Традиции и праздники Англии
Traditions and holidays of Great Britain.
Every nation and every country has
its own traditions and customs. Traditions make a nation special. Some of them
are old-fashioned and many people remember them, others are part of people’s
life. Some British customs and traditions are known all the world.
From Scotland to Cornwall, Britain is full of customs and
traditions. A lot of them have very long histories. Some are funny and some are
strange. But they are all interesting. There is the long menu of traditional
British food. There are many royal occasions. There are songs, saying and
superstitions. They are all part of the British way of life.
You cannot really imagine Britain without all its traditions, this
integral feature of social and private life of the people living on the British
Isles that has always been an important part of their life and work.
English traditions can classified into several groups: traditions
concerning the Englishmen’s private life (child’s birth, wedding, marriage, wedding anniversary); which are connected with
families incomes; state traditions; national holidays, religious holidays,
public festival, traditional ceremonies.
What about royal traditions? There are numerous royal traditions in
Britain, some are ancient, others are modern.
The Queen is the only person in Britain with two birthdays. Her real
birthday is on April 21st, but she has an “official” birthday, too.
That is on the second Saturday in June. And on the Queen’s official birthday,
there is a traditional ceremony called the Trooping of the Colour. It is a big
parade with brass bands and hundreds of soldiers at Horse Guard’s Parade in
London. A “regiment” of the Queen’s soldiers, the Guards, march in front of
her. At the front of the parade there is the regiment’s flag or “colour”.
Thousands of Londoners and visitors watch in Horse Guards’ Parade. And millions
of people at home watch it on television. This custom is not very old, but it
is for very old people. On his or her one hundredth birthday, a British person
gets a telegram with congratulations from the Queen.
changing of the Guard happens every day at Buckingham Palace, the Queen’s home
in London. The ceremony always attracts a lot of spectators – Londoners as well
as visitors – to the British capital.
So soldiers stand on front of the palace. Each morning these
soldiers (the “guard”) change. One group leaves and another arrives. In
summer and winter tourists stand outside the palace at 11:30 every morning and
watch the Changing of the Guard.
Traditionally the Queen opens Parliament every autumn. But
Parliament, not the Royal Family, controls modern Britain. The Queen travels
from Buckingham Palace to the Houses of Parliament in a gold carriage – the
Irish State Coach. At the Houses of Parliament the Queen sits on a “throne”
in the House of Lords. Then she reads the “Queen’s Speech”. At the State
Opening of Parliament the Queen wears a crown. She wears other jewels from the
Crown Jewels, too.
Every year, there is a new Lord Mayor of London. The Mayor is the
city’s traditional leader. And the second Saturday in November is always the
day for the Lord Mayor’s Show. This ceremony is over six hundred years old. It
is also London’s biggest parade.
The Lord Mayor drives to the Royal
Courts of Justice in a coach. The coach is two hundred years old. It is red and
gold and it has six horses.
As it is also a big parade, people make special costumes and act
stories from London’s history.
In Britain as in other countries costumes and uniforms have a long
One is the uniform of the Beefeaters at the tower of London. This
came first from France. Another is the uniform of the Horse Guards at Horse
Guard’s Parade, not far from Buckingham Palace. Thousands of visitors take
photographs of the Horse Guards.
Britannia is a symbol of Britain. And she wears traditional clothes,
too. But she is not a real person.
Lots of ordinary clothes have a long tradition. The famous bowler
hat, for example. A man called Beaulieu made the first one in 1850.
One of the British soldiers, Wellington, gave his name to a pair of
boots. They have a shorter name today – “Wellies”.
There is a very special royal
tradition. On the River Thames there are hundreds of swans. A lot of these
beautiful white birds belong, traditionally, to the king or queen. In July the
young swans on the Thames are about two months old. Then the Queen’s swan
keeper goes, in a boat, from London Bridge to Henley. He looks at all the young
swans and marks the royal ones. The name of this strange nut interesting custom
is Swan Upping.
There are only six public holidays
a year in Great Britain, that is days on which people need not go in to work.
They are: Christmas Day, Good Friday, Easter Monday, Spring Bank Holiday and
Late Summer Bank Holiday, Boxing Day.
