American Cinema (Кино и театры Америки)
School N0 1 with
Learning of Foreign Languages
Made by Bragina
Foreign Language Department
American Cinema. 3
The earliest history of film. 4
The earliest movie theatres. 4
The growth of the film industry. 5
The Oscar. 7
Beverly Hills. 9
The major film genres. 9
Film Companies. 10
Film Directors and Producers. 10
Actors and Actresses. 12
Marilyn Monroe. 16
Walt Disney. 18
I’m a cinema goer. And also I like watching films on TV or video. But I think,
that watching a good film is the best relaxation. It is thought-provoking and
entertaining. Now a growing number of people prefer watching films on TV to
attending cinemas. There are wonderful comedies, love stories, science fiction,
horror films, detective stories, and historical films on. There’s a variety of
films available today. It is difficult to live without cinema. One fact is
clear for everyone: cinema makes our life better. Cinema helps us to forget
different problems. When people watch films, they have a rest. Some films take
people into another world. I think it is a pure world, where usual problems do
not even exist. Cinema is a great power, it helps us to understand our complex
well. Cinema can leave nobody indifferent. It is so powerful that it provokes
complex feelings. We meet a lot of people. Everyone has his own opinion about
something and like most of us I have my own opinion too, for example, about
cinema. Cinema is a necessary and important part of my life. It is my essence,
my mode of life and my happiness. Cinema helps me to cope with difficulties and
with incorrigible problems. So that’s why I have chosen the topic ‘Cinema’.
The world of American cinema is so
far-reaching a topic that it deserves, and often receives, volumes of its own.
Hollywood (in Los Angeles, California), of course, immediately comes to mind,
as do the many great directors, actors and actresses it continues to attract
and produce. But then, one also thinks of the many independent studios
throughout the country, the educational and documentary series and films, the
socially-relevant tradition in cinema, and the film departments of
universities, such as the University of Southern California (USC), the
University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) or New York University.
For over 50 years, American
films have continued to grow in popularity throughout the world. Television
has only increased this popularity.
great blockbusters of film entertainment that stretch from "Gone with the
Wind" to "Star Wars" receive the most attention. A look at the
prizes awarded at the leading international film festivals will also
demonstrate that as an art form, the American film continues to
enjoy-considerable prestige. Even when the theme is serious or, as they say,
"meaningful", American films remain "popular". In the past decade,
films which treated the danger of nuclear power and weapons, alcoholism, divorce,
inner-city blight, .the effects of slavery, the plight of Native Americans,
poverty and immigration have all received awards and international
recognition. And, at the same time, they have done well at the box-office.
Movies (films), including
those on video-cassettes, remain the most popular art form in the USA. A book
with 20,000 readers is considered to be a best-seller. A hit play may be seen
by a few thousand theatergoers. By contrast, about a billion movie tickets are
sold at movie houses across the USA every year.
There are three main
varieties of movie theaters in the USA: 1) the "first-run" movie
houses, which show new films; 2) "art theaters", which specialize in
showing foreign films and revivals; 3) "neighborhood theaters",
which run films — sometimes two at a time — after the "first-run"
New York is a movie theater
capital of the country. Many of the city's famous large movie theaters, once giving
Times Square so much of its glitter, have been torn down or converted (in some
cases into smaller theaters), and a new generation of modem theaters has
appeared to the north and east of the area. Most of them offer continuous
performances from around noon till midnight. Less crowded and less expensive
are the so-called "neighborhood theaters", which show films several
weeks or months after the "first-run" theaters. There are several
theaters that specialize in revivals of famous old films and others that show
only modernist, avant-garde films. Still others, especially those along 42nd
Street, between the Avenue of Americas and Eighth Avenue, run movies about sex
and violence. Foreign films, especially those of British, French, Italian and
Swedish origin, are often seen in New York, and several movie theaters
specialize in the showing of foreign-language films for the various ethnic
groups in the city.
The illusion of movement was first noted
in the early 19th century. In
1824 the English physician Peter Mark Roget published an article ‘the
persistence of vision with regard to moving objects’. Many inventors put his
theory to the test with pictures posted on coins that were flipped by the
thumb, and with rotating disks of drawings. A particular favorite was the
zoetrope, slotted revolving drum through which could be seen clowns and animals
that seemed to leap. They were hand drawn on strips of paper fitted inside the
drum. Other similar devices were the hemitrope, the phasmatrope, the
phenakistoscope, and the praxinoscope. It is not possible to give any one
person credit for having invented the motion picture. In the 1880s the
Frenchman Etienne Jules Marey developed the rotating shutter with a slot to
admit light, and George Eastman, of New York, developed flexible film. In 1888
Thomas Edison, of New Jersey, his phonograph for recording and playing sound on
wax cylinders. He tried to combine sound with motion pictures. Edison’s
assistant, William Dickson, worked on the idea, and in 1889, he both appeared
and spoke in a film. Edison did not turn his attention to the projected motion
picture at first. The results were still not good enough, and Edison did not
think that films would not have large appeal. Instead he produced and patented
the kinetoscope, which ran a continuous loop of film about 15 meters (50 feet)
long. Only one person could view it at a time. By 1894, hand-cranked
kinetoscope appeared all over the United States and Europe. Edison demonstrated
a projecting kinetoscope. The cinematograph based on Edison’s kinetoscope was
invented by two Frenchmen, Louis and Auguste Lumiere. This machine consisted of
a portable camera and a projector. In December 1895, The Lumiere brothers
organized a program of short motion pictures at a Parisian cafe.
