him, and says, "Thus Margaret's curse falls heavy on my neck / .../ Remember Margaret was a prophetess" (5.1.25,27).

Act Five, Scene Two

Henry of Richmond enters and encourages his men. He gives them images of peace and prosperity as their payoff for defeating Richard. "The wretched, bloody, and usurping boar, / That spoils your summer fields and fruitful vines, / .../ In God's name, cheerly on, courageous friends, / To reap the harvest of perpetual peace" (5.2.7-8, 14-15).

Act Five, Scene Three

Richard enters on the other side of the stage and tells his men to set up camp on Bosworth field. He ascertains that his army is three times the size of Richmond's, and plans to be busy with the battle plans the next morning.

Act Five, Scene Four

Henry of Richmond enters and prophetically says, "the weary sun hath made a golden set," implying the demise of Richard (who now represents the sun, the symbol of the king). Richmond then sends a note to Stanley, who is willing to betray Richard. The men wish each other a "quiet rest tonight."

Act Five, Scene Five

Richard decides that he will not eat, saying, "I will not sup tonight" (5.5.3). He then has his men post several guards and makes Ratcliffe set up a pen and paper for him. Richard also orders Catesby to tell Stanley to bring his force the next morning, or have his son killed. He writes some, and then falls asleep.

On the other side of the stage Richmond enters, accompanied by Stanley. Stanley informs him that he will try to deceive Richard as best he can, and will delay for as long as possible. Richmond then attempts to fall asleep, worried that he will not be fresh for the battle. After a short prayer, he too falls asleep.

A parade of ghosts representing those whom Richard has killed during his lifetime comes out onto the stage. Each ghost stops and tells Richard, "Despair, and die." To Richmond they say, "Live and flourish." The ghosts appear almost in the order in which they were killed, starting with Prince Edward, King Henry, Clarence, Rivers, Gray, Vaughan, the two young Princes, Hastings, Lady Anne, and lastly Buckingham.

Richard awakes and holds an internal dialogue in which he berates his conscience for giving him bad dreams. "What do I fear? Myself? There's none else by" (5.5.136). He continues in this vein, first blaming and then defending himself for a short while. Ratcliffe enters and gets Richard to come join his troops.

Richmond awakes and happily remembers his dream in which the dead souls promised him victory. He then gives a speech to rally his troops, promising to protect their wives, free their children, and create peace throughout the land.

Act Five, Scene Six

The sun refuses to rise when it should, causing Richard to state that, "A black day will it be to somebody." He then gives his oration to his army. It is about disorder, and he encourages them to fight to prevent Richmond from destroying their lands and abusing their wives. His last words are, "Shall these enjoy our lands? Lie with our wives? Ravish our daughters?" (5.6.66).

A messenger then informs Richard that Stanley has defected to Richmond's side. Richard calls out for Stanley's son to be killed, but the enemy is already so close that he cannot carry out that command.

Act Five, Scene Seven

Richard's horse has been overthrown, and he now fights on foot. Richard calls out, "A horse! A horse! My kingdom for a horse!" (5.7.7) He then remarks that there must be six Richmonds on the field, since he has already slain five and none of them were Richmond. (This alludes to the practice of dressing common soldiers as kings, so that he enemy could be fooled into chasing the wrong man.)

Act Five, Scene Eight

Richmond and Richard both come out onto stage and fight, during which Richard is killed. Stanley takes the crown and places it on Richmond's head, making him King Henry VII. King Henry immediately pardons the enemy soldiers, and makes sure that Stanley's son is still alive. He then looks forward to marrying Elizabeth's daughter, which will unite the houses of Lancaster and York and end the War of the Roses. His final words are, "Peace lives again / That she may long live here, God say, 'Amen'."

Romeo and Juliet


The chorus introduces the play, and tells the audience that two families in Verona have reignited an ancient feud. Two lovers, one from each family, commit suicide after trying to run away from their families. The loss of their children compels the families to end the feud.

Act One, Scene One

The servants of the Capulets are on the street waiting for some servants of the Montague's to arrive. When they do, Samson from the Capulets bites his thumb at them, essentially a strong insult. Abraham from the Montague's accepts the insult and the men start to fight.

Benvolio, Romeo's cousin, enters and makes the men stop fighting by drawing his own sword. Tybalt, Juliet's cousin, then also enters the street. Seeing Benvolio, he too draws his sword and enters the fight.

Old Capulet runs onto the stage and demands a sword so that he too may fight. His wife restrains him, even when Old Montague emerges with his sword drawn as well. The Citizens of the Watch have put up a cry, and manage to get Prince Escalus to arrive. The Prince chides them for three times before causing the street of Verona to be unsafe. He orders them to return home, and personally accompanies the Capulets.

The Montagues and Benvolio remain on stage. They ask Benvolio why Romeo was not with him, and he tells them Romeo has been in a strange mood lately. When Romeo appears, the Montagues ask Benvolio to find out what is wrong, and then depart. Romeo informs Benvolio that he is in love with a woman named Rosaline who wishes to remain chaste for the rest of her life, which is why he is so depressed.

Act One, Scene Two

Paris pleads with Capulet to let him marry Juliet, who is still only a girl of thirteen. Capulet tells him to wait, but decides to allow Paris to woo her and try to win her heart. He then tells his servant Peter to take a list of names and invite the people to a masked ball he is hosting that evening.

Peter meets Romeo on the street, and being unable to read, asks Romeo to help read the list for him. Romeo does, and realizes that the girl he loves, Rosaline, will be attending this party. Peter tells him that it will be held at Capulet's house, and that his is invited if he wishes to come. Both Benvolio and Romeo decide to go.

Act One, Scene Three

Lady Capulet asks the Nurse to call for Juliet. She does, and then tells Lady Capulet that Juliet will be fourteen in under two weeks. She then digresses and speaks of how Juliet was as a child, causing both Juliet and her mother embarassment.