So the most popular holiday in
Britain is Christmas. Christmas has been celebrated from the earliest days of
recorded history, and each era and race has pasted a colourful sheet of new
customs and traditions over the old.
On the Sunday before Christmas many churches hold a carol service
where special hymns are sung. Sometimes carol singers can be heard in the
streets as they collect money for charity. There are a lot of very popular
British Christmas carols. Three famous ones are: “Good King Wenceslas”,
“The Holly and The Ivy” and “We Three Kings”.
Each year, hundreds of thousands of people all over the world send
and receive Christmas cards. Most of people think that exchanging cards at
Christmas is a very ancient custom but it is not right. In fact it is barely
100 years old. The idea of exchanging illustrated greeting and presents is,
however, ancient. So the first commercial Christmas card was produced in
Britain in 1843 by Henry Cole, founder of the Victoria and Albert Museum,
London. The handcoloured print was inscribed with the words ’A Merry Christmas
and A Happy New Year to you’. It was horizontally rectangular in shape, printed
on stout cardboard by lithography.
A traditional feature of Christmas in Britain is the Christmas tree.
Queen Victoria’s husband, Prince Albert, brought the German tradition (he was
German) to Britain. He and the Queen had a Christmas tree at Windsor Castle in
1841. A few years after, nearly every house in Britain had one. Traditionally
people decorate their trees on Christmas Eve – that’s December 24th.
They take down the decorations twelve days later, on Twelfth Night (January 5th).
An older tradition is Christmas mistletoe. People put a piece of
this green plant with its white berries over a door. Mistletoe brings good
luck, people say. Also, at Christmas British people kiss their friends and
family under the mistletoe.
Those who live away try to get back home because Christmas is a
family celebration and it is the biggest holiday of the year. As Christmas
comes nearer, everyone is buying presents for relatives and friends. At
Christmas people try to give their children everything they want. And the
children count the weeks, than the days, to Christmas. They are wondering what
presents on December 24th. Father Christmas brings their presents in
the night. Then they open them on the morning of the 25th.
There is another name for Father Christmas in Britain – Santa Claus.
That comes from the European name for him – Saint Nicholas. In the traditional
story he lives at the North Pole. But now he lives in big shops in towns and
cities all over Britain. Well, that’s where children see him in November and
December. Then on Christmas Eve he visits every house. He climbs down the
chimney and leaves lots of presents. Some people leave something for him, too.
A glass of wine and some biscuits, for example.
At Christmas everyone decorates their houses with holly, ivy
In Britain the most important meal on December 25th is
Christmas dinner. Nearly all Christmas food is traditional, but a lot of the traditions
are not very old. For example, there were no turkeys in Britain before 1800.
And even in the nineteenth century, goose was the traditional meat at
Christmas. But not now.
A twentieth-century British Christmas dinner is roast turkey with
carrots, potatoes, peas, Brussels sprouts and gravy. There are sausages and
bacon, too. Then, after the turkey, there’s Christmas pudding. Some people make
this pudding months before Christmas. A lot of families have their own
Christmas pudding recipes. Some, for example, use a lot of brandy. Others put
in a lot of fruit or add a silver coin for good luck. Real Christmas puddings
always have a piece of holly on the top. Holly bushes and trees have red
berries at Christmas time, and so people use holly to decorate their houses for
Christmas. The holly on the pudding is part of the decoration.
Crackers are also usual at Christmas dinner. These came to Britain
from China in the nineteenth century. Two people pull a cracker. Usually there
is a small toy in the middle. Often there is a joke on a piece of paper, too.
Most of the jokes in Christmas crackers are not very good. Here is on example:
Customer: Waiter, there’s a frog in my soup.
Waiter: Yes, sir, the fly’s on holidays.
A pantomime is a traditional English entertainment at Christmas. It
is meant for children, but adults enjoy is just as much. It is a very old form
of entertainment, and can be traced back to 16th century Italian
comedies. There have been a lot of changes over the years. Singing and dancing
and all kinds of jokes have been added; but the stories that are told are still
fairy tales, with a hero, a heroine, and a villain.