Films were first thought of as experiment
or toys. They were shown in
scientific laboratories and in the drawing rooms of private home. When their
commercial potential was realized they began to be screened in public to a
paying audience. The first films to be shown publicly were short, filmed news
items and travelogues. These were screened alongside live variety acts form
theatre shows, called vaudeville in United States. Within a few years fairground
tents that slowed nothing but programs of films were common sights. In United
States stores were converted onto movie theatre, which were known as
‘storefront theatre’. People would pay a nickel to see about an hour’s worth of
film, so the theatre came to be known as ‘nickelodeons’. Early film audiences
needed patience. There were many technical problems. Projectors were likely to
breath down and every projectionist kept slides to reassure the audience: ‘The
performance will resume shortly.’ Many projectors caused flickering on the
screen, earning films the nickname of ‘the flicks’.
From the start the film industry was eager
to make and show films that people would want to see. The most popular films were those that told stories-
narrative fiction films. Film making began to realize that by using different
camera angels, locations, lighting and special effects, film could tell a story
in the way that live theatre couldn’t.
The great Train Robbery, made in 1903 by Edwin
S. Porter, was the first American narrative fiction film. It included the basic ingredients of the Western: a
hold-up, a chase, and a gunfight. It used a great variety of shots by showing
the action at different distances from the camera- long shots of action in the
distance, but also medium shots of the actors shown full-length, and chase-ups
of the face and shoulders of a gunman shooting directly at the audience.
Before World War I American film industry
had logged behind the film industries of Europe particularly those of France
and Italy. But during the war,
film making almost stopped in Europe, partly because a chemical used in
celluloid was needed for making gunpowder. The American film industry thrived
during the war because there was money for making films; and also because of
popular the genius of D. W. Griffith. In 1915 Griffith made The Birth Of
Nation, a film about the American Civil War and in 1916 he made Intolerance.
These three hour’s films were American’s answer to the spectacular Italian
films such as Quo Vadis that had earlier astonished the world. For Intolerance
Griffith had built a set of an ancient Babylonian city, which was over a mile
long, and he photograph it from a balloon. Griffith was a genius, not just
because he could show huge and thrilling scenes on the screen, but because he
was aware of the artistic possibilities of film.
The actors in the old-sealers had mostly
been unknown and their performances very poor. Because the films were silent, actors made up for lack
of speech by frantic and unnatural gestures and movements. A new and better
style of acting was adopted by a young American actress called Marry Pickford
who showed that a simple natural style was more effective on the screen than
dramatic arm-waving and chest-thumping. Her fame spread across the Atlantic. In
1918, she signed a contract for more than a million dollars. The stars system
About the same time, some of the slapstick
comedians developed unique comedy styles, and also became world-famous stars. Charlie Chaplin, the little man with the derby
hat, cane, and boggy pants, became the most famous (he, too, sealed a
million-dollar contract). But others such as Buster Heaton, Harold Lloyd, and
Harry Langdon were also widely acclaimed. They were great artists whose work is
still popular today. By 1920 the cinema had became the most popular form of
leisure activity outside the home.
Film studios such as Metro-Goldwin Meyer,
Paramount, Warner’s, 20th Century Fox, and United Artists developed a system for
producing films on the same principle that Henry Ford used for his cars- the
assembly like Hollywood, on the west coast of the United States, became the
center of the film industry. Its
climate, light and physical surroundings were suited to the film industry,
which shot much material out of doors. Film making thrived. In succeeding
years, many great films were made in Hollywood, beginning with the silent
films, followed, in the mid-twenties, by the first sound pictures.
The first animated cartoon drawn in the
United States especially for film was done in 1906 by J. Stuart Blackton. The first full-length animated feature film
was Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs made in 1937.
The stars of the films being produced in
Hollywood became known throughout the world. Among them were famous Cagney, Clark Gable, Marlene
Dietrich, who had first appeared in films in Germany, the Swedish Greta Garbo
and the young Shirley Temple. Some of the most famous stars were Mickey Mouse
and characters from Walt Disney’s cartoon. Leading film makers included John
Ford, Howard Hawks, Frank Capra and George Cukor.
During World War II some of the best
Americans directors in the US were recruited by the War Department, because
films were needed to help raise the morale of servicemen. Among the best films
of this war period were Frank Capra’s ''Why We Fight'' series (1942-45). Walt Disney’s animated films; and
documentaries about important battlers directed by Garson Kanin, John Huston,
Billy Wilder. Orson Welles’s masterpiece
''Citizen Kane'' (1940) was the story of a newspaper tycoon. After the war high-quality films continued to
pour out of the United States. They
included Charlie Chaplin’s ''Limelight'' (1952), the fine Western Shane (1956),
a drama of the New York docks called On The Waterfront (1954) and many
high-spirited musicals of which An American In Paris (1951) was outstanding. Alfred Hitchcock made his best films during
this period. ''Psycho'' with its famous
murder-in-the-shower scene was probably the most successful. Despite these successes the great studios
began to get into financial difficulties because of declining audiences.
However, the late 1960s saw a turning
point in the American film industry with the release of a number of films
appealing to the youth market, which drew enormous audiences. The most famous
of these were Arthur Penn’s ''Bonnie and Clyde'' (1967) and Dennis Hopper’s
''Easy Rider'' (1969). Realising that they could no longer rely on their
traditional family audiences, film makers increasingly concentrated on films
for the so-called ‘teenage market’, science fiction and fantasy ‘blockbusters’
with computer enhanced special effects Dolby sound such as George Lucas’s
''Star Wars'' (1977) and Steven Spielberg’s ''Raiders Of The Lost Ark'' (1981)
became very popular.
