Английский язык (11 класс)

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Английский язык (11 класс)

TRADITIONS & CUSTOMS OF GREAT BRITIAN.

                  Every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions.In    Britian traditions play more   importaint part in the life of the people than     in some other countries.         Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up.         It has been the law for about three hundred years that all the theatres     are closed on Sundays no letters are delivered only a few Sunday papers are     publshed.   To this day English families prefer cotage houses with gardens to flats     in a modern house with central heeting.English people like gardens.Sometimes      the garden in front of the house is a little square covered with cement

   painted green (in imitation of grass) and a box of flowers.         In English houses the fire-place has always been the centre of interest      in a room.For many months of the year people like to sit round the fire and

   watch the dancing flames.Fire places are decorated with woodworks,there is      a painting or a mirror over it.Above the fire there is usually a shelf with    a clock and some photographs.         Holydays are especially rich in old traditions and are different in  cotland,Wales and England.Christmas is a great english national holyday      and in Scotland it is not kept at all exeept by clerks in banks,all the     shops and factories are working.But 6 days later on the New Year's Eve the

Scots begin to enjoy themselves.People invite their friends to their houses      and sit the old year out and the new year in.In England on new Year's Eve a

   lot of people go to Trafalgar Square,at midnight,they all cross their arms     join hands and sing.People have parties too,they drink toarts to the New

   Year Children are happy to have presents.

       Four times a year the offices and banks in Britain are closed on Monday.     These public holidays are known as Bank Holidays.The British like to spend

   holidays out of the town in the open air.They go to the sea-side or to      amusements parks.          Londoners often visit the Zoo,outside  London they take their families      to Hamsted Heath ['hнmstid'hi@] a large natural park too.There is usually     a big fair with many different amusements for children merry-go-round,swings     puppet shows,bright baloons.

       One must also speak about such holidays ass All Fools Day,Hallowe'en     Bonfire Night,St.Valentines Day and such tradition as Eisteddfod (a festival

   of which culture).

SCIENCE  IN OUR LIFE

        Today we see the world in which social,industrial and political order      has been greatly influenced by science.The development of science has      increased man's know-ledge of nature.          Modern experimental science began about 400 year ago.Man learned to use the      energy of fire water.Later man made steaw serve him.Nowdays man uses      thermonuclear energy and that of autimatter.          I'd like to dwell on electronics as not a day passes without the apearnce      of a new eletronic device.The first great progress in electronics came with    the invention of the vacuum tube or valve in 1904.it made broad casting    possible.the development of electronics during World War II gave us radars

    and electronic computers.        The first general purpose computer for scientific use was invented in

    1949.Today computers have become common they can do fantastic things.        Computer can condukt experiments in places which are too dangerous for

 people.Some computers are used in carves and mines to replace    workers.Besides thay can be designed for special purposes.        Thay can solve mathimatical

problems,make bank aubuts,play chess.New   supercomputers solve problems in many branches of industry,science and      culture.They are videly used in submarine navigation and in modern     hospital.Now much is being done to create artifical intellect.Science has     brought in to being a new atomic technologies.Elektric enginearing and      radio enginearin have been created in the some way.

        Science and technology have acheeved great progress in spase research.There    have been space flights,the launching of interplanetary stations in the

    direction of Mars, Radar contacts with the planets Mercury and Venus.Science    enters own flats.Many people have already forgotten what the world was like

    before television.several generations of children have grown up with TV as    a baby-sitter,teacher and companion.        A lot of kitchens in our flats are so well equipped that they look like a    control room.We are so used to all these that we can't (emmigenc) our life


The United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is  situated on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands,  Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousands small islands. Their total area is over 244 000 square kilometres.  The United Kingdom is one of the world's smaller countries. Its  population is over 57 million. About 80 percent of the population is urban.  The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales,  Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff,  Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England ,  Scotland and Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday  speech Great Britain is used in the meaning of the United Kingdom of  Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The capital of the UK. is London.  The British Isles are separated from the Continent by the North Sea  and the British Channel. The *western coast of Great Britain is washed  by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands. The South, which  has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and  west of England are mountainous, but the eastern, central and south-   eastern parts of England are a vast plain. Mountains are not very high.  Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343 m). There are a lot  of rivers iri Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the  longest rive?, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important  oae. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf  Stream influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole  year round.  The UK. is a highly developed industrial country. It produces and  exports machinery, electronics, textile. One of the chief industries of  the country is shipbuilding. *  The UK is a constitutional monarchy with a parliament and the  Queen as Head of State.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln is the most famous example of the **American  dream». Many Americans think that in their country a man may rise  from the lowest to the highest position in th*irland. That was exactly

what Lincoln did.  He was born in 1809 in a small farm in Kentucky. When Abraham  was quite young, the family moved to the wild forest land of Indiana. He

hardly had any education; he only learned to read and write and do  simple arithmetic. In 1830 Abraham left his father's farm and went to  Springfield, Illinois. There he became a clerk in a store and worked hard  to improve his education. In 1836 he became a lawyer.