The mother tells Juliet that Paris has come to marry her. She then describes Paris as being beautiful, and compares him to a fine book that only lacks a cover. Juliet does not promise anything, but agrees to at least look at the man that night at dinner.

Act One, Scene Four

Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio are making their way to the masked party. Romeo is still depressed, even though he gets to see Rosaline. Mercutio tries to cheer him up by telling a story about Queen Mab, a fictitious elf that infiltrates men's dreams. Romeo finally shushes him and comments that he is afraid of the consequences of going to this party.

Act One, Scene Five

Romeo stands to the side during the dancing, and it is from this spot that he first sees Juliet. He immediately falls in love with her. Tybalt sees him and recognizes him as Romeo Montague. However, before Tybalt can creat a scene, Old Capulet tells him to leave Romeo alone, since it would look bad to have a brawl in the middle of the festivities.

Romeo finds Juliet and touches her hand. They speak in sonnet form to one another, and Romeo eventually gets to kiss her. However, Juliet is forced to go see her mother. The Nurse tells Romeo that Juliet is a Capulet, at which he is startled.

Juliet finds her Nurse at the end of the party and begs her to find out who Romeo is. The Nurse returns and tells her he is Romeo, the only son of the Montague family. Juliet is heart-broken that she loves a "loathed enemy" (1.5.138).

Act Two, Introduction

The chorus introduces the next act, saying that Romeo has given up his old desire for a new affection. Juliet is likewise described as being in love. Both lovers share the problem that they cannot see each other without risking death, but the chorus indicates that passion will overcome that hurdle.

Act Two, Scene One

Romeo enters and leaps over a garden wall. Mercutio and Benvolio arrive looking for Romeo, but cannot see him. Mercutio then call out to him in long speech filled with obscene wordplay. Benvolio finally gets tired of searching for Romeo, and they leave.

Romeo has meanwhile succeeded in hiding beneath Juliet's balcony. She appears on her balcony and, in this famous scene, asks, "Oh Romeo, Romeo, wherefore art thou Romeo?" (2.1.75). She wishes that Romeo's name did not make him her enemy. Romeo, hiding below her, surprises her by interupting and telling Juliet that he loves her.

Juliet warns Romeo that his protestations of love had better be real ones, since she has fallen in love with him and does not want to be hurt. Romeo swears by himself that he loves her, and Juliet tells him that she wishes she could give him her love again.

Juliet's Nurse calls her, and she disappears only to quickly reappear again. Juliet informs Romeo that if he truly loves her, he should propose marriage and tell her when and where to meet. The Nurse calls her a second time, and Juliet exits. Romeo is about to leave when she emerges yet a third time and calls him back.

Act Two, Scene Two

Friar Laurence is out collecting herbs when Romeo arrives. Romeo quickly tells him that he has fallen in love with Juliet Capulet. The Friar is surprised to hear that Rosaline has been forgotten about so quickly, but is delighted by the prospect of using this new love affair to unite the feuding families.

Act Two, Scene Three

Benvolio and Mercutio speak about Romeo's disappearance the night before. Benvolio tells Mercutio that Romeo did not come home at all. Romeo arrives and soon engages in a battle of wits with Mercutio, who is surprised by Romeo's quick replies. He says, "Now art thou sociable, now art thou Romeo" (2.3.77)

Juliet's Nurse arrives with her man Peter and asks to speak with Romeo. Mercutio starts making sexual jokes about the Nurse, but finally exits with Benvolio. The Nurse tells Romeo her mistress is willing to meet him in marriage. Romeo indicates the Nurse should have Juliet meet him at Friar Laurence's place that afternoon.

Act Two, Scene Four

Juliet eagerly awaits her Nurse and news from Romeo. The Nurse finally arrives and sits down. Juliet begs her for information, but the Nurse comically refuses to tell her anything until she has settled down and gotten a back rub. She finally informs Juliet that Romeo awaits her at the chapel where Friar Laurence lives.

Act Two, Scene Five

Romeo and Friar Laurence are in the chapel waiting for Juliet to arrive. The Friar cautions Romeo to "love moderately." Juliet soon appears and Friar Laurence takes the two young lovers into the church to be married.

Act Three, Scene One

Benvolio and Mercutio are on a street in Verona waiting for Romeo to arrive. While there, Tybalt and Petruccio see them and come over to provoke a quarrel. Tybalt is expressly looking to find Romeo, whom he want to punish for sneaking into the masked party the previous day.

Romeo arrives and tries to be submissive to Tybalt by telling him that he harbors no hatred of the Capulet house. Tybalt is unsure how to deal with Romeo, but since Mercutio is provoking him to a duel, he draws his sword and attacks Mercutio. Romeo draws his sword and intervenes too late to stop Tybalt from stabbing Mercutio. Tybalt and Petruccio then exit the area.

Mercutio leaves the stage with Benvolio, who soon returns to tell Romeo that Mercutio has died. Romeo vows revenge on Tybalt, who soon reappears to fight with him. In the duel, Romeo kills Tybalt. Benvolio tells Romeo to run away before the Prince arrives.

The Prince, followed by the Montague and Capulet families, shows up at the scene. Benvolio tells him the entire story, but the Prince refuses to believe Romeo is guiltless. He banishes Romeo from Verona, threatening to kill him should he return.

Act Three, Scene Two

Juliet delivers one of the most elegant soliloquys in the play about Romeo, whom she is hoping to receive news about. Her Nurse enters with the news of Tybalt's death and Romeo's banishment, but as in the previous scene refuses to immediately tell Juliet what she knows. Instead, the nurse lets Juliet believe that it is Romeo who has been killed.

When the Nurse finally reveals the truth to Juliet, Juliet immediately chides Romeo for pretending to be peaceful when in fact he is able to kill Tybalt. She then recants, and tell the Nurse, "Shall I speak ill of him that is my husband?" (3.2.97). Juliet laments the fact that Romeo has been banished, and indicates that she would rather have both her parents killed then see Romeo banished.

