Топики по Английскому
Teaching as a profession.
The profession of teaching is one of
the oldest in the world. And it is certainly one of the noblest (благородный).
The art of teaching has suffered a revolutionary change. It has become highly
specialized; its mystery is to be mastered. It is based not only on
scholarship, but also on the right methods of teaching. Every good teacher will
learn more about his subject every year, every week, every month if possible.
He must avoid the sort of feeling that there is nothing more for him to learn.
There is always room for self-improvement.
A teacher must be kind and
understanding but at the same thing firm. The pupils should feel that their
teacher wants to help them, wants to improve, is interested in their growth, is
sorry for their mistakes and pleased with their successes. The main task of the
teacher isn’t in imparting knowledge but in stimulating the pupils’ minds. The
teacher mustn’t only instill his own opinions into the receptive mind if the
pupils, but he must also teach him to think, to form his own opinions. His
approach must be human and sympathetic.
One of the most important qualities
of a good teacher is humor. The real purpose of humor in teaching is to link
the teacher and the pupils through enjoyment. A good teacher is a creator of
people. The teacher must treat different pupils differently. He must have a way
To do this he must be a good
psychologist. If he knows his pupils’ character he will be able to adapt his
teaching to their differences.
State and private schools.
All state schools in Britain are
free, and schools provide their pupils with books and equipment.
There are also in Britain private
schools called independent schools. They have been growing in number and
popularity. In state schools parents can choose to send their children to a
nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the start of
compulsory education. In state school children start primary school at 5-7
after they go to secondary schools called comprehensives, and at 16 pupils take
a national exam called-General Certificate of Secondary Education.
Some pupils continue their studies
in the sixth form at school or at sixth form collage, another way to continue
studies to go to a collage of further education to study more practical
diplomas. The most private schools prepare the children for the common entrance
exam, which they take at the age of 11.This exam, is for entry into the best
schools. The majority of independent secondary schools including public schools
are single –sex, religious schools and schools ethic minorities.
British and Russian education.
In Britain children start going to
school when they are five and continue studying until they are sixteen or
older. Many children in Britain attend nursery school from the age of about
three. Compulsory education begins at the age of five, when children go to
primary school. Primary education lasts for six years. They attend the infant
school from 5 to 7 and then junior school until they are eleven. In infant school
children don’t have real classes. When children are 7 real studying begins.
Full-time education is compulsory up
to the middle teenage years. There are three stages in education. The first
stage is primary education; the second is secondary education, the third id
further education at University or collage.
Before going to a primary school
children receive nursery education (some children attend pre-school
play-groups) it’s the first age of education.
Compulsory primary education begins
at the age of 5 in England, Wales and Scotland and at 4 in Northern Ireland.
Children start their education in an infant school and move to a junior school
at 7 years old. Pupils study different subjects (English, Math, Science,
History, and Geography, music and Art). Over 80% of all primary schools are
The school year in England and Wales
begins in September and continues into July. At this level children start to
learn a modern foreign language. The course of studying at secondary school may
lead to General Certificate of Secondary Education Qualifications. Those who
stay at school after GCSE, study for 2 more years for Advanced level exams in 2
or 3 subjects.
A small proportion of children about
8% attend private or independent schools, which are not financed by state.
In Russia as I think education is
guaranteed by the constitution. Children start going to school at 7. After 3
years of primary school classes pupils go on to secondary school. Primary and
secondary schools together comprise eleven years of study.9 years of classes
are compulsory. In the secondary pupils have studies in Russian literature,
Math, History, computer programming. All schools in Russia are free. But in the
main schools in Russia are comprehensive. After 11 years pupils have
examinations and receive a high school diploma. Higher education begins at16
and lasts to 20. In the university the student will eventually specialize in
one area of study such as science, math, history, literature and so on. At the
end of four years of studying he or she will earn a Bachelor’s degree. After
five years of studying they can receive diploma too.
How to be ill?
I think all of us hate being ill. As
soon as we have a headache or a cold, or the first signs of flu coming on, we
proceed to behave as if we were in the grip of some fatal illness which is
supposed to indicate that we have developed into a fine art the ability to feel
sorry for us.
For example my husband he loves
being nursed and fussed over, he made a cold last a good week by a combination
of carefully produced well-timed groans and grimaces. Of course he tried to
suffer pain bravely, but made it quite clear. He was really good at it; he
could melt the hardest female heart. He told me that he hadn’t wanted to be a
bother to me. But I was over him full of concern and caresses, stoking his brow
and destroying myself in an attempt to restore to his health. And at the end of
it all I understood that he exploited a minor illness to good effect, and he
took to his bed on some flimsy pretext. And I behaved like a ministering angel.