He entered politics, too, and in 1834 became a candidate to the  Parliament of Illinois. He soon became a force in the political life. In  1847 he went as a Congressman to the National Assembly (National  Parliament).

Slavery was then becoming a burning questions American politics.  Many people in the Northern states wanted to abolish it, the Southern states

opposed the abolition. The Southerners said that it would mean economic  ruin for them. The reason was that the prosperity of the South was based on

cotton-growing, and only Negroes worked there. The

Southerners threatened  that if the North didn't cease

its fight against slavery, the Southern states

would leave the Union. They wanted to form an independent «confederacy»*.  In 1860 Lincoln was elected President of the USA. In 1861 seven

states left the Union and elected their own President, Jefferson Davis.  The Confederacy was formed.

Lincoln was strongly against slavery and even more strongly against  the break-up of the Union. In 1862 the American Civil War between  the North and the South began.  At first the war went badly for the North. The Southerners headed  by General Robert Lee and Colonel Jackson won some brilliant  victories. But Lincoln did not lose courage. On April, 9 General Lee

surrendered. The Civil War was over. Lincoln tried to convince former  enemies that they should live in peace.

On April, 14 the President and his wife visited a theatre in Washington.  During the performance Lincoln was shot by an actor who supported  Confederacy. Abraham Lincoln died next morning.  People admire Lincoln for political moderation. They admire him

because he tried to preserve the nation. He is a symbol of American  democracy.

London

population of about 11 million people.  London has been a capital for nearly a thousand years. Many of its

ancient buildings still stand. The most famous of them are the Tower of  London, where the crown jewels are kept, Westminster Abbey and St.  Paul's Cathedral. Most visitors also want to see the Houses of Parliament,

Buckingham Palace (the Queen's home with its Changing of the Guards)  and the many magnificent museums.  Once London was a small Roman town on the north bank of the  Thames. Slowly it grew into one of the world's major cities.  Exchange and the Bank of England are here, too. The East End is the  district where mostly working people live. The old port area is now called  «Docklands». There are now new office buildings in Docklands, and

Different areas of London seem like different cities. The West End is

a rich man* world of shops, offices and theatres. The City of London is

the district where most offices and banks are concentrated; the Royal

thousands of new flats and houses.  By the day the whole of London is busy. At night, offices are quiet

and empty, but the West End stays alive, because this is where Londoners  come to enjoy themselves. There are two opera houses here, several  concert halls and many theatres, as well as cinemas. In nearby Soho the

pubs, restaurants and night clubs are busy half the night.

Like a*l big cities, London has streets and concrete buildings, but  It also has many big parks, full of trees, flowers and grass. In the middle   ofHyde Park or Kensmgtoa Gardens you will&inkthat you are in the

country, miles away.  Many people live outside (be centre of London in the subulbs, and  they travel to work in shops and offices by train, bus or undergrouad

Moscow

Moscow is the capital of Russia, its administrative, economic,  political and educational centre. It is one of Russia's major cities with  the population of about 9 million people. Its total area is about 900  thousand square kilometres.  The city was founded by Prince Yuri Dolgonlky and was first  mentioned in the chronicles in 1147. At that time it was a small frontier  settlement. By the 15th century Moscow bad grown into a wealthy

city.  In the 16th century, under Ivan the Terrible, Moscow became the  capital of the state of Muscovy. In the 18th century Peter the Great  transferred the capital to St. Petersburg, but Moscow remained the heart

of Russia. That is why it became the main target of Napoleon's attack  in 1812. During the war of 1812 three quarters of the city were destroyed  by fire, but by the middle of the 19th century Moscow was completely

rebuilt.   The present-day Moscow is the seat of the government of the Russian  Federation. President of Russia lives and works here; government offices

are located here, too.  Moscow is a major industrial city. Its leading industries are engineering,  chemical and light industries.  Moscow is known for its many historical buildings, musems and art  galleries, as well as for the famous Bolshoi, Maly and Art theatres. There

are more than 80 museums in Moscow, among them the unique Pushkin  Museum of Fine Arts and the State Tretyakov Gallery, the Andtey Rublyov  -Museum of Early Russian Art and many others.  Moscow Is a city of science and learning. There are over 80 higher

educational institutions in the city, including a number of universities

Peter the Great

sister, Sofya. In 1696 he became a sole ruler.  He was a healthy, lively and clever child. He loved miEtary games

and enjoyed carpentry, blacksmithing and printing. At the age of 17  he was married.  Peter I is famous for drawing Russia further to the Cast. He also

transferred the capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Peter  travelled much in Western Europe amd tried to carry western customs  and habits to Russia. He

introduced western technology. He  completely changed the Russian government and military system:

he increased the power of the monarch and reduced the power of  the boyars and the church.  In foreign policy. Peter I waged a war with Turkey ( 1695-1696) and

the Great Nothern War with Sweden ( 1700-1721), and a war with Persia  (1722-1723). In these wars, he wanted to get access to the Baltic, Black  Sea and the Caspian Sea. He managed to get the shores of the Baltic Sea

and and the Caspian Sea.  Peter I played a great part in Russian history. After his death, Russia  was much more secure and progressive than it had been before his

reign.