The Nurse promises to go find Romeo and bring him to Juliet's bed that night. She tells Juliet that he is hiding with Friar Laurence. Juliet gives the Nurse a ring for Romeo to wear when he comes to see her that night.

Act Three, Scene Three

Friar Laurence tells Romeo that he is banished from Verona, and that he should be happy that the Prince was willing to commute the death sentence. Romeo considers banishment worse than death, because it means that he can never see Juliet again.When the Friar tries to console him, Romeo says, "Wert thou as young as I, Juliet thy love.../ Then mightst thou speak" (3.3.65/68).

The nurse enters and finds Romeo on the ground weeping. She tells him to stand up. Romeo is so upset by the events that he starts to stab himself, but the Nurse snatches away the dagger. Friar Laurence tells Romeo that he should be happy, since he and Juliet are still alive and want to see each other. The Friar then gets Romeo to go see Juliet that night, with the expectation that Romeo will run away to Mantua the next morning.

Act Three, Scene Four

The Capulets and Paris are preparing for bed, even though it is almost morning. Old Capulet decides right then that Juliet will marry Paris. He comments, "I think she will be ruled / In all respects by me" (3.4.13-4). He tells Lady Capulet to speak to Juliet about the matter immediately before going to bed.

Romeo and Juliet are in her bedroom as daylight approaches. They pretend for a short minute that it really is still the night, but the Nurse arrives to tell Juliet her mother approaches. Romeo descends from the balcony to the ground and bids her goodbye.

Lady Capulet tells Juliet she has news to cheer her up, namely the planned wedding with Paris. Juliet tells her that she would sooner marry Romeo rather than Paris. Capulet himself enters and becomes furious when Juliet refuses to marry Paris. He calls Juliet "young baggage" and orders her to prepare to marry Paris the upcoming Thursday.

Lady Capulet refuses to help Juliet, and even the Nurse tells her that Paris is a fine gentleman whom she should marry. Juliet kicks out her Nurse and prepares to visit Friar Laurence. As the Nurse leaves, Juliet calls her, "Ancient damnation!" (3.5.235).

Act Four, Scene One

Paris is speaking with Friar Laurence about the wedding with Juliet. Friar Laurence, aware that Juliet cannot marry Romeo, is full of misgivings.

Juliet enters and is forced to speak with Paris, who acts arrogant now that the marriage is going to happen. Juliet rebuffs him by giving vague answers to his questions. She finally asks Friar Laurence if she can meet with him alone, meaning that Paris has to leave.

Friar Laurence comes up with a rash plan to get Romeo and Juliet together. He gives Juliet a poison which will make her appear dead to the world. In this way, rather than marry Paris, she will instead be placed in the vault where all deceased Capulets are buried. Friar Laurence will then send a letter to Romeo, telling him what is being done so that he can return and sneak Juliet out of the tomb and also away from Verona.

Act Four, Scene Two

Juliet arrives home and tells her father that she has repented her sin of being disobedient to him. He pardons her and happily sends her off to prepare her clothes for the wedding day. Capulet then goes to tell Paris that Juliet will marry him willingly.

Act Four, Scene Three

Juliet convinces both her mother and the Nurse that she wants to sleep alone that night. She prepares to drink the poison that Friar Laurence gave her, but cautiously puts a knife next to her bed in case the potion should fail to work. Juliet then drinks the potion and falls motionless onto her bed.

Act Four, Scene Four

The Nurse goes to fetch Juliet but instead finds her lying dead. Lady Capulet enters and also starts lamenting her daughter's demise. Capulet then arrives and, discovering his daughter has committed suicide, orders the music to change to funeral tunes.

Act Five, Scene One

Romeo has had a dream in which Juliet finds him dead which has disturbed him. His servant Balthasar arrives in Mantua from Verona with news that Juliet is dead. Romeo immediately orders him to bring a post horse so that he can return to Verona and see her for himself. Romeo then finds a poverty stricken apothecary and pays him for some poison.

Act Five, Scene Two

Friar John arrives to tell Friar Laurence that he was unable to deliver the letter to Romeo. His excuse is that some people were afraid he carried the pestilence (the plague) and refused to let him out of a house. Friar Laurence realizes that this destroys his plans, and orders a crowbar so that he can go rescue Juliet from the grave.

Act Five, Scene Three

Romeo and Balthasar arrive at Juliet's tomb, where Paris is standing watch to ensure no one tries to rob the vault. Paris sees Romeo and fights him, but is killed in the process. His page then runs off to fetch the city watchmen.

Romeo opens up the tomb and sees Juliet. He sits down next to her, takes a cup and fills it with the poison, then drinks it and dies kissing Juliet. Friar Laurence arrives only seconds later and discovers that Paris has been killed by Romeo.

Juliet awakes and finds Romeo dead beside her, with the cup of poison still next to him. She kisses him, hoping some of the poison will kill her as well. Friar Laurence pleads with her to come out of the vault, but instead Juliet chooses to kill herself with Romeo's dagger.

At this point the watchmen arrive, along with the Prince, Montague and Capulet. Friar Laurence tells them the story as he knows it, and Balthasar gives the Prince a letter written by Romeo which verifies the story. Montague, in order to make amends for Juliet's death, tells them he will erect a golden statue of her in Verona for all to see. Not to be outdone, Capulet promises the same of Romeo. The Prince ends the play with the words, "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo." (5.3.308-9)

The Tempest

Summary of Act I:

Act I, Scene I

On a stormy sea, mariners try to keep a ship, with its passengers‹Alonso, the King of Naples, his brothers Sebastian and Antonio, his son Ferdinand, and his advisor, Gonzalo‹from running aground on the rocks. The boatswain reckons that even kings cannot "command these elements" of wind and water, and tells Antonio and Sebastian that they can either "keep below" or help the sailors. The noblemen take offense at being ordered around by a mere mariner, and both show a mean-tempered streak in this encounter. Suddenly, a panic seizes the mariners, and they declare "all lost," surrendering themselves, and their ship, to the vicious storm; Antonio and Sebastian also fear the worst, and go below to say goodbye to their brother Alonso.