Today Americans still
continue the custom of eating popcorn at the movies. Americans use 500,000
pounds of popcorn every year. All corn does not pop. A seed or kernel of corn
must have 14 percent water in it to pop. Other kinds of pop have less water and
do not pop. When you put a kernel of corn on a fire, the water inside makes the
corn explode. This makes a ‘pop’ noise. That is why we called it popcorn. The
American Indians popped corn a long time ago. The Indians knew there were three
kinds of corn. There was sweet corn for eating, corn for animals, and corn for
popping. The Indians introduced corn to the first settlers, or Pilgrims, when
they come to America in 1620. One year after they came, the Pilgrims had a
Thanksgiving dinner. They invited the Indians. The Indians brought food with
them. One Indian brought popcorn. Since that time Americans continued to pop
corn at home. But in 1945 there was a new machine that changed the history of
popcorn. This electric machine popped corn outside the home. Soon movie
theatres started to sell popcorn to make more money. Popcorn at the movies
became more and more popular. Many people like to put salt and melted butter on
their popcorn. Some people eat it without salt or butter. Either way -
Americans love their popcorn!
The Oscars are awarded every year by the American Academy of Motion Picture
Arts and Science. These statuettes are awarded to actors, film directors,
screenwriters and so on for outstanding contributions to the film industry. The
Oscars were first awarded in 1927. The first winners were chosen by five
judges. Nowadays all of the members of the Academy vote. The ceremony is
attended by most Hollywood stars, although some famous stars, such as Woody
Allen, refuse to go, even if they win an award. The oldest winner of an Oscar
was 80-year- old Jessica Tandy for her performance in the film “Driving Miss
Daisy” in 1990. The youngest was Shirley Temple when she was only five years
old. The statuette is of soldier standing on a reel of film. Nobody is really
sure why it is called an Oscar, although some people say that it is because
when the first statuette was made, a secretary said, “It reminds me of Uncle
When people think about of Hollywood, they
probably think of film stars like Marilyn Monroe, Gary Grant and James Dean. Hollywood is the center of the international
movie industry and American movies are distributed all over the world. They are
made in English but often dubbed into other languages. In some countries 90
percent of the movies that people see are US production. Sometimes, a film is
not very popular with Americans, but people in other countries like it. The
first films were made in Hollywood in 1911. Between 1930-1945, the five largest
Hollywood’s studios produced most of the movies and owned most of the movie
theatres in the United States. Making films is expensive. On the average, it
costs 36 million dollars to produce a movie. Some of this goes to pay the
salary of well-known movie stars and large sums can be spent on special effects
like computer-generated imagery (CGI). Marketing the movie to the public may
cost another 17 million dollars or more. To cover these costs film companies
receive money for movie theatre tickets and the sale or rental of videos. They
also sell CDs of the soundtrack and toys, books, or clothes associated with the
movie. Indeed, there was a time when Hollywood was the most famous place in the
USA, if not the world.
The Hollywood story begins at the
end of the last century.
1887. A man called Harvey Wilcox
bought a large ranch in a district north-west of Los Angeles in California. His
wife called the land ‘Hollywood’.
1902-04. The first cinemas
(‘nickelodeons’) opened in the USA.
1911. Two brothers from New Jersey
built Hollywood’s first film studio.
1912. Film-makers from the east
coast of the USA came to California, first in small number and then in
1912. The Hollywood industry was
There were several reasons why
film makers went to Hollywood. Firstly, there was a lot of space, secondly,
California’s warm sunny weather was ideal for making films outside. Thirdly,
there was a variety of locations for filming: ocean, mountains, deserts,
villages, woodland and rivers.
By 1939 the great dream factory
studios made nearly 500 movies a year, drew American audience of 50 million a
week and earned over 700 million dollars at the box office-all with the help of
30,000 employees who dealt with everything from processing film to fan mail.
In the 1950s and 60s Hollywood
became more international. Famous stars like Maurice Chevalier from France,
Marlene Dietrich from Germany and Sofia Loren from Italy came to Hollywood.
Even today many international stars like Gerard Depardier and Arnold
Schwarzeneger make films in Hollywood.
A big film studio, like MGM or
Warner Brothers, brought to life a lot of film stars. They could make or break
The Hollywood film studio produced
different types. There were the silent Charlie Chaplin comedies of the 20s, gangster
films, Frankenstein horror films and Greta Garbo romantic melodramas of the
30s, the musicals of the 40s and 50s, the westerns (cowboy films) of the 50s,
the historical epics of the 60s, the science fiction films of the 70s and the
Steven Spielberg action films and violent horror films of the 80s. Who knows
what the next century will be famous for?
Most visitors to Los Angeles,
California want to go and see Beverly Hills. This is where you find the homes
of the movie stars. But Beverly Hills isn’t Los Angeles. It’s a small city next
to Los Angeles. All kinds of celebrities live in Beverly Hills. These
celebrities may be movie stars, television stars, sport stars, or other people
in the news. Tourists can buy special maps for the homes of the stars. These
homes are very beautiful. They usually have swimming pools and tennis courts.
But sometimes you cannot see very much. The homes have high walls or trees
around them. Beverly Hills is also famous for Rodeo
Drive. This is one of the most expensive shopping streets in the United States.