Pushkin

Pushkin is the most important Russian writer of all time, like  Shakespeare in England or Dante in Italy. Pushkin provided the  standards for Russian arts and literature in the 19th century.  Pushkin was born in Moscow in 1799 into an upper-class family.  In 1811 he entered a lyceum at Tsarskoye Solo. The education offered

at the lyceum shaped Pushkin's life.  He graduated from the lyceum in 1817 and began to work in the

foreign office in St. Petersburg.  In 1820 the foreign office transferred Pushkin to Ekaterinoslav, and

later to Odessa for writing anti-tsarist poetry. In 1824, for his letters  against the tsar, he was exiled to Mikhailovskoye. In 1824, Tsar Nicholas I  allowed Pushkin to return to Moscow.  Pushkin felt in love with Natalya Goncharova,-who was lfrthen, and  in 1830 they got married. His wife was suspected of an affair with  Baron Georges d'Antes; this became the subject of gossip. Pushkin  challenged d'Antes to a duel. Pushkin was wounded and died two  days later.  Pushkin was Russia's greatest poet. In his works he was first

influenced by 18th century poets, and then by Lord Byron. Finally he  developed bis own style, which was realistic but classical in form.  His earliest long poem was romantic «Ruslan and Lyudmila»  (1818-1820). А

series of verse tales followed- «The Prisoner of the

Caucasus», «The Robber Brothers», «The Fountain ofBakhchisarai»,  and «The Gypsies». They were inspired by Syren's poetry.  In 1823 Pushkin began writing his masterpiece «Eugene Onegin», a

novel in verse. «Eugen Onegin» became the linguistic and literary  standard. It is a commentary on the life of the early I 9th century Russia.  It is noted for brilliant verse.  He also wrote other long poems, including «Bronze Horseman»  (1833), the finest collection of lyrics in Russian literature.  Pushkin created also a number of masterpieces in drama and prose.  «Little Tragedies» and «The Stone Guest» are among the best works in  the world history of drama. Pushkin's love to Russia's past resulted in  his historical drama, «Boris Godunov» (1825). «Tales of the Late  l.P.Belkin», «Dubrovsky», «The Captain's Daughter» are the most

important of his prose works. Pushkin's use of Russian influenced the of  great Russian writers Turgenev, Goncharov, Tolstoy.  Pushkin's early death shocked the country. Pushkin, called by many  «the sun of Russian literature», belongs among the foremost poets and

writers of the world.

Russia

the Arctic, the Atlantic,   the Pacific. The seas are: the White Sea, the  Barents Sea, the Okhotsk Sea, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and others.  Russia borders on many countries, such as Mongolia and China in the

south-east, Finland and Norway in the north-west, and so on.  The land of Russia varies very much from forests to deserts, from  high mountains to deep valleys. The main mountain cbains are the Urals,  the Caucasus and the Altai. There are a lot of great rivers and deep lakes

on its territory. The longest rivers are the Volga in Europe and the Ob, the  Yenisei and the Lena in Asia. The largest lakes are Ladoga and Baikal.  Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is the purest on earth.  The Russian Federation is rich in natural and mineral resources.  It has deposits of oil, gas, coal, iron, gold and many others.  The current population of Russia is more than 150 million people.  The European part of the country is densely peopled, and most population  live in cities and towns and their outskirts.

The capital of Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population  of about 10 million people.  Russia is a presidedtial republic. It is one of the leading powers in

the world.

The United States of America

The Unites States of America are situated in the central part of the North American continent. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific  Ocean and its eastern coast - by the Atlantic Ocean.  The total area of the USA is over nine million square kilometres.  The population of the USA is more than 236 million people; most of  the population lives in towns and cities.  The USA is a very large country, so it has several different climatic 

regions. The Goldest regions are in the north and north-east. The south  has a subtropical climate.  The United States is a land of rivers and lakes..The northern state

of Minnesota is the land of 10 000 lakes. The longest

rivers in the USA  are the Mississippi, the Missouri and the Rio Grande. The highest  mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera and the Sierra  Nevada.

The United States are riebiia natural and mineral resources. It  produces copper, oil, iron ore and coal. It is a highly-developed  industrial Bad agricultural coubtry.  There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago,  Los Angeles, Philadelphia and others. The national capital is  Washington, D.C. Its population is about 3,4 million. Washington was

built in the late eighteenth century especially as the centre of  governmeat. It was named after George Washington.   The USA became the world teading country at the beginning of the  twen*eth century.

 

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