Act I, Scene 2

Prospero and his daughter Miranda are the focus of this scene, and from Miranda's first speech it becomes clear that the storm in the previous scene was somehow caused and controlled by Prospero. Miranda is concerned that good men were lost in the wreck, but Prospero assures her that it all went to plan, and no men were harmed. Prospero explains his motivations for causing the storm by telling her his history with the nobles aboard the ship; he reveals to Miranda that Antonio is his brother, and that he was once the rightful Duke of Milan, a position Antonio now holds. Antonio usurped Prospero's estate and wealth while Prospero became increasingly "rapt in secret studies" and oblivious to his brother's machinations; and in order to take Prospero's title as well, Antonio arranged to have his brother Prospero and Prospero's daughter Miranda killed secretly. But Prospero is widely known to be a good man, so those charged with his death decide not to kill him, Instead, Prospero and Miranda were set adrift on the open sea in a decayed vessel, and were able to survive off the supplies that the honest councilor Gonzalo arranged for them to have; thus, they landed on the island where they now live.

After Prospero's tale, Ariel, a magical spirit, appears; it becomes clear that she is in Prospero's service, and caused the storm, at Prospero's bidding. King Alonso and company are now "dispersedŠ'bout the isle," and Ariel has made the incident look like a shipwreck. Ariel also expresses her wish to be freed by Prospero, although he rescued her from the nasty witch Syncorax. Caliban, who was Syncorax's son, also makes an appearance; Miranda expresses her strong dislike for him, and he has been reduced to no more than Prospero's slave.

Ferdinand, Alonso's son, meets Miranda, and falls immediately in love with her; this appears to be of Ariel's doing, and part of the carefully-laid plan that she must carry out to win her freedom from Prospero.

Summary of Act II

Act 2, Scene I

King Alonso has landed on the island, with his brothers Sebastian and Antonio, noblemen Adrian and Francisco, and the councilor Gonzalo. Gonzalo tries to console Alonso upon their good fortune of surviving the shipwreck‹but Alonso is grieved‹not only because his son Ferdinand is missing and presumed dead, but because he was returning from his daughter's wedding in Africa, and fears he will never see her again because of the distance. Antonio and Sebastian show great skill with mocking wordplay, and use this skill to stifle Gonzalo and Adrian's attempts to speak frankly to the rest of the party. Ariel's magic makes the party fall asleep, with the exception of Antonio and Sebastian.

A strange seriousness, of Ariel's doing, falls upon Antonio and Sebastian. Antonio begins to concoct a plan to get his brother the kingship, which will be much easier if Ferdinand, the current heir, really is dead; and since Alonso's daughter is very far away in Tunis, Sebastian might be able to inherit the crown with only two murders, those of Alonso and Gonzalo. Ariel, however, hears to conspirators plan, and wakes Gonzalo with a warning of the danger he is in. Ariel intends to let Prospero know that the conspiracy has indeed been formed as he wished, and Prospero in turn will try to keep Gonzalo safe, out of appreciation for his past help in preserving the lives of Prospero and Miranda.

Act 2, Scene 2

Caliban curses Prospero, as another storm approaches the island; he takes the storm as a sign that Prospero is up to mischief, and hides at the approach of what he fears is one of Prospero's punishing spirits. Trinculo, Alonso's court jester, finds Caliban lying still on the ground and covered with a cloak, and figures him to be a "dead Indian"; but, the storm continues to approach, so he also hides himself, using Caliban's cloak as a shelter, and flattening himself on the ground beside Caliban's prostrate form.

Alonso's drunken butler, Stephano, enters, drunk and singing, and stumbles upon the strange sight of the two men under the cloak; he figures, in his drunken stupor, that Trinculo and Caliban make a four-legged monster. Caliban,in his delirium, thinks that Stephano is one of Prospero's minions, sent to torment him; Stephano thinks a drink of wine will cure Caliban of what ails him, and bit by bit, gets Caliban drunk as well. It takes Stephano a while to recognize his old friend, Trinculo, whom Caliban seems to be ignoring. Because of Stephano's generosity with his "celestial liquor," Caliban takes him to be some sort of benevolent god; much to Trinculo's disbelief, Caliban actually offers his service to Stephano, forsaking the "tyrant" Prospero. Stephano accepts the offer.

Summary of Act III

Ferdinand has been made to take Caliban's place as a servant, despite his royal status; and though he does not like Prospero, he does the work because it will benefit his new love, Miranda. Ferdinand and Miranda express their love for each other, and both express their desire to be married‹though they have known each other for less than a day.

Act III, Scene 2

Stephano, Trinculo, and Caliban are drinking; Trinculo and Sebastian continue to insult Caliban, though Caliban only protests against Trinculo's remarks, and tries to get Stephano to defend him. Caliban begins to tell the other two about the tyranny of his old master, Prospero, and how he wants to be rid of Prospero forever; Ariel enters, causes further discord among the group, and gets Caliban to form a murder plot against Prospero. Caliban promises Stephano that if Prospero is successfully killed, he will allow Stephano to be ruler of the island, and will be his servant. He also promises that Stephano will get Miranda if the plot is successful‹Ariel leaves, to tell Prospero of these developments.