Rodeo Drive started to be an elegant street in the 1960s. Many famous stores
are opened on the street. People liked all the new styles and fashions they
could buy. Today you can find the most expensive and unusual clothing, jewelry
and furniture in the world on Rodeo Drive. Rodeo Drive is a very special
street. When you want to park your car in public parking, an attendant will
come and park your car for you. Beverly Hills is really a small city. Only
About 35,000 people live there. But during the day more than 200,000 people
come to Beverly Hills to work or to shop!
The major film genres
developed in the United States are the following:
Comedy. Charles Spencer Chaplin became the
most widely recognized comedy figure in the world. He emphasized the development
of character and plot structure, in contrast to the simple reliance on gags and
gimmicks that characterized the work of other comedy producers of the day.
Western (a film about life in the American West in the past) was the first
American genre to be developed and has remained a staple of the American
motion-picture art and industry. It has been estimated that one quarter of US
films have been Westerns. However, today most American Westerns are made in
Italy and are called '"spaghetti Westerns".
The musicals of the late 1920s and the early 1930s consisted of a series of
"numbers" by established stars of Broad-way, vaudeville and radio.
Later manifestations of the form were the biographical musicals, often highly
fictionalized, about great composers, musicians, singers, providing an
opportunity to string together some of their most popular hits. The transferring
of musicals intact from the Broad-way stage became almost automatic beginning
in the 1950s.
Gangster films. While the Western deals with a mythical American past and the musical
with a fantasy land, the gangster film is closely tied to a real facet of American
life. In earlier films, the gangster had risen to the top to enjoy wealth,
power, beautiful women, expensive homes and large cars, but before the end of
the film he was bound to be caught by law-enforcement officers, overthrown by
fellow gang members or killed. Such punishment was considered obligatory. By
1971, however, "The Godfather" showed how far the genre has evolved:
Marion Brando, in the title role, dies of old age. The gangster was another
They have evolved into a major American genre, since wars have occupied so
much of contemporary American history. The Second World War has been the
subject of the greatest number of American films in this genre.
Horror films (thrillers). In the 1920s the creation of a monster who gets out
of control or is coming to life from non-human beings who survive by killing
the living provided the basic story lines of countless horror films. These
films also have dealt with supernatural forces that manifest themselves as an
unseen power rather than in individual form. A third major kind of horror
films deals with people who are insane or in the grip of psychological powers
beyond their control.
Horror films as a genre is
associated with the name of Alfred Hitchcock. Like Walt Disney with animated
cartoons, Alfred Hitchcock was thought not just to have invented a film genre
but to have patented it (hence "Hitch", another name for a horror
Detective and spy films. These include first of all the James Bond series.
Hitchcock's films of this genre feature ordinary people who accidentally become
involved with spies or other evil doers.
fiction. After the Second World War
science-fiction films increasingly suggested that the dangers of the future
stemmed from what human beings were doing in the present.
Pictures (also Columbia)-American
film company, which produces films for cinema and television.
(MGM) — a film company based in Hollywood, which has made many famous films and
Paramount- a film
company in Hollywood.
20th Century-Fox — an
American film company.
United Artists — a
film company (studio) in Hollywood.
Universal — n film
company (studio) in Hollywood.
(Brothers) — an American film company.
(1935—) — a comic actor and maker of humorous films. Since the late 1960s, he
has been directing films and acting in them, usually playing a neurotic,
bookish New Yorker. Some of his best-known films have been "Annie
Hall", "Manhattan" and "Hannah and Her Sisters".
Capra, Frank (1897-1991) - a film director, best
known for the films "Mr. Smith Goes to Washington" and "It's a
Chaplin, Charlie (Charles Spencer) (1889-1977) — an English actor and director who
worked mainly in the United States in silent black-and-white comedy films. He
created the beloved character, the Little Tramp, who wore a shabby black suit,
derby hat and floppy shoes, and walked with the
backs of his feet together and the toes pointing outwards. He always walked
with a cane.
By 1918 Chaplin had forsaken short comedies for longer, independently
made films, including "Shoulder Arms" (1918) and "The Kid"
(1921). His major films, produced for United Artists (a film company which he
helped to found in 1923), included "The Gold Rush" (1925), "The
Circus" (1928), "City Lights" (1931) and "Modern
Times" (1936), the latter two made as silent films with synchronized sound
effects. Chaplin spoke on the screen for the first time in "The Great
Dictator" (1940), which ridiculed Hitler and Mussolini. In "Monsieur
Verdoux" (1947), which draws an acid analogy between warfare and business
morality, the tramp disappeared entirely; the film provided further ammunition
for a growing anti-Chaplin group who attacked his unconventional personal life
and political views.
After 1952 Chaplin resided in Switzerland. He starred in his production
"A King in New York" (1957), a sharp satire on contemporary America,
and wrote and directed "A Countess from Hongkong" (1967). Chaplin
made a triumphant return to the United States in 1972. He was given an Academy
Award (an Oscar) for his part in "making motion pictures the art form of
Coppola, Francis Ford (1939)- a film director, best known for the films
"'The Godfather" and "Apocalypse Now".
Ford, John (1895-1973) - a film director,
especially known for his Westerns including "Stagecoach", "How
the West Was Won", etc.
Goldwin, Samuel (1882-1947) - a film producer, head
of one of the companies, which later became MGM. Goldwyn is famous for saying
odd things like "include me out".