In every pantomime there are always three main characters. These are
the “principal boy”, the “principal girl”, and the “dame”.
Pantomimes are changing all the time. Every year, someone has a new idea to
make them more exciting or more up-to-date.
December 26th is Boxing Day. Traditionally boys from the
shops in each town asked for money at Christmas. They went from house to house
on December 26th and took boxes made of wood with them. At each
house people gave them money. This was a Christmas present. So the name of
December 26th doesn’t come from the sport of boxing – it comes from
the boys’ wooden boxes. Now, Boxing Day is an extra holiday after Christmas
Traditionally Boxing Day Hunts is a day for foxhunting. The huntsmen
and huntswomen ride horses. They use dogs, too. The dogs (fox hounds) follow
the smell of the fox. Then the huntsmen and huntswomen follow the hounds.
Before a Boxing Day hunt, the huntsmen and huntswomen drink not wine. But the
tradition of the December 26th hunt is changing. Now, some people
want to stop Boxing Day Hunts (and other hunts, too). They don’t like
foxhunting. For them it’s not a sport – it is cruel.
In England people celebrate the New Year. But it is not as widely or
as enthusiastically observed as Christmas. Some people ignore it completely and
go to bed at the same time as usual on New Year’s Eve. Many others, however, do
celebrate it in one way or another, the type of celebration varying very much
according to the local custom, family tradition and personal taste.
The most common type of celebration is a New Year party, either a
family party or one arranged by a group of young people. And another popular
way of celebrating the New Year is to go to a New Year’s dance.
The most famous celebration is in London round the statue of Eros in
Piccadilly Circus where crowds gather and sing and welcome the New Year. In
Trafalgar Square there is also a big crowd and someone usually falls into the
Every Year the people of Norway give the city of London a present.
It’s a big Christmas tree and it stands in Trafalgar Square. Also in central
London, Oxford Street and Regent Street always have beautiful decorations at
the New Year and Christmas. Thousands of people come to look at them.
In Britain a lot of people make New Year Resolutions on the evening
of December 31st. For example, “I’ll get up early every morning
next year”, or “I’ll clean, my shoes every day”. But there is a
problem. Most people forget their New Year Resolutions on January 2nd.
But New Year’s Eve is a more important festival in Scotland then it
is in England, and it even has a special name. It is not clear where the
‘Hogmanay’ comes from, but it is connected with the provision of food and drink
for all visitors to your home on 31st December.
There is a Scottish song that is
sung all over the world at midnight on New Year’s Eve. It was written by Robert
Burns, the famous Scottish poet, and you may find some of the traditional words
a bit difficult to understand, but that’s the way it’s always sung – even by
It was believed that the first person to visit one’s house on New
Year’s Day could bring good or bad luck. Therefore, people tried to arrange for
the person of their own choice to be standing outside their houses ready to be
let in the moment midnight had come.
Usually a dark-complexioned man was chosen, and never a woman, for
she would bring bad luck. The first footer was required to carry three
articles: a piece of coal to wish warmth, a piece of bread to wish food, and a
silver coin to wish wealth. In some parts of northern England this pleasing
custom is still observed. So this interesting tradition called “First Footing”.
On Bank holiday the townsfolk usually flock into the country and to
the coast. If the weather is fine many families take a picnic – lunch or tea
with them and enjoy their meal in the open. Seaside towns near London, such as
Southend, are invaded by thousands of trippers who come in cars and coaches,
trains and bicycles. Great amusement parks like Southend Kursoal do a roaring
trade with their scenic railways, shooting galleries, water-shoots, Crazy
houses and so on. Trippers will wear comic paper hats with slogans, and they
will eat and drink the weirdest mixture of stuff you can imagine, sea food like
cockles, mussels, whelks, fish and chips, candy floss, tea, fizzy drinks,
everything you can imagine.
Bank holiday is also an occasion for big sports meeting at places
like the White City Stadium, mainly all kinds of athletics. There are also
horse race meetings all over the country, and most traditional of all, there
are large fairs with swings, roundabouts, a Punch and Judy show, hoop-la stalls
and every kind of side-show including, in recent, bingo. There is also much
boating activity on the Thames.