Act III, Scene 3

Alonso, Adrian, Francisco, Sebastian, Antonio, and Gonzalo are still wandering about the island, and Alonzo has finally given up any hope of his son Ferdinand being alive. Antonio and Sebastian decide to make their murderous move later that night, but their conspiracy is interrupted by Prospero sending in a huge banquet via his spirits, with he himself there, but invisible. They are all amazed, but not too taken aback that they will not eat the food; but, as they are about to eat, a vengeful Ariel enters, taking credit for their shipwreck, and makes the banquet vanish. Alonso recognizes Ariel's words as being of Prospero's pen, and the great guilt of Alonso, Antonio, and Sebastian begins to take them over, at the thought of Prospero being alive, and so nearby.

Summary of Act IV

Prospero stops Ferdinand's punishment, and decides to finally give Miranda to him, since he has proven his love for her through his service. Prospero accepts the union, but issues them a warning; if Ferdinand takes Miranda's virginity before a ceremony can be performed, then their union will be cursed. Ferdinand swears to Prospero that they shall wait until the ceremony to consummate their marriage, and then Prospero calls upon Ariel to perform one of his last acts of magic. A betrothal masque is performed for the party by some of Prospero's magical spirits; Juno, Ceres, and Iris are the goddesses who are represented within the masque, and the play speaks about the bounties of a good marriage, and blesses the happy couple. This act of magic so captivates Prospero that he forgets Caliban's plot to kill him; for a moment, he almost loses control, but manages to pull himself out of his reverie and take action.

Caliban, Stephano, and Trinculo come looking for Prospero, and swipe a few garments of Prospero's on their way. Caliban still wants very much to kill Prospero, and carry out this plot; however, Trinculo and Stephano are very drunk, as usual, and prove completely incapable of anything but petty theft. Prospero catches them‹not difficult, since they are making a huge amount of noise--and sends Ariel after them as they flee.

Summary of Act V

Prospero finally has all under his control; Ariel has apprehended Alonso, Sebastian, and Antonio, and they are all waiting for Prospero's judgment. Finally, Prospero makes up his mind against revenge, and makes a speech that signifies his renunciation of magic; the accused and the other nobles enter the magic circle that Prospero has made, and stand there, enchanted, while he speaks. Prospero charges Alonso with throwing Prospero and his daughter out of Italy, and Antonio and Sebastian with being part of this crime. Prospero announces Ariel's freedom after Ariel sees the party back to Naples, and Ariel sings a song out of joy. Alonso and Prospero are reconciled after Alonso declares his remorse and repents his wrongs to Prospero and Miranda, and Prospero finally wins back his dukedom from Antonio. Prospero, perhaps unwillingly, also says that he forgives Antonio and Sebastian, though he calls them "wicked" and expresses his reservations about letting them off the hook.

After despairing that his son is dead, Alonso finds out that his son Ferdinand is indeed alive, and the two are reunited; then, Ferdinand and Miranda's engagement is announced, and is approved before the whole party by Alonso and Prospero. Gonzalo rejoices that on the voyage, such a good match was made, and that the brothers are reunited, and some of the bad blood between them is now flushed out. Ariel has readied Alonso's boat for their departure, and the boatswain shows up again, telling them about what happened to all of the sailors during the tempest.

Caliban apologizes to Prospero for taking the foolish Stephano as his master, and Prospero, at last, acknowledges Caliban, and takes him as his own. Stephano, Trinculo, and Caliban's plot is exposed to the whole group, and is immediately forgiven. Prospero invites everyone to pass one last night in the island at his dwelling, and promises to tell the story of his and Miranda's survival, and of the devices of his magic. The play ends with Prospero addressing the audience, telling them that they hold an even greater power than Prospero the character, and can decide what happens next.

Twelfth Night

Act I Summary:

Scene 1:

Count Orsino of Illyria is introduced; he laments that he is lovesick, and wishes that "if music be the food of love," he could kill his unrequited love through an overdose of music. His servant, Curio, asks Orsino if he will go and hunt; Orsino answers with another lovelorn reply, about how his love for the Lady Olivia has been tearing him apart. Orsino's servant Valentine, whom Orsino sent to give his affections to Olivia, returns; Valentine was not allowed to speak directly to Olivia, but Olivia sent a message, via her handmaiden, that Olivia will continue to mourn her dead brother, and will neither allow Orsino to see her or to woo her. Orsino laments that Olivia does not hold the same deeply felt love that he professes to have.

Scene 2:

Viola lands in Illyria, after a terrible shipwreck in which she was separated from her twin brother, Sebastian. Viola hopes that her brother was saved, as she was; the Captain, who also managed to get ashore, tries to console her of the hopes of finding her brother alive. The Captain recalls seeing her brother in the water after the shipwreck, clinging onto a mast, and riding above the waves. As it happens, the Captain is from Illyria, and tells Viola of Count Orsino, and of his love for Lady Olivia; the Captain also mentions Olivia's recent loss of both her father and her brother, and Viola, having lost her brother as well, commiserates with Olivia's situation. Viola proposes that she serve Orsino, since he is a good and just man; she conspires with the Captain that she may be presented to Orsino as a eunuch, and that her true identity as a foreign woman be concealed. The Captain agrees to help her, and he leads her to Orsino.

Scene 3:

Sir Toby, Olivia's drunken uncle, is approached by Olivia's handmaiden, Maria, about his late hours and disorderly habits. Maria also objects to one of Sir Toby's drinking buddies, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a rather foolish man who Sir Toby has brought as a potential suitor to Olivia. Sir Toby has great affection for Sir Andrew, but Maria does not; she believes that Sir Andrew is a drunkard and a fool, and not to be suffered. Sir Toby attempts to introduce Sir Andrew to Maria; wordplay ensues from a series of misunderstandings, puns, and differing usages of words. Maria exits, and Sir Toby and Sir Andrew continue to quibble, with some amusing results; at last, they decide to start drinking.