Griffith, D. W.
(1875-1948) - a film maker, known especially for his use of new photographic
methods and for his epic silent films, such as "The Birth of the Nation"
(1915) that required huge casts and enormous sets.
Griffith directed the first film, "The Adventures
of Dollie", in 1908 and went on to make hundreds of pictures. With
"The Birth of the Nation", he created a landmark in film industry.
Also influential on the future of the film was "Intolerance" (1916).
Griffith continued to make successful films throughout the 1920s. However, the
Victorian sentiment that pervades his films was increasingly alien to the
theme. He failed to make the transition to sound pictures.
Russel, Ken (1926-) — a film director, best known
for documentary films and for the film "Women in Love".
Scorsese, Martin (1942—) — a film director whose
works include "Taxi Driver", "The Last Temptation of
Spielberg, Steven (1946—) — a film director who has
made many very popular films, including "Jaws", "LT",
"Raiders of the Lost Ark", "Star Wars", "Empire of
the Sun", etc. His films are well known for
being very fast moving and full of exciting action.
Zinneman, Frederick (1907- ) – an American film
director, born in Austria, famous for the films such as "High Noon"
and "The Day of Jackal".
(1906-) – a film director whose
films include "Sunset Boulevard" and "Some Like It Hot".
"The Birth of the Nation" — a dramatic silent film from 1915 about the American
Civil War. "The Birth of the Nation" was directed by D. W. Griffith.
The film, based on Thomas Dixon's novel "The Clansman", has been
condemned for historical distortion and racial bias, but it became a landmark
in the artistic development of motion pictures through its successful
introduction of many now-standard film techniques.
"Planet of the Apes
" - a film set
in about imaginary future where monkeys rule the world.
— a horror film directed by Alfred
Hitchcock. It is especially known for a scene in which the character Mario
(Janet Leigh) is stabbed in a shower by Norman Bates (Anthony Perkins).
"Rocky" — the first of a group of
films (later ones were called "Rocky II", "Rock III",
etc.), starring Sylvester Stallone as a determined boxer called Rocky. In each
of the films the main character overcomes difficulties and win a fight against
a strong opponent. The films are especially popular with young people.
"Star Wars " — a popular science-fiction film about the battle
between the hero, Luke Skywalker, and Darth Vader, an evil person who wears a
black mask over his face and comes from an evil empire. The film was directed
by Steven Spielberg and is remembered for its many new exciting special
Terminator" — a film with Arnold Schwarzenegger,
set in Los Angeles in the near future in which a lot of people are killed. The
film was followed by "Terminator II".
Astaire, Fred (1899—1987)
— a dancer, singer and actor who made many films, often with his dancing
partner, Ginger Rogers, and who was known for his stylishness.
Bassinger, Kim (1954—) — a film actress, known
especially for playing attractive, sexy women.
Brando, Marlon (1924—) — an actor whose films
include "A Streetcar Named Desire", "On the Waterfront",
"The Godfather", etc.
Cooper, Gary (1901—1962) — an actor who often
played strong, silent heroes, for example in the film "High Noon".
Costner, Kevin (1955—) — an actor and director whose
films include "Dances with Wolves", "Robin Hood: Prince of
Thieves", "JFK", etc.
Cruise, Tom (1962—) — an actor who has played
leading film parts since the early 1980s, e.g. in "Top Gun" and
"Cocktail". He is especially popular with women.
De Niro, Robert
(1945—) — an actor, known especially for his part in the films "Taxi
Driver" and "The Deer Hunter".
Dietrich, Marlene (1904—1992) — an American actress and
nightclub performer, born in Germany, who usually played the part of an
extremely sexually attractive woman. She is best remembered for her part in the
film "Blue Angel".
Douglas, Kirk (1916—) — a film actor, known for
playing the hero in films such as "Spartacus".
Douglas, Michael (1944—) — a film actor, son of Kirk
Douglas, known for his part in the films "Fatal Attraction" and
''Romancing the Stone".
(1930—) — a film actor and director, best known for playing parts as a
gunfighter in Westerns and a modern city police officer. His characters almost
always have their right on their side, and no fear.
Fonda, Henry (1905-1982) - an actor who made many
films including "The Grapes of Wrath", "Twelve Angry Men",
"On Golden Pond", etc.
(1937—) — an actress, daughter of Henry Fonda, known for her left-wing views,
especially her support for Vietnam and her opposition to the American
government during the Vietnam War. Her best-known films are "The China
Syndrome" and, with her father, "On Golden Pond". She is also
known for her interest in active physical exercise.
Fonda, Peter (1939—) — an actor and director, best
known for his film "Easy Rider"; son of Henry Fonda.
Fox, Michael (1961-) -- an American actor, born in
Canada, who has appeared in such films as "Back to the Future" (parts
1, 2, 3). He is very popular, especially with young girls.
(1901-1960) - a film actor, best known for his role as Rhett Butler in
"Gone with the Wind". He also appeared in many other Hollywood
films, including "Mutiny on the Bounty", "The Misfits",
Garbo, Greta (1905—1990) — an American film actress, born in
Sweden. She was celebrated for her classic beauty and her portrayals of moody
attracted notice in the Swedish silent film “The Story of Gosta Berling”
(1924), Garbo went to the United States in 1925 and became perhaps the most
celebrated motion-picture actress of the time, a provocative, enigmatic
embodiment of feminine beauty and mystery. “Flesh and the Devil” was her
best-known silent film; among her notable talking pictures were “Anna Christie”
and the comedy “Ninotchka”.