Although the Christian religion gave the world Easter as we know it
today, the celebration owes its name and many of its customs and symbols to a
pagan festival called Eostre. Eostre, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of springtime and
sunrise, got her name from the world east, where the sunrises. Every spring
northern European peoples celebrated the festival of Eostre to honour the
awakening of new life in nature. Christians related the rising of the sun to
the resurrection of Jesus and their own spiritual rebirth.
Many modern Easter symbols come from pagan time. The egg, for
instance, was a fertility symbol long before the Christian era. The ancient
Persians, Greeks and Chinese exchanged eggs at their sping festivals. In
Christian times the egg took on a new meaning symbolizing the tomb from which
Christ rose. The ancient custom of dyeing eggs at Easter time is still very
The Easter bunny also originated in pre-Christian fertility lore.
The rabbit was the most fertile animal our ances tors knew, so they selected it
as a symbol of new life. Today, children enjoy eating candy bunnies and
listening to stories about the Easter bunny, who supposedly brings Easter eggs
in a fancy basket.
Also there is a spectacular parade on Easter. It is a truly
spectacular Easter Parade in Battersea Park. It is sponsored by the London
Tourist Board and is usually planned around a central theme related to the
history and attractions of London. The great procession, or parade, begins at 3
p.m. but it is advisable to find a vantage-point well before that hour.
On October 31st British people celebrate Halloween. It is
undoubtedly the most colourful and exciting holiday of the year. Though it is
not a public holiday, it is very dear to those who celebrate it, especially to
children and teenagers. This day was originally called All Hallow’s Eve because
it fell on the eve of All Saints’ Day. The name was later shortened to
Halloween. According to old beliefs, Halloween is the time, when the veil
between the living and the dead is partially lifted, and witches, ghosts and
other super natural beings are about. Now children celebrate Halloween in
unusual costumes and masks. It is a festival of merrymaking, superstitions
spells, fortunetelling, traditional games and pranks. Halloween is a time for
Few holidays tell us much of the past as Halloween. Its origins
dateback to a time, when people believed in devils, witches and ghosts. Many
Halloween customs are based on beliefs of the ancient Celts, who lived more
than 2,000 years ago in what is now Great Britain, Ireland, and northern
Every year the Celts celebrated the Druid festival of Samhain, Lord
of the Dead and Prince of Darkness. It fell on October 31, the eve of the Druid
new year. The date marked the end of summer, or the time when the sun retreated
before the powers of darkness and the reign of the Lord of Death began. The Dun
god took part in the holiday and received thanks for the year’s harvest.
It was believed that evil spirits sometimes played tricks on October
31. They could also do all kinds of damage to property. Some people tried to
ward of the witches by painting magic signs on their barns. Others tried to
frighten them away by nailing a piece of iron, such as a horseshoe, over the
Many fears and superstitions grew up about this day. An old Scotch
superstition was that witches – those who had sold their souls to the devil –
left in their beds on Halloween night a stick made by magic to look like
themselves. Then they would fly up the chime attended by a black cat.
In Ireland, and some other parts of Great Britain, it was believed,
that fairies spirited away young wives, whom they returned dazed and amnesic
366 days later.
When Halloween night fell, people in some places dressed up and
tried to resemble the souls of the dead. They hoped that the ghosts would leave
peacefully before midnight. They carried food to the edge of town or village
and left it for the spirits.
In Wales, they believed that the devil appeared in the shape of a
pig, a horse, or a dog. On that night, every person marked a stone and put it
in a bonfire. If a person’s stone was missing the next morning, he or she would
die within a year.
Much later, when Christianity came to Great Britain and Ireland, the
Church wisely let the people keep their old feast. But it gave it a new
association when in the 9th century a festival in honour of all
saints (All Hallows) was fixed on November 1. In the 11th century November
2 became All Souls’ Day to honour the souls of the dead, particularly those who
died during the year.
Christian tradition included the lighting of bonfires and carring
blazing torches all around the fields. In some places masses of flaming staw were
flung into the air. When these ceremonies were over, everyone returned home to
feast on the new crop of apples and nuts, which are the traditional Halloween
foods. On that night, people related their experience with strange noises and
spooky shadows and played traditional games.