Scene 4:

Viola has now disguised herself as a boy, Cesario, and has been taken into the service of Count Orsino. Valentine remarks that Orsino and Viola, as Cesario, have become close in the short time that Viola has been employed; indeed, Orsino has already told Viola of his great love for Olivia. Orsino asks Viola to go to Olivia and make Orsino's case to the lady; he believes that Viola/ Cesario, being younger and more eloquent than his other messengers, will succeed. Viola says she will obey, although she confesses in an aside that she already feels love for Orsino, and would rather be his wife than try to woo Olivia for him.

Scene 5:

Feste's first appearance in the play; unlike Sir Toby and Sir Andrew, who make wordplay by mincing each other's meanings, Feste is more perceptive and quick-witted, and gets into an entertaining argument with the equally quick-witted Maria. Olivia enters, with her attendants, and is somewhat displeased and short with Feste; Feste says she is a fool for mourning her brother, if she knows that her brother is in heaven. Viola/ Cesario arrives at Olivia's house, and is admitted after much waiting, and being examined by both Sir Toby and Malvolio. Viola is brought in to meet Olivia, who finds out Viola is a messenger on Orsino's behalf, and Olivia discourages Viola from wooing her for the Count. Viola tries to make Orsino's suit, though Olivia counters this with elusive and witty remarks; Olivia begins to show interest in Viola as Cesario in this scene, and still insists that she cannot love Orsino. Viola is sent away at last, and Olivia has Malvolio go after Viola, with a ring and an invitation to come back tomorrow.

Act II Summary:

Scene 1:

Sebastian, Viola's brother, is shown alive, and in the company of Antonio, a somewhat ­shady sea-captain who is wanted by Count Orsino for questionable doings on the seas. Sebastian tells Antonio of his sister, Viola, who he fears has been drowned; he thanks Antonio for his kindness in saving him from being drowned, and resolves that he must be off alone. Antonio asks if he may go with Sebastian, but Sebastian refuses this kind request, and is gone.

Scene 2:

Malvolio catches up to Viola, with the ring he was instructed to give Viola by Olivia. Viola is surprised, since she left no ring with Olivia; Malvolio grows impatient with Viola's claim to know nothing of the ring, and he throws it down onto the ground, and storms off. Viola realizes that the ring is proof that Olivia has some affection for her as Cesario; she regrets that Olivia is in love with her disguise, as that will come to nothing, and also that she is in love with her master, but that she can do nothing in her present disguise.

Scene 3:

Sir Toby and Sir Andrew are up late, drinking; Feste joins them, and they request that he sing a song about love. They proceed to make a great deal of noise, by singing, drinking, and talking nonsense; Maria tries to get them to be quiet, but Malvolio is awakened by the noise, and comes down to berate them for disturbing the household. Once Malvolio leaves, Maria concocts a plan to make Malvolio look like a complete fool: since Maria's handwriting is similar to Olivia's, she will write love letters to Malvolio and make it look like the letters have come from Olivia. The party decides to try this out and see if it will work; Maria leaves to go to bed, and Sir Toby and Sir Andrew decide to drink the rest of the night away.

Scene 4:

Orsino calls upon Feste to sing an old song, that pleases him very well; Orsino then begins to talk to Viola/ Cesario of love, and its imperfections. Orsino compares women to roses "whose fair flower/ being once displayed, doth fall that very hour"; Viola does not completely approve of Orsino's slightly cynical view of women, and will seek to correct it later in the scene. Feste begins to sing his song, a sad one about love and death, and when he is done, he is dismissed, and makes a remark about Orsino's extreme changeability of mood.

Viola attempts to soothe Orsino's melancholy by getting him to accept that Olivia might not love him, but that perhaps another woman does; Orsino counters this with the argument that women are very inconstant in their love, and could not have a feeling as deep as the love he has for Olivia. Viola knows that this is not true, in light of the great amount of feeling she has for Orsino; she attempts to persuade him that women are "as true of heart" as men, by telling him a story she makes up about a sister that loved only too constantly and too well. Orsino asks Viola to go again to Olivia, and make his suit; Viola obeys, and sets off to see Olivia again.

Scene 5:

Maria appears, with the love-letter she has written for the purposes of baiting Malvolio. Sir Toby, Sir Andrew, and their friend Fabian are present; they hide behind a tree as Malvolio approaches, and Maria places the letter somewhere where he is certain to find it. Malvolio approaches, already muttering nonsense about thinking that Olivia fancies him, and about how things would be if they were married; this angers Sir Toby and Sir Andrew, who want to beat Malvolio for his pretension. Malvolio finally spots the letter, and recognizes the handwriting as Olivia's; he takes the bait completely, believing it to be proof that Olivia really does love him. Sir Toby and Sir Andrew marvel at Maria's plan, and how it has worked, and cannot wait to see Malvolio make an even bigger fool of himself.

Act III Summary:

Scene 1:

Viola enters, on her way to see Olivia; she comes across Feste, who is full of wit and foolery as usual. Feste expresses his dislike for Viola, which Viola does not take personally; Viola gives him a few coins for his wordplay, and mentions the wit that it takes to act the fool as well as Feste does. Viola runs across Sir Toby and Sir Andrew on her way to visit Olivia; Olivia then comes to meet Viola, and Viola again attempts to make Orsino's suit to Viola.

Olivia apologizes for the confusion she brought upon Viola with sending the ring; then, Olivia confesses her affection for Viola/ Cesario, and begs to know if Viola does indeed feel the same way. Viola says no, then asks again if Olivia will have anything to do with Orsino; Olivia is constant in her lack of response to Orsino, but makes one last attempt to win Cesario over. Viola warns Olivia as best she can, telling Olivia that "I am not what I am," though Olivia does not guess at the statement's real meaning (III.i.139). Of course she is unsuccessful, and Viola leaves‹but not without an entreaty to return.

