Топики по Английскому

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Топики по Английскому

Teaching as a profession.

The profession of teaching is one of the oldest in the world. And it is certainly one of the noblest (благородный). The art of teaching has suffered a revolutionary change. It has become highly specialized; its mystery is to be mastered. It is based not only on scholarship, but also on the right methods of teaching. Every good teacher will learn more about his subject every year, every week, every month if possible.  He must avoid the sort of feeling that there is nothing more for him to learn. There is always room for self-improvement.

A teacher must be kind and understanding but at the same thing firm. The pupils should feel that their teacher wants to help them, wants to improve, is interested in their growth, is sorry for their mistakes and pleased with their successes. The main task of the teacher isn’t in imparting knowledge but in stimulating the pupils’ minds. The teacher mustn’t   only instill his own opinions into the receptive mind if the pupils, but he must also teach him to think, to form his own opinions. His approach must be human and sympathetic.

One of the most important qualities of a good teacher is humor. The real purpose of humor in teaching is to link the teacher and the pupils through enjoyment. A good teacher is a creator of people. The teacher must treat different pupils differently. He must have a way with them.

To do this he must be a good psychologist. If he knows his pupils’ character he will be able to adapt his teaching to their differences.

State and private schools.

All state schools in Britain are free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment.

There are also in Britain private schools called independent schools. They have been growing in number and popularity. In state schools parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education. In state school children start primary school at 5-7 after they go to secondary schools called comprehensives, and at 16 pupils take a national exam called-General Certificate of Secondary Education.

Some pupils continue their studies in the sixth form at school or at sixth form collage, another way to continue studies to go to a collage of further education to study more practical diplomas. The most private schools prepare the children for the common entrance exam, which they take at the age of 11.This exam, is for entry into the best schools. The majority of independent secondary schools including public schools are single –sex, religious schools and schools ethic minorities.

British and Russian education.

In Britain children start going to school when they are five and continue studying until they are sixteen or older. Many children in Britain attend nursery school from the age of about three. Compulsory education begins at the age of five, when children go to primary school. Primary education lasts for six years. They attend the infant school from 5 to 7 and then junior school until they are eleven. In infant school children don’t have real classes. When children are 7 real studying begins.

Full-time education is compulsory up to the middle teenage years. There are three stages in education. The first stage is primary education; the second is secondary education, the third id further education at University or collage.

Before going to a primary school children receive nursery education (some children attend pre-school play-groups) it’s the first age of education.

Compulsory primary education begins at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland and at 4 in Northern Ireland.  Children start their education in an infant school and move to a junior school at 7 years old. Pupils study different subjects (English, Math, Science, History, and Geography, music and Art). Over 80% of all primary schools are mixed.

The school year in England and Wales begins in September and continues into July. At this level children start to learn a modern foreign language. The course of studying at secondary school may lead to General Certificate of Secondary Education Qualifications. Those who stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for Advanced level exams in 2 or 3 subjects.

A small proportion of children about 8% attend private or independent schools, which are not financed by state.

In Russia as I think education is guaranteed by the constitution. Children start going to school at 7. After 3 years of primary school classes pupils go on to secondary school. Primary and secondary schools together comprise eleven years of study.9 years of classes are compulsory. In the secondary pupils have studies in Russian literature, Math, History, computer programming. All schools in Russia are free. But in the main schools in Russia are comprehensive. After 11 years pupils have examinations and receive a high school diploma. Higher education begins at16 and lasts to 20. In the university the student will eventually specialize in one area of study such as science, math, history, literature and so on. At the end of four years of studying he or she will earn a Bachelor’s degree. After five years of studying they can receive diploma too.

How to be ill?

I think all of us hate being ill. As soon as we have a headache or a cold, or the first signs of flu coming on, we proceed to behave as if we were in the grip of some fatal illness which is supposed to indicate that we have developed into a fine art the ability to feel sorry for us.

For example my husband he loves being nursed and fussed over, he made a cold last a good week by a combination of carefully produced well-timed groans and grimaces. Of course he tried to suffer pain bravely, but made it quite clear. He was really good at it; he could melt the hardest female heart. He told me that he hadn’t wanted to be a bother to me. But I was over him full of concern and caresses, stoking his brow and destroying myself in an attempt to restore to his health. And at the end of it all I understood that he exploited a minor illness to good effect, and he took to his bed on some flimsy pretext. And I behaved like a ministering angel. And now I got a hang of it. And in addition, it is pleasure to get out of telling the neighbors about the hell I have been through, when my husband fussed over me.