Greta Garbo became
famous for her with drawn, aloof off-screen personality. In the movie “Grand
Hotel”, she made the famous complaint, “I want to be alone.” Garbo retired from
the movies in the early 1940s and lived as a recluse ever since.
(1922-1969) - a film actress and singer who was most famous as the character of
Dorothy in the film "The Wizard of Oz".
Gere, Richard (1949—) — an actor, known especially
for his part in the films "American Gigolo", "An Officer and a
Gentleman" and "Pretty Woman".
Goldberg, Whoopi (1949-) - a film actress who appeared
in "The Color Purple" and "Ghost".
(1904-1986) - an American actor, born in Britain, who is remembered
especially for his comic films including ''The Philadelphia Story'' and
''Bringing Up Baby''.
Hoffman, Dustin (1937-) - a film actor, best known
for his roles in the films "The Graduate", "Kramer vs.
Kramer", "Midnight Cowboy", "The Rain Man", etc.
Kelly, Gene (1912-1996) - a film actor, dancer
and director who appeared in many musicals of the 1940s and 1950s, including
"Singing in the Rain", in which he sang and danced to a song with the
Kelly, Grace (1928-1982) - a film actress, star
of "High Noon" and "High Society" in the 1950s, who became
Princess Grace of Monaco when she married Prince Rainier.
Marvin, Lee (1924—1987) — a film actor, known
especially for playing strong, violent characters in films such as "The
Dirty Dozen" and "Point Blank". He is also remembered for
singing the song "I was born under a wandering star" in a very deep
(1922—) — an actor in films and theater, known especially for his humorous
roles, e.g. in "The Odd Couple".
Monroe, Marilyn (1926—1962) — a film actress whose real name was
Norma Jean Baker, who starred in films during the middle of the 20th century
and became the leading sex symbol of the 1950s.
attracted notice in “The Asphalt Jungle”, thereafter she became a reigning
screen siren. Her major films include “Gentlemen Prefer Blondes”, “The Seven
Year Itch”, “Bus Stop” and “Some Like It Hot”.
To many people,
Marilyn Monroe is a tragic symbol of the unhappiness that can accompany fame
(1961—) — an actor and comedian who first became known for his work on the
television program “Saturday Night Live” but now is known mostly for his films,
such as “Trading Places” and “Beverly Hills Cop”.
(1925—) — an actor and director, lending male star of Hollywood films in the
1900s and 1970s and considered very attractive. His films include “Butch
Cassidy and the Sundance Kid”, “The Sting”, “The Color of Money”, etc.
(1937—) — an actor who started appearing in films in the l960s, such as “Easy
Rider’’ which represented the feelings of young Americans, and has now become a
big Hollywood star.
(1940—) — an actor, known for the films such as “The Godfather” and “Scarface”.
(1927—) — a black Amer ican film star and director, who was one of the first
black actors to play serious parts rather than black stereotypes.
Pryor, Richard (1940-) - a comedian who has appeared in films
and made several records. He is black and often makes jokes about situations
involving black and white people together.
(1937—) — a film actor and director who was in films such as ''Butch Cassidy
and the Sundance Kid'',“The Sting” and “Out of Africa”. He is popular for his
good looks as well as his acting.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold (1947—) — an American actor, born in Austria, whose
bodybuilding appearance won him the titles of Mr. Gcrriiaiiy and Mr. Universe.
He is best known for his part in the film “The Terminator” in which he plays
Scott, George C.
(1926—) — an actor, best known for his film parts, especially strong-willed
characters, such as soldiers. He was the first actor to refuse an Oscar.
Streisand, Barbra (1942—) — a singer and actress who has performed on
stage and in many successful film musicals, including “Hello, Dolly”, “The Way
We Were”, “A Star is Born”, etc.
Taylor, Elizabeth (1932—) — an American film actress, born in Britain. She began making
films at the age of ten, but is perhaps at least as well known for marriages,
of which there have been eight (two of them to Richard Burton).
(1928—) — a film actress who was the child star of over 20 films in the 1930s,
and in later life, as Shirley Temple Black, became a US ambassador. She was
very popular when her films first appeared because of her style of singing,
dancing and acting and her curly golden hair.
Valentino, Rudolph (1895—I926) — an American film actor, born in Italy. He was famous for
playing the part of a lover in silent films, especially in “The Sheikh”. He is
sometimes mentioned as a typical example of a good-looking romantic man.
Valentino was a ballroom dancer and movie extra before reaching stardom in
“Four Horsemen in the Apocalypse” (1921).
Soon he became the American women’s idea of
masculinity, and his private life and loves were avidly reported in newspapers
and magazines. His physique, his good looks and his physical grace were well
exhibited in “The Sheikh” and “Monsieur Beaucaire”. Valentino’s most successful
film is “Blood and Sand”, for here he seems able to bring some of his own
personality to the portrayal of the matador, an opportunity his other, more
stereotyped roles had thwarted. His untimely death created a national furor and
reportedly drove some of his fans to suicide.
(1907-1979) - a film actor who often played "tough guys", particularly
soldiers and cowboys.
Early in his career Wayne appeared as Hollywood's
first singing cowboy. In 1939, in "Stagecoach", he achieved star status.
In his 50-year career he appeared in more than 200 motion pictures. Some of his
outstanding films are "Red River", "The Quiet Man",
"The High and Mighty", "The Searchers", "True
Grit", for which he won an Academy Award (1969), and "Shootist".