Scene 2:

Sir Andrew finally comes to his senses, realizing that Olivia favors Cesario far more than she favors him. His friend Fabian tries to convince him that Olivia is only pretending to favor Cesario, in order to make Sir Andrew jealous; his lie is well-intentioned, but does not soothe Sir Andrew's anger. Sir Toby then persuades Sir Andrew that he should challenge Cesario to a duel, and that, if Sir Andrew wins, he will surely gain Olivia's affections. Sir Toby tells him to write a letter of challenge, which Sir Toby will deliver; Toby actually has no intent of sponsoring a duel, but thinks the exercise might cool Sir Andrew off a little. Maria then enters, and begs them all to come see Malvolio, who is acting like a complete idiot in front of Olivia.

Scene 3:

Antonio is slow to leave Sebastian's side, as he fears some accident may happen to Sebastian since he is completely ignorant of the country. Sebastian wants to go about and see the sights, but Antonio tells him that he cannot; Antonio confesses that he was involved with some piracy against Illyria, and that he is wanted by the Count because of it. Antonio proposes that they meet up at an inn in one hour, and that Sebastian can wander about until then; they part, hopeful of meeting up again without accident.

Scene 4:

Maria warns Olivia of Malvolio's very strange behavior; yet, Olivia still wishes that Malvolio be brought before her. Malvolio is wearing yellow, cross-gartered stockings, which Olivia abhors; he is careful to point out what he thinks is his fashionable taste. Malvolio continues his absurdity, making remarks of unwarranted familiarity, and completely baffling Olivia with his misguided attempts to be amorous toward her. Olivia dismisses Malvolio's odd behavior as being some kind of passing madness, and orders that Malvolio be looked after while she sees to Cesario, who has supposedly returned.

Sir Toby, Maria, and Fabian approach Malvolio; they treat Malvolio's case as an instant of witchcraft or possession, and pretend they know nothing of the real cause of Malvolio's strange behavior. Then, their plan takes a more malicious turn; not satisfied with the havoc they have already caused, they decide to make Malvolio go mad, if they can. Sir Andrew returns, with his "saucy" letter for Cesario, and Viola as Cesario appears, having patched up any bad feelings over their last dramatic scene.

Sir Toby conveys Sir Andrew's challenge to Viola, and tries to make Viola shrink from the confrontation by greatly exaggerating Sir Andrew's meanness and anger. Sir Andrew and Viola come close to some sort of reluctant confrontation, when Antonio stumbles on them; Antonio is arrested by officers of the Count, and asks Viola for his purse, mistaking Viola for her brother Sebastian. Antonio is taken aback when Viola will not give him his purse, thinking that she, as Sebastian, is ungrateful for his help; he speaks of rescuing Sebastian from drowning, which lets Viola know that her brother might be alive. Antonio is dragged away, and Viola hopes that what Antonio said is indeed true, and that her brother might have been saved from the wreck.

Act IV Summary:

Scene 1:

Feste approaches Sebastian, thinking that Sebastian is 'Cesario'; when Sebastian tells Feste that he does not know him, nor Olivia, whom Feste tells him to meet, Feste becomes rather upset, and accuses Sebastian of "strangeness". Then Sir Andrew comes, and strikes Sebastian out of anger, as if he were Cesario; Sir Toby and Sebastian come close to getting in a duel of their own, when Olivia finds them, and charges them to stop. Olivia dismisses Sir Toby, and asks Sebastian "would thou'dst be ruled by me," thinking that he is Cesario, due to his great resemblance to his sister. Sebastian decides to go along with it, struck by Olivia's beauty, thinking it all a pleasant dream from which he hopes he will not awaken.

Scene 2:

Maria and Feste conspire to present Feste as Sir Topaz, the curate, to Malvolio, who is hidden from view. Feste tries to convince that Malvolio that he is crazy, and Malvolio continues to insist that he is not, that he has been wrongly incarcerated. Feste then confronts Malvolio as himself, and torments him some more; he fakes a conversation with himself as Feste and Sir Topaz, and Malvolio begs for paper and ink so that he can send a message to Olivia. Feste promises to fetch these things, and exits with a song.

Scene 3:

Sebastian debates with himself whether he is mad, or whether it is the Lady Olivia; but, he recognizes that is cannot be her, since she is able to command a large household, and therefore would have to be sane and coherent. Olivia asks him to come with her to the parson and be married to her; Sebastian, though he does not know her and cannot figure out exactly what is going on, says he will marry her, and leaves with her.

Act V Summary:

Scene 1:

Fabian asks Feste for the letter Malvolio has written; Feste refuses this request, and then Orsino, with Viola, finds them. Feste delays him with a bit of jesting, and gets some money out of him; Orsino asks him to find Olivia, and Feste goes to find her, with the promise of money for the task. Viola points out Antonio, who is being brought to them by officers; Orsino remembers Antonio from a sea-battle, and Viola tries to defend Antonio from charges of crime by noting his kindness to her. Antonio claims that he rescued Viola from drowning, and that they have been in each other's company ever since; Orsino says that this is nonsense, since Viola has been serving him the whole time.

Then, Olivia approaches them, still denying Orsino's love, while admitting her affection for Viola. Orsino becomes angry at Viola, rather than Olivia, because of these developments; he begins to suspect Viola of double-dealings, and out of his anger, he admits his love for Viola, still disguised as a boy. Viola, for the first time, declares her love for Orsino, much to Olivia's consternation; Olivia counters this declaration by divulging that she was married, to Viola as Cesario, she thinks. A priest confirms Olivia's account, and Orsino becomes even more angry at Viola. Sir Andrew and Sir Toby enter, charging Viola with fighting them and injuring them; Viola is again shocked, and confused.

Suddenly, Sebastian dashes in, apologizing for injuring Sir Toby; he expresses his happiness at seeing Antonio again, and acknowledges Olivia as his wife. Viola and Sebastian see each other again, and there is a joyful reunion. Sebastian reveals to Olivia that she married him, rather than his sister in disguise; Orsino swears that he loves Viola, and will marry her.