I think that school helping us to develop our personality and character, teaching us about right and wrong, showing us how to get on with other people. And it is very important to study in the best school or collage or University. And it is all the more surprising that so many parents in the world choose to impose such abnormal conditions on their children- conditions, which they themselves wouldn’t put up with for a minute.

The school of tomorrow must be nothing less than a true version of society in miniature. Pupils teach how to get on with other people and I think that is the aim of education. And also they must learn many subjects as math, literature, foreign languages and so on.

And we always must remember one main idea: to make school fir the children-instead of making the child fit the school. Every teacher will have own special method of teaching. And everyone will have equal rights. Needless to say that school will provide the pupils with equipment and for my mind all schools will co-educational-it is the best way to learn.

The only thing that people are interested in today is earning more money.

We live in a materialistic society and are trained from our earliest years to be acquisitive. Our possessions, ”mine” and “yours” are clearly labeled from early childhood. When we grow old enough to earn a living, it doesn’t surprise us to discover that success id measured in terms of the money you earn. We spend the whole of our lives keeping up with our neighbors and with friends. If we buy a new car they is bound to buy a bigger and better one .The most amusing thing about this game is that our friend and all the neighbors who are struggling frantically to keep up with them are spending borrowed money kindly provided at a suitable rate of interest, of course, by friendly banks, insurance companies.

It’s not only in affluent societies that people are obsessed with the idea of making more money. Consumer goods (потребительские товары) are desirable (желанные) everywhere and modern industry deliberately sets out to create new markets. The wheels of industry must be kept turning.

This materialistic outlook has seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people these days acquire knowledge only for its own sake. The demand for skilled personnel far exceeds the supply and big companies complete with each other to recruit students (вербовать студентов) before they have completed their studies. Tempting salaries (соблазнительная зарплата) and “fringe benefits”(дополнительные новости) are offered to them.

How much are you worth?

One of the most difficult questions to answer is how much a job is worth. We naturally expect that a doctor’s salary will be higher than a bus conductor’s wage. The doctor, the teacher, the engineer have in common is that they have devoted several years of their lives to studying in order to obtain the necessary qualifications for their professions. We feel instinctively that these skills and these years when they were studying instead of earning money should be rewarded.

Another factor we must take into consideration is how socially useful a man’s work is, regardless of the talents he may bring to it. Most people would agree that looking after the sick or teaching children more important, than, say selling second-hand cars or improving the taste of toothpaste by adding a red stripe to it.

You can argue that a man who does a job, which brings him personal satisfaction, is already receiving part of his recompense in the form of a so-called “psychic wage”. It’s significant that these jobs which are traditionally regarded as ”vocations”-nursing, teaching and the Church-continue to be poorly paid, while others carry financial rewards out of all proportion to their social worth. Although the amount of money that people earn is in reality largely determined by market forces, this shouldn’t   prevent us from seeking some way to decide on what is the right pay for the job. The highly qualified people carrying heavy responsibilities become disillusioned and might even end up by emigrating (so-called “brain drain»).

Private and state education.

There are 2 types of school in Britain: state and private.7% children go to private schools called independent. They have been growing in number and popularity.

Parents pay for these school and fees vary from 250 pounds. Most independent school called prep schools is because they prepare children for the Entrance Exam; it is for entry into the best schools and often necessary to put your name on a waiting list. The majority of independent secondary schools including public are single-sex, religious schools and schools for ethnic minorities.

All sate schools are free; they provide pupils with books and equipment. Parents can choose to send their children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of compulsory education.

Children start primary school at 5 and continue until they are 11.After that go to secondary called comprehensives at 16 pupils take national exam called GCSE. And leave school if they with. Some continue studies in the sixth form at school or at college. The sixth form prepares pupils for a national exam called A-level. Other go to college of further education.

Co-education and single-sex schools.

A co-education school offers children nothing less than a true version of society in miniature. Boys and girls are given the opportunity to get to know each other to learn to live together from their years. And they can compare themselves with each other in terms of academic ability. When segregated boys and girls are made to feel that they a race apart. Rivalry between the sexes is fostered. The greatest contribution of co-education is the healthy attitude to life it encourages. Years of living together at school dispel illusions. I think that co-educational schools are the best way to learn.