The characters John
Wayne played, especially in Westerns ("Stagecoach", "True
Grit"), were often honest, strong, independent and patriotic. Because he
played these characters, John Wayne was thought to have those qualities himself
and was an example of a good American. His old-fashioned patriotism made him
something of a folk hero. In 1979 he was voted a Congressional gold medal; the
inscription read, "John Wayne — American".
(1952—) — an actor and comedian whose films include “Good Morning, Vietnam”,
“Dead Poets Society”, etc.
I think that the greatest actress not only
of the USA, but of the whole world is Marilyn Monroe. So I ‘d like to tell some
facts about her life.
Six queens come and go, easily crowned,
easily forgotten. Yet Marilyn Monroe’s memory has remained very much alive.
Admirers still cut her picture out of public library books, artists still paint
her; even the young have become familiar with her name and her face by watching
her films on television.
Death has changed the sexy blonde into a
myth, a symbol of soft femininity and loveliness. Nowadays she is sometimes
mistaken for a saintly martyr, which she certainly was not. But then, what was
she? Those who knew her disagree so violently that it is difficult to see the
real woman through the conflicting judgments of her friends. A simple little
girl to her first husband, producer Mike Todd, she was also been described as
the most unappreciated person in the world, the meanest woman in Hollywood, a
tart, an enchanting child, an idiot, a wit, a great natural intelligence, a
victim, and a clod ‘user’ of people From the very contradiction, one can guess
that she was not simple. And obviously she had something special- not talent,
perhaps, but a certain spark. It is well known that most of her problems had
their roots in an unhappy childhood.
Marilyn had come into the world in a Los
Angel’s hospital as Norma Jean Mortensen. Her mother, Gladys Monroe Mortensen,
loved her child; but since she had to work, she left her in the hands of Ida
and Albert Bolender, a respectable couple who boarded children on their farm.
Norma Jean spent her first seven years with them. Her physical needs were well
looked after, and Gladys visited faithfully every weekend. But when she had
gone, there was not much warmth around the little girl. For Norma Jean, who was
extremely sensitive, it was a lonely, distressing childhood. In 1933 Gladys
bought a house and took her daughter home with her. But she was not there much
and when she was out, Norma Jean had to stay with the elderly couple who rented
part of the house. They were not bad people, only indifferent and more
interested in drinking than in baby-sitting. When Norma Jean didn’t have to go
to school, the couple dropped her at a nearly movie house in time for the first
afternoon show. The little girl watched happily all day, and after the last
matinee she walked home by herself. In her room, later, she would act out the
whole story. In this way she developed a passion for acting that she never outgrew.
After nine months of live together, Gladys had a mental collaps and was
hospitalized. She appeared from time to time in her daughter’s life, but more
as a burden than as a support. Many people took Norma Jean under their wings
throughout the years. She looked so insecure, so defenseless, that men and
women alike felt compelled to protect her.
However vague Norma Jean may have been
about life in general, she never felt vague about the career she wanted to
have. She wanted to be an actress. But the first three years of Marilyn’s
career didn’t bring her more than a few very small parts. She kept herself
alive by modeling. In 1950 Marilyn attracted attention in a small part in ‘The
Asphalt Jungle’, which had been obtained for her by a powerful protector.
Another protector, and the most influential by far, was the agent Johnny Hyde.
Hyde was a powerful man in Hollywood when he met Marilyn. He was too wise to
claim that she had talent; instead he
insisted that such personality didn’t need to be talented. He succeeded in
getting her a part in ‘All About Eve’, a film that was to prove lucky for all
its actors. The font mail started piling up. The Hollywood columnists included
the new blonde in their gossip columns. Soon ‘Life and Look’ magazines were
honoring her with long articles, and one critic ventured to declare her ‘a
forceful actress’. The studio, after having her co-star in several pictures,
finally gave her a starring role in ‘Niagara’ in 1953. She had become the Fox’s
Whenever she appeared she was cornered by
excited admirers and photographers. But there was no private happiness behind
the facade, and even her fame was not of the kind she would have liked. She
resented her shallow roles; she resented the fact she had no voice in the
choice of her scripts and that her old contract was keeping salary ridiculously
low for a star. Hurt, she retaliated as best as she could. She arrived late on
the set, unprepared and obviously indifferent to the hardships. She was
imposing on the other actors and the technicians. Scenes had to be redone forty
or fifty times because she could not remember a four-word sentence. If
something displeased her, she locked herself in her dressing room, or failed to
show up at all for days. Her behavior disgusted the people who worked with her,
but her fans loved the radiant child-woman on the screen.
In 1961 after divorcing her next husband
the famous American playwright Arthur Miller, Marilyn drifted back to the West
Coast to open a new page in her life. On August 5, 1962 she was found dead in
her house. She had made many attempts at suicide before. But it does not seem
that she intended to hill herself that Saturday. When she retired for the
night, she had plans for the next day. But early in the morning her housekeeper
found her dead.
The world was shocked. In the words of one
of her biographers: ‘She broke her heart trying to achieve something she didn’t
have in her to accomplish.’
Disney was an American artist and film producer, who was famous for his
animated cartoons. He was born on December 5, 1901 in Chicago, his father being
Irish Canadian, his mother of German-American origin. In his early child hood
he revealed a talent for drawing and an interest in photography. His teens he
began an art course, but World War I broke out and he drove for the Red Cross
in Europe. When he got back to America he met artist Ub Iwerks, ‘and they went
into business together.