Then, the action turns to Malvolio's condition; his letter is read, and his condition explained. Malvolio is upset at his mistreatment, and Olivia attempts to smooth things over; Fabian explains his, Sir Toby's, and Maria's part in Malvolio's torment. Then, Feste inflames Malvolio's anger, and he leaves, in a huff.

Orsino pronounces that happiness will stay with all of them, and that his marriage to Viola will soon be performed. Feste closes the play with a song about "the wind and the rain," a reminder that even great happiness is not safe from life's storms.

Wuthering Heights

Chapter 1, Summary

In Chapter 1 the narrator, Mr. Lockwood, relates how he has just returned from a visit to his new landlord, Mr. Heathcliff. Lockwood, a self-described misanthropist, is renting Thrushcross Grange in an effort to get away from society following a failure at love. He had fallen in love with a "real goddess," but when she returned his affection he acted so coldly she "persuaded her mamma to decamp." He finds that relative to Heathcliff, however, he is extremely sociable. Heathcliff, "a dark skinned gypsy, in aspect, in dress, and manners a gentleman" treats his visitor with a minimum of friendliness, and the farm, Wuthering Heights, where he lives, is just as foreign and unfriendly. "Wuthering" means stormy and windy in the local dialect. Dangerous-looking dogs inhabit the bare and old-fashioned rooms, and threaten to attack Lockwood: when he calls for help Heathcliff implies that Lockwood had tried to steal something. The only other inhabitants of Wuthering Heights are an old servant named Joseph and a cook. Despite his rudeness, Lockwood finds himself drawn to Heathcliff: he describes him as being intelligent, proud and morose, an unlikely farmer, and declares his intention to visit Wuthering Heights again. The visit is set in 1801.

Chapter 2, Summary

Annoyed by the housework being done in the Grange, Lockwood pays a second visit to Wuthering Heights, arriving there just as snow begins to fall. The weather is cold, the ground is frozen, and his reception matches the bleak unfriendliness of the moors. After yelling at the old servant Joseph to open the door, he is finally let in by a peasant-like young man. The bare kitchen is warm, and Lockwood assumes that the young and beautiful girl there is Mrs. Heathcliff. He tries to make conversation but she is consistently scornful and inhospitable, and he only embarrasses himself. There is "a kind of desperation" in her eyes. She refuses to make him tea unless Heathcliff said he could have some. The young man and Heathcliff come in for tea. The young man behaves boorishly and seems to suspect Lockwood of making advances to the girl. Heathcliff demands tea "savagely," and Lockwood decides he doesn't really like him. Trying to make conversation again, Lockwood gets into trouble first assuming that the girl is Heathcliff's wife, and then that she is married to the young man, who he supposes to be Heathcliff's son. He is rudely corrected, and it transpires that the girl is Heathcliff's daughter-in-law but her husband is dead, as is Heathcliff's wife. The young man is Hareton Earnshaw. It is snowing hard and Lockwood requests a guide so he can return home safely, but he is refused: Heathcliff considers it more important that Hareton take care of the horses. Joseph, who is evidently a religious fanatic, argues with the girl, who frightens him by pretending to be a witch. The old servant doesn't like her reading. Lockwood, left stranded and ignored by all, tries to take a lantern, but Joseph offensively accuses him of stealing it, and sets dogs on him. Lockwood is humiliated and Heathcliff and Hareton laugh. The cook, Zillah, takes him in and says he can spend the night.

Chapter 3, Summary

Zillah quietly shows Lockwood to a chamber which, she says, Heathcliff does not like to be occupied. She doesn't know why, having only lived there for a few years. Left alone, Lockwood notices the names "Catherine Earnshaw," "Catherine Linton," and "Catherine Heathcliff" scrawled over the window ledge. He leafs through some old books stacked there, and finds that the margins are covered in handwriting  evidently the child Catherine's diary. He reads some entries which evoke a time in which Catherine and Heathcliff were playmates living together as brother and sister, and bullied by Joseph (who made them listen to sermons) and her older brother Hindley. Apparently Heathcliff was a "vagabond" taken in by Catherine's father, raised as one of the family, but when the father died Hindley made him a servant and threatened to throw him out, to Catherine's sorrow.

Lockwood then falls asleep over a religious book, and has a nightmare about a fanatical preacher leading a violent mob. Lockwood wakes up, hears that a sound in his dream had really been a branch rubbing against the window, and falls asleep again. This time he dreams that he wanted to open the window to get rid of the branch, but when he did, a "little, ice-cold hand" grabbed his arm, and a voice sobbed "let me in." He asked who it was, and was answered: "Catherine Linton. I'm come home, I'd lost my way on the moor." He saw a child's face and, afraid, drew the child's wrist back and forth on the broken glass of the window so that blood soaked the sheets. Finally he gets free, and insists that he won't let the creature in, even if it has been lost for twenty years, which it claims it has. He awakes screaming.

Heathcliff comes in, evidently disturbed and confused, unaware that Lockwood is there. Lockwood tells him what happened, mentioning the dream and Catherine Linton's name, which distresses and angers Heathcliff. Lockwood goes to the kitchen, but hears on his way Heathcliff at the window, despairingly begging "Cathy" to come in "at last." Lockwood is embarrassed by his host's obvious agony.

Morning comes: Lockwood witnesses an argument between Heathcliff and the girl, who has been reading. He bullies her, and she resists spiritedly. Heathcliff walks Lockwood most of the way home in the snow.

Chapter 4, Summary

Lockwood is bored and a little weak after his adventures, so he asks his housekeeper, Ellen Dean, to tell him about the history of Heathcliff and the old families of the area. She says he is very rich and a miser, though he has no family, since his son is dead. The girl living at Wuthering Heights was the daughter of Ellen's former employers, the Lintons, and her name was Catherine. She is the daughter of the late Mrs. Catherine Linton, was b