Choosing a career.

Choosing a career is like any other activity; it is best to work to a plan. Too many people start looking for a specific job before thinking out their occupational aims. It is a good idea to begin by attempting to define in clear terms what your requirements are from a career.

As for me, I have made up my mind to be a teacher. As my mother is a teacher she has made a great influence on my choice and I can say that this profession runs the family. My choice of this occupation didn't come as a sudden flash. I think that nowadays this profession is of great need and importance to our country. It is my aim to be a qualified specialist and to serve the interests of my country.

How to keep feet?

You know that it is very interesting topic for conversation especially for woman. And it is not easy to answer: how do you stay in good shape? I think that woman must always remember about her formal daily dozen and about her weight. As for me I never think about my shape. But my friend hates to be bulky and works hard at getting back into shape. She keep extra active, for example, she does hours of dog walking and jogs or plays golf. Another my friend prefers rowing and try to be more active all day. She is a weight-prone person and also is definitely in better control of her eating, but she thinks concentrated jogging is so boring. She enjoys swimming a swift twenty length. I know that woman steer clear of all fatty foods and sweets only to be in a good shape. And in addition I want to say that everyone person should remain just as the nature has created him.

What are the purposes of education?

We go to school, collage, and university to learn our language, foreign language and of course all the other subjects. Education helping us to develop our personality and character. It is very important teach us about right and wrong. And I think that in school we know how to get on with other people, because people are very different and everyone has his own temper. There are many subjects teach us about what is going on in the world today. For example: sociology, physiology and history.  And I think that the main aim of education is to get as good a job as possible. And the purpose of education helping with thinks you will need to know when you leave school.

How to have perfect interview?

It is very important to fine out what the company is like before apply for the job. First of all you need to write effective CV, try to make it brief and simple.

After discover as mush as you can about the interviewers.

Dress the part. Never keep your overcoat or a mac on during the interview- this will make you an outsider from the start.

You must think positively and confidently about yourself. Think and write down all the qualities you have to offer the company.

Be aware of you body language. Be assertive, smile, look the interviewer in the eye and give a firm handshake. Keep a balance of power throughout the interview. Don’t be too timid and at the same time don’t be overconfident or cheeky.

Keep calm before and during the interview. Always remember that nervousness often lets down.

Why do we still dice with death?

If asked, ”what are health decisions?» most of us answer in terms of hospitals, doctors and pills. Yet we are all making a whole range of decisions about our health which go beyond this limited area. for example whether or not to smoke, exercise, drive motorbike, drink alcohol regularly. The ways reach decisions and form attitudes about our health are only just beginning to be understood.

Smokers run double the risk of contracting heart disease, several times the risk of suffering from chronic bronchitis and at least 25 times the risk of lung (рак) cancer. Despite extensive press campaigns, which have regularly told smokers and car drivers the grave risks they are running, the number of smokers and seat belt wearers has remained much the same. Although the number of deaths from road accidents and smoking are well publicized, they have aroused little public interest.

The kind information tends to be relied on both by smoker and seat belt-wearer is anecdotal, based on personal experiences. What is needed is some way of changing people’s evaluations and attitudes to the risks of certain activities like smoking.

So a mass-media approach may work.  But it needs to be carefully controlled. Overall, the new awareness of problem of health decisions and behavior is at least “more hopeful sign for the future».

The Welfare state.

Every British citizen who is employed is obliged to pay weekly contribution to the national insurance and health schemes. An employer also makes a contribution for each of his employees and the Government too pays a certain amount. Its aim is tp prevent anyone from going without medical services, if he needs them, however poor he may be, to ensure that a person who is out of work shall receive a weekly sum of money to subsist on; and to provide a small pension for those who have reached the age of retirement.

Every one can register with a doctor of his choice and if he is ill he consult the doctor without having to pay for the doctor’s services, although he has to pay a small charge for medicines.

Mothers-to-be and children receive special benefits such as free milk or certain foodstuffs for which only a minimum charge is made. There are special benefits for certain people, such as the blind and the handicapped. Most people agree that there are still many improvement to be made in their national insurance and health schemes.

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