Halloween customs today follow many of the ancient traditions,
though their significance has long since disappeared.
A favourite Halloween custom is to make a jack-j’-lantern. Children
take out the middle of the pumpkin, cut hole holes for the eyes, nose and mouth
in its side and, finally, they put a candle inside the pumpkin to scare their
friends. The candle burning inside makes the orange face visible from far away
on a dark night – and the pulp makes a delicious pumpkin-pie.
People in England and Ireland once carved out beets, potatoes, and
turnips to make jack-o’-lanterns on Halloween. When the Scots and Irish came to
the United States, they brought their customs with them. But they began to
carve faces on pumpkins because they were more plentiful in autumn than
turnips. Nowadays, British carve faces on pumpkins, too.
According to an Irish legend,
jack-o’-lanterns were named for a man called Jack who was notorious for his
drunkenness and being stingy. One evening at the local pub, the Devil appeared
to take his soul. Clever Jack persuaded the Devil to “have one drink together
before we go”. To pay for his drink the Devil turned himself into a sixpence.
Jack immediately put it into his wallet. The Devil couldn’t escape from it because
it had a catch in the form of a cross. Jack released the Devil only when the
latter promised to leave him in peace for another year. Twelve months later,
Jack played another practical joke on the Devil, letting him down from a tree
only on the promise that he would never purse him again. Finally, Jack’s body
wore out. He could not enter heaven because he was a miser. He could not enter
hell either, because he played jokes on the Devil. Jack was in despair. He
begged the Devil for a live coal to light his way out of the dark. He put it
into a turnip and, as the story goes, is still wandering around the earth with
Halloween is something called Beggars’ Night or Trick or Treat
night. Some people celebrate Beggars’ Night as Irish children did in the 17th
century. They dress up as ghosts and witches and go into the streets to beg.
And children go from house to house and say: “Trick or treat!”, meaning
“Give me a treat or I’ll play a trick on you”. Some groups of “ghosts”
chant Beggars’ Night rhymes:
Trick or treat,
Smell our feet.
We want something
In big cities Halloween
celebrations often include special decorating contests. Young people are
invited to soap shop-windows, and they get prizes for the best soap-drawings.
In old times, practical jokes were even more elaborate. It was quite
normal to steal gates, block house doors, and cover chimneys with turf so that
smoke could not escape. Blame for resulting chaos was naturally placed on the “spirits”.
At Halloween parties the guests wear every kind of costume. Some
people dress up like supernatural creatures, other prefers historical or
political figures. You can also meet pirates, princesses, Draculas,
Cinderellas, or even Frankenstein’s monsters at a Halloween festival.
At Halloween parties children play traditional games. Many games
date back to the harvest festivals of very ancient times. One of the most
popular is called bobbing for apples. One child at a time has to get apples
from a tub of water without using hands. But how to do this? By sinking his or
her face into the water and biting the apple!
Another game is pin-the-tail-on-the –donkey. One child is blind
folded and spun slowly so that he or she will become dizzy. Then the child must
find a paper donkey haging on the wall and try to pin a tail onto the back.
And no Halloween party is complete without at least one scary story.
It helps too create an air of mystery.
Certain fortunetelling methods began in Europe hundreds of years ago
and became an important part of Halloween. For example, such object as a coin,
a ring, and a thimble were baked into a cake or other food. It was believed
that the person who found the coin in the cake would become wealthy. The one
who found the ring would marry soon, but the person who got the thimble would
never get married.
Unfortunately now most people do not believe in evil spirits. They
know that evil spirits do not break steps, spill garbage or pull down fences.
If property is damaged, they blame naughty boys and girls. Today, Halloween is
still a bad night for the police…
March 1st is a very important day for Welsh people. It’s
St. David’s Day. He’s the “patron” or national saint of Wales. On March 1st,
the Welsh celebrate St. Davids Day and wear daffodils in the buttonholes of
their coats or jackets.
On February 14th it’s Saint Valentine’s Day in Britain.
It is not a national holiday. Banks and offices do not close, but it is a happy
little festival in honour of St. Valentine. On this day, people send Valentine
cards to their husbands, wives, girlfriends and boyfriends. You can also send a
card to a person you do not know. But traditionally you must never write your
name on it. Some British newspapers have got a page for Valentine’s Day
messages on February 14th.