And now I got a hang of it. And in addition, it is pleasure to get out of
telling the neighbors about the hell I have been through, when my husband
fussed over me.
I think that school helping us to
develop our personality and character, teaching us about right and wrong,
showing us how to get on with other people. And it is very important to study
in the best school or collage or University. And it is all the more surprising
that so many parents in the world choose to impose such abnormal conditions on
their children- conditions, which they themselves wouldn’t put up with for a
The school of tomorrow must be
nothing less than a true version of society in miniature. Pupils teach how to
get on with other people and I think that is the aim of education. And also
they must learn many subjects as math, literature, foreign languages and so on.
And we always must remember one main
idea: to make school fir the children-instead of making the child fit the
school. Every teacher will have own special method of teaching. And everyone
will have equal rights. Needless to say that school will provide the pupils
with equipment and for my mind all schools will co-educational-it is the best
way to learn.
The only thing that people are interested in today is
earning more money.
live in a materialistic society and are trained from our earliest years to be
acquisitive. Our possessions, ”mine” and “yours” are clearly labeled from early
childhood. When we grow old enough to earn a living, it doesn’t surprise us to
discover that success id measured in terms of the money you earn. We spend the
whole of our lives keeping up with our neighbors and with friends. If we buy a
new car they is bound to buy a bigger and better one .The most amusing thing
about this game is that our friend and all the neighbors who are struggling
frantically to keep up with them are spending borrowed money kindly provided at
a suitable rate of interest, of course, by friendly banks, insurance companies.
It’s not only in affluent societies
that people are obsessed with the idea of making more money. Consumer goods (потребительские товары) are desirable (желанные) everywhere and modern industry
deliberately sets out to create new markets. The wheels of industry must be
This materialistic outlook has
seriously influenced education. Fewer and fewer young people these days acquire
knowledge only for its own sake. The demand for skilled personnel far exceeds
the supply and big companies complete with each other to recruit students
(вербовать студентов) before they have completed their
studies. Tempting salaries (соблазнительная зарплата) and
“fringe benefits”(дополнительные новости) are offered to them.
How much are you worth?
of the most difficult questions to answer is how much a job is worth. We
naturally expect that a doctor’s salary will be higher than a bus conductor’s
wage. The doctor, the teacher, the engineer have in common is that they have
devoted several years of their lives to studying in order to obtain the
necessary qualifications for their professions. We feel instinctively that
these skills and these years when they were studying instead of earning money
should be rewarded.
Another factor we must take into
consideration is how socially useful a man’s work is, regardless of the talents
he may bring to it. Most people would agree that looking after the sick or
teaching children more important, than, say selling second-hand cars or
improving the taste of toothpaste by adding a red stripe to it.
You can argue that a man who does a
job, which brings him personal satisfaction, is already receiving part of his
recompense in the form of a so-called “psychic wage”. It’s significant that
these jobs which are traditionally regarded as ”vocations”-nursing, teaching
and the Church-continue to be poorly paid, while others carry financial rewards
out of all proportion to their social worth. Although the amount of money that
people earn is in reality largely determined by market forces, this shouldn’t
prevent us from seeking some way to decide on what is the right pay for the
job. The highly qualified people carrying heavy responsibilities become
disillusioned and might even end up by emigrating (so-called “brain drain»).
and state education.
There are 2 types of school in
Britain: state and private.7% children go to private schools called independent.
They have been growing in number and popularity.
Parents pay for these school and
fees vary from 250 pounds. Most independent school called prep schools is
because they prepare children for the Entrance Exam; it is for entry into the
best schools and often necessary to put your name on a waiting list. The
majority of independent secondary schools including public are single-sex,
religious schools and schools for ethnic minorities.
All sate schools are free; they
provide pupils with books and equipment. Parents can choose to send their
children to a nursery school or a pre-school playgroup to prepare them for the
start of compulsory education.
Children start primary school at 5
and continue until they are 11.After that go to secondary called comprehensives
at 16 pupils take national exam called GCSE. And leave school if they with.
Some continue studies in the sixth form at school or at college. The sixth form
prepares pupils for a national exam called A-level. Other go to college of
Co-education and single-sex schools.