1923 he left with his brother for Hollywood Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks made a
series of short cartoons but lost all their money, and for some years struggled
against poverty. Luckily, Walt’s brother Roy gave him more to start up again.
The first talking picture came out in 1927 and Disney realized that sound held
the key to the future of films. He developed many techniques in producing
most famous characters are Mickey Mouse, Duck and Pluto. The first Mickey Mouse
cartoon was drawn 1928. It was the first sound cartoon, which brought great
success to its creator. In the early cartoons he was really horrible. He looked
quite rat-like with long pointed nose and small eyes.
his face changed. His head got as big as his body or almost, his eyes got
bigger, too. He got younger instead of older. That makes him cuter. Now it is
an acceptable symbol for the USA. Donald Duck was created in 1936. Walt Disney
took the biggest risk of his career and spent a fortune on a full-length
cartoon. Finally, the first full-length cartoon feature film “Snow White and
the Seven Dwarfs” was brought out in 1935, which the public paid millions of
dollars to see The songs to the cartoon were written by Frank Churchill.
After the Second World War Disney turned his attention to real — life nature
studies and non-cartoon films with living actors.
the 1950’s and 1960’s, Walt Disney began developing the family-entertainment
parks, Disneyland and Disney World. The first Disneyland was opened in southern
California in 1955. It is situated 27 miles south of Los Angeles, at Anaheim.
Of all the show-places none is as famous as Disneyland. This superb kingdom of
fantasy linked to technology was created by Walt Disney. The park is divided
into six themes and there is so much to see and do in each that no one would
attempt to see all of them in one visit. For extended visits, there are hotels
nearby. In 1971 Disney World was opened in Florida.
Walt Disney died in California
at the age of 65. But his films are still shown regularly at the cinema,
because of their time1esS quality and will be shown for years to come.Walter
(Walt) Elias Disney has won more “Oscars” — the awards of the United States
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, instituted on May 16, 1929 and
named after Oscar Pierce of Texas, USA — than any other person:20 statuettes
and 12 other plagues and certificates, including posthumous awards.
The shooting of ‘Titanic’ in 1997
brought people flocking to the cinemas. It has become a blockbuster and brought
big profits to the producers. The reasons are:on the one hand, the thrilling
plot of the film, depicting the first of the greatest disasters of the 20th
century, and, on the other hand, new technologies of film making, used by James
Cameron, the producer. Everybody wanted to see if the film was really worth eleven
‘Titanic’ is the latest screen
version of the tragedy happened on April 14-15, 1912 during the maiden voyage
of the British luxury passenger liner. The vessel sank with a loss of about
1,500 lives:men, women, children. Their voyage on board the dream ship ended in
a nightmare. It revealted all human vices: arrogance, self-satisfaction, greed,
selfishness and self-confidence. But at the same time this tragedy showed the
best traits of humancharacter: the sense of duty and responsibility,
self-sacrifice and short but immortial love. The love-story about Jack and
Rose, a young poor artist and a 17-year old girl from the upper society,
arouses uor sympathy and admiration. Paired with the main story-line, it adds
much to the impression of the film. ‘Titanic’ made the leading actors Leonardo
Di Caprio and Kate Winslent international celebrities. The music of James
Horner created a special atmosphere in the film and has become popular with the
The film is interesting not only
from the artistic point of view, but from the technical ones as well. Both the
ship and the ocean are virtual, created by computers. Besides, we can see
unique pictures of ‘The Titanic’ buried in the depth of the ocean. Its wreck
was found lying in two pieces on the ocean floor at the depth of about 4,000
..metres. The pictures were taken with the help of the Russian ocean-explores
and shown to the whole world.
By the way, the film was directed
by James Cameron, famous for creating very expensive films with new special
effects, which were the biggest box-office success. ‘Titanic’ is not an
exception. Critics say the film has opened a new era in film production. I
think they are right.
In The USA. Martha Bordman
Introducing The USA. Milode Broukol,
Children’s Britannica. Volume 7.
Английский яык. Н.Г.
Брюсов, Н. А. Лебедеваю
США и Американцы. Г. В.
Нестерчук, В. М. Иванова.
Иностранные языки в школе
Иностранные языки в школе
Английский язык. Устные
темы. А. С. Сушкевич, М. А. Маглыш.
Mothion picture industry - киноиндустрия
Release - выход на экран
Nervous breakdown - нервное расстройство
Mercilessly - безжалостно
To keep one’s grip - продолжать овладевать умами
To hit the nail on the head -
попасть прямо в точку
Skit - пародия
Antics - ужимки, шутки
Unheard-of - неслыханный
Reentry - возвращение
Flock - стекаться толпами
Plot - сюжет
Depict - изображать
Screen version - экранизация
Shooting - (кино) съемка
Nightmare - кошмар
Reveal - показывать, обнаруживать
Vice - порок, зло, недостаток
Arrogance - высокомерие, надменость
Trait of character - черта характера
Immortial - бессмертный, вечный
Wreck - остов разбитого судна
Direct - ставить (фильм)
Indispensable - незаменимый
Trade skills - профессиональные
Aim - стремиться
Be at one’s disposal - быть в чьем-то распоряжении
Facilities - возможности, удобства
Inspiration - вдохновение
Enrich - обогощать
Genre - жанр
Aspiration - стремление, желание
Pricless - бесценный
Spitting image - точная копия