This lovely day is widely celebrated among people of all ages by the
exchanging of “valentines”.
Saint Valentine was a martyr but this feast goes back to pagan times
and the Roman feast of Lupercalia. The names of young unmarried girls were put
into a vase. The young men each picked a name, and discovered the identity of
This custom came to Britain when the Romans invaded it. But the
church moved the festival to the nearest Christian saint’s day: this was Saint
Midsummer’s Day, June 24th, is the longest day of the
year. On that day you can see a very old custom at Stonehenge, in Wiltshire,
England. Stonehenge is on of Europe’s biggest stone circles. A lot of the
stones are ten or twelve metres high. It is also very old. The earliest part of
Stonehenge is nearly 5,000 years old. But what was Stonehenge? A holy place? A
market? Or was it a kind of calendar? Many people think that the Druids used it
for a calendar. The Druids were the priests in Britain 2,000 years ago. They
used the sun and the stones at Stonehenge to know the start of months and
seasons. There are Druids in Britain today, too. And every June 24th
a lot of them go to Stonehenge. On that morning the sun shines on one famous
stone – the Heel stone. For the Druids this is a very important moment in the
year. But for a lot of British people it is just a strange old custom.
Londoners celebrate carnivals. And one of them is Europe’s biggest
street carnival. A lot of people in the Notting Hill area of London come from
the West Indies – a group of islands in the Caribbean. And for two days in
August, Nutting Hill is the West Indies. There is West Indian food and music in
the streets. There is also a big parade and people dance day and night.
April 1st is April Fool’s Day in Britain. This is a very
old tradition from the Middle Ages (between the fifth and fifteenth centuries).
At that time the servants were masters for one day of the year. They gave
orders to their masters, and their masters had to obey.
Now April Fool’s Day is different. It is a day for jokes and tricks.
One of the most interesting competitions is the university boat
Oxford and Cambridge are Britain’s two oldest universities. In the
nineteenth century, rowing was a popular sport at both of them. In 1829 they
agreed to have a race. They raced on the river Thames and the Oxford boat won.
That started a tradition. Now, every Spring, the University Boat Race goes from
Putney to Mortlake on the Thames. That is 6,7 kilometres. The Cambridge rowers
wear light blue shirts and the Oxford rowers wear dark blue. There are eight
men in each boat. There is also a “cox”. The cox controls the boat.
Traditionally coxes are men, but Susan Brown became the first woman cox in
1981. She was the cox for Oxford and they won.
An annual British tradition, which
captures the imagination of the whole nation is the London to Brighton Car
Rally in which a fleet of ancient cars indulges in a lighthearted race from the
Capital to the Coast.
When the veteran cars set out on the London – Brighton run each
November, they are celebrating one of the great landmarks in the history of
motoring in Britain – the abolition of the rule that every “horseless
carriage” had to be preceded along the road by a pedestrian. This extremely
irksome restriction, imposed by the Locomotives on Highways Act, was withdrawn
in 1896, and on November of that year there was a rally of motor-cars on the
London - Brighton highway to celebrate the first day of freedom – Emancipation
Day, as it has known by motorists ever since.
Emancipation is still on the first Sunday of the month, but nowadays
there is an important condition of entry – every car taking part must be at
least 60 years old.
The Run is not a race. Entrants are limited to a maximum average
speed of 20 miles per hour. The great thing is not speed but quality of
performance, and the dedicated enthusiasts have a conversation all their own.
The Highland Games – this sporting tradition is Scottish. In the
Highlands (the mountains of Scotland) families, or “clans”, started the Games
hundreds of years ago.
Some of the sports are the Games are international: the high jump
and the long jump, for example. But other sports happen only at the Highland
Games. One is tossing the caber. “Tossing” means throwing, and a “caber”
is a long, heavy piece of wood. In tossing the caber you lift the caber (it can
be five or six metres tall). Then you throw it in front of you.