A co-education school offers
children nothing less than a true version of society in miniature. Boys and
girls are given the opportunity to get to know each other to learn to live
together from their years. And they can compare themselves with each other in
terms of academic ability. When segregated boys and girls are made to feel that
they a race apart. Rivalry between the sexes is fostered. The greatest
contribution of co-education is the healthy attitude to life it encourages.
Years of living together at school dispel illusions. I think that
co-educational schools are the best way to learn.
Choosing a career.
Choosing a career is like any other
activity; it is best to work to a plan. Too many people start looking for a specific
job before thinking out their occupational aims. It is a good idea to begin by
attempting to define in clear terms what your requirements are from a career.
As for me, I have made up my mind to be a teacher. As my
mother is a teacher she has made a great influence on my choice and I can say
that this profession runs the family. My choice of this occupation didn't come
as a sudden flash. I think that nowadays this profession is of great need and
importance to our country. It is my aim to be a qualified specialist and to
serve the interests of my country.
How to keep feet?
You know that it is very interesting
topic for conversation especially for woman. And it is not easy to answer: how
do you stay in good shape? I think that woman must always remember about her
formal daily dozen and about her weight. As for me I never think about my
shape. But my friend hates to be bulky and works hard at getting back into
shape. She keep extra active, for example, she does hours of dog walking and
jogs or plays golf. Another my friend prefers rowing and try to be more active
all day. She is a weight-prone person and also is definitely in better control
of her eating, but she thinks concentrated jogging is so boring. She enjoys
swimming a swift twenty length. I know that woman steer clear of all fatty
foods and sweets only to be in a good shape. And in addition I want to say that
everyone person should remain just as the nature has created him.
What are the purposes of education?
We go to school, collage, and
university to learn our language, foreign language and of course all the other
subjects. Education helping us to develop our personality and character. It is
very important teach us about right and wrong. And I think that in school we
know how to get on with other people, because people are very different and
everyone has his own temper. There are many subjects teach us about what is
going on in the world today. For example: sociology, physiology and history.
And I think that the main aim of education is to get as good a job as possible.
And the purpose of education helping with thinks you will need to know when you
How to have
It is very important to fine out
what the company is like before apply for the job. First of all you need to
write effective CV, try to make it brief and simple.
After discover as mush as you can
about the interviewers.
Dress the part. Never keep your
overcoat or a mac on during the interview- this will make you an outsider from
You must think positively and
confidently about yourself. Think and write down all the qualities you have to
offer the company.
Be aware of you body language. Be
assertive, smile, look the interviewer in the eye and give a firm handshake.
Keep a balance of power throughout the interview. Don’t be too timid and at the
same time don’t be overconfident or cheeky.
Keep calm before and during the
interview. Always remember that nervousness often lets down.
Why do we still dice with death?
If asked, ”what are health
decisions?» most of us answer in terms of hospitals, doctors and pills. Yet we
are all making a whole range of decisions about our health which go beyond this
limited area. for example whether or not to smoke, exercise, drive motorbike,
drink alcohol regularly. The ways reach decisions and form attitudes about our
health are only just beginning to be understood.
Smokers run double the risk of
contracting heart disease, several times the risk of suffering from chronic
bronchitis and at least 25 times the risk of lung (рак) cancer. Despite
extensive press campaigns, which have regularly told smokers and car drivers
the grave risks they are running, the number of smokers and seat belt wearers
has remained much the same. Although the number of deaths from road accidents and
smoking are well publicized, they have aroused little public interest.
The kind information tends to be
relied on both by smoker and seat belt-wearer is anecdotal, based on personal
experiences. What is needed is some way of changing people’s evaluations and
attitudes to the risks of certain activities like smoking.
So a mass-media approach may work.
But it needs to be carefully controlled. Overall, the new awareness of problem
of health decisions and behavior is at least “more hopeful sign for the future».
The Welfare state.
Every British citizen who is
employed is obliged to pay weekly contribution to the national insurance and
health schemes. An employer also makes a contribution for each of his employees
and the Government too pays a certain amount. Its aim is tp prevent anyone from
going without medical services, if he needs them, however poor he may be, to
ensure that a person who is out of work shall receive a weekly sum of money to
subsist on; and to provide a small pension for those who have reached the age
Every one can register with a doctor
of his choice and if he is ill he consult the doctor without having to pay for
the doctor’s services, although he has to pay a small charge for medicines.
Mothers-to-be and children receive
special benefits such as free milk or certain foodstuffs for which only a
minimum charge is made. There are special benefits for certain people, such as
the blind and the handicapped. Most people agree that there are still many
improvement to be made in their national insurance and health schemes.