At the Highland Games a lot of men
wear kilts. These are traditional Scottish skirts for men. But they are not all
the same. Each clan has a different “tartan”. That is the name for the pattern
on the kilt. So at the Highland Games there are traditional sports and
traditional instrument – the bagpipes. The bagpipes are very loud. They say
Scots soldier played them before a battle. The noise frightened the soldiers on
The world’s most famous tennis tournament is Wimbledon. It started
at a small club in south London in the nineteenth century. Now a lot of the
nineteenth century traditions have changed. For example, the women players don’t
have to wear long skirts. And the men players do not have to wear long
trousers. But other traditions have not changed at Wimbledon. The courts are
still grass, and visitors still eat strawberries and cream. The language of
tennis has not changed either.
There are some British traditions and customs concerning their
private life. The British are considered to be the world’s greatest tea
drinkers. And so tea is Britain’s favourite drink. The English know how to make
tea and what it does for you. In England people say jokingly: ‘The test of good
tea is simple. If a spoon stands up in it, then it is strong enough; if the
spoon starts to wobble, it is a feeble makeshift’.
Every country has its drinking habits, some of which are general and
obvious, others most peculiar. Most countries also have a national drink. In
England the national is beer, and the pub “pub”, where people talk, eat,
drink, meet their friends and relax.
The word “pub” is short for “public house”. Pubs sell beer.
(British beer is always warm). An important custom in pubs is “buying a round”.
In a group, one person buys all the others a drink. This is a “round”. Then one
by one all the people buy rounds, too. If they are with friends, British people
sometimes lift their glasses before they drink and say: “Cheers”. This
means “Good luck”.
In the pubs in south-west England there is another traditional
Pub names often have a long tradition. Some come from the thirteenth
or fourteenth century. Every pub has a name and every pub has a sign above its
door. The sign shows a picture of the pub’s name.
And as you know, the British talk
about the weather a lot. They talk about the weather because it changes so
often. Wind, rain, sun, cloud, snow – they can all happen in a British winter –
or a British summer.
Hundreds of years ago, soldiers began this custom. They shook hands
to show that they did not have a sword. Now, shaking hands is a custom in most
Frenchman shake hands every time they meet, and kiss each other on
both cheeks as a ceremonial salute, like the Russians, while Englishmen shake
hands only when they are introduced, or after a long absence.
Victorian England made nearly as many rules about hand shaking as
the Chinese did about bowing. A man could not offer his hand first a lady;
young ladies did not shake men’s hands at all unless they were old friends;
married ladies could offer their hands in a room, but not in public, where they
would bow slightly.
I have chosen the topic British customs traditions because I enjoy
learning the English language and wanted to know more about British ways of
life and traditions. Working on this topic I have to conclusion that British
people are very conservative. They are proud pf their traditions and carefully
keep them up. It was interesting to know that foreigners coming to England are
stuck at once by quite a number of customs and peculiarities.
So I think of Britain as a place a lot of different types of people
who observe their traditions.
- Голицынский Ю. “Great Britain” изд.
«Каро» г. С.-Петербург, 1999г.;
- Колуфман К.И.
«Страницы Британской истории» изд. «Титул» г. Обнинск, 1999г.;
- Костенко Г.Т. “Reader for
summer” изд. «Просвещение» г. Москва
А.П. «Английский язык для абитуриентов и школьников» изд. «Московский
- Ощепкова В.В. “Britain in
Brief” изд. «Лист» г. Москва 1999г.;
- Рис-Пармен “Christmas”, журнал «Англия» №69 стр. 113-119;
- Рис-Парнал Хиларн
“Hello and goodbye”, журнал «Англия» №73 стр.
«Рождество», журнал «Англия» №77 стр.107-109;
- Стивен Раблей “Customs and traditions in
Britain” изд. “Longman Group”, ИК,
- Усова Г.С. “British
history” изд. «Лань» г. С.-Петербург
- Хишунина Т.Н. “Customs,
traditions and holidays in Britain” изд. «Просвещение» г.С.-Петербург 1975г.;
- Цветкова И.В.
«Английский для поступающих в вузы» изд. «Глосса» г. Москва 1997г.;
- Цветкова И.В.
журнал «Speak out» изд. «Глосса» г. Тула